Qit'alararo temir yo'l xizmati boshlandi - tarix

Qit'alararo temir yo'l xizmati boshlandi - tarix


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10 -may kuni Yuta shtatining Promontori -Poytaxtida oltin temir yo'l boshi urilib, birinchi qit'alararo temir yo'l liniyasi qurib bitkazildi. Boshoq Omba, Nebraska shtatidan g'arbga qurilgan Ittifoq-Tinch okeani temir yo'lining liniyalariga qo'shildi; va Kaliforniya shtatining Sakramento shahridan sharqqa qurilgan Markaziy-Tinch okeani.

Transkontinental temir yo'l

Atlantika va Tinch okeani sohillarini bog'laydigan temir yo'llar imkoniyati Kongressda 1846 yilda Oregon chegarasi masalasini hal qilgan Angliya bilan shartnomadan oldin muhokama qilingan.8] Qit'alararo temir yo'lning bosh targ'ibotchisi Nyu -Yorklik savdogar Asa Uitni edi, u Xitoy savdosida faol edi, u Tinch okeanigacha bo'lgan temir yo'l g'oyasi bilan ovora edi. 1845 yil yanvarda u Kongressdan qurilishni moliyalashtirish uchun jamoat mulki orqali oltmish millik yo'l berish to'g'risidagi nizom va ruxsat berishni so'radi. [9]

Uitni o'sha paytda juda ko'p bo'lgan irland va nemis immigrant ishchilaridan foydalanishni taklif qildi. Ish haqi er yuzida to'lanishi kerak edi, shuning uchun marshrut bo'ylab mahsulot etkazib beradigan va qurib bitkazilgan liniyaning homiysi bo'ladigan ko'chmanchilar bo'lishini ta'minladi. Kongressning Uitni taklifiga amal qilmaganligi, asosan Sent -Luisdan boshlanadigan g'arbiy yo'lni afzal ko'rgan Missuri shtatidan senator Tomas Xart Bentonning keskin qarshiligiga bog'liq edi.

1849 yilda Uitni o'zining sxemasini targ'ib qilish uchun risolani nashr etdi Tinch okeaniga temir yo'l qurilishi loyihasi. Unga Janubiy dovonning shimolidagi Rokki tog'lar bo'ylab, Viskonsin shtatining Prere du Chyen shahridan temir yo'lining yo'nalishi ko'rsatilgan Shimoliy Amerika xaritasi ilova qilingan. Dovon janubidagi muqobil yo'nalish Salmon daryosining asosiy chizig'iga qo'shilib, Puget -Saundgacha davom etdi. Taklif etilgan chiziqlar Sent -Luisdan San -Frantsiskogacha va Mustaqillikdan, Missuri shtatidan Nyu -Meksiko va Arkanzas daryosigacha cho'zilgan. Bu Kongressga taqdim etilgan eng birinchi reklama xaritalaridan biri bo'lib, uning muallifiga ko'ra, 1830 yilda o'ylab topilgan.10].

Kongress o'z rejasini amalga oshira olmagan bo'lsa -da, Uitni Tinch okeani temir yo'lini hozirgi kunning eng katta muammolaridan biriga aylantirdi. Meksika urushidan keyin Kaliforniyani sotib olish qirg'oqqa boshqa yo'llarga yo'l ochdi. Oltin kashfiyoti, chegaraning joylashishi va sharqiy temir yo'llarning muvaffaqiyati Tinch okeaniga temir yo'l qurishga bo'lgan qiziqishni oshirdi. [11]

1838 yilda "pochta yo'llari" ni belgilab, Sharqda ishlab chiqilganidek, pochta aloqasini yaxshiroq ta'minlash uchun G'arbda temir yo'llar ham kerak edi. 1849 yildagi Xartuell Karver va Edvin F. Jonson kabi boshqa takliflar bilan mustahkamlandi. 1853 yilda Jon C. Kalxun, Stiven A. Duglas va Jefferson Devis kabi etakchi davlat arboblari mamlakatni temir yo'llar bilan bog'lashni qo'llab -quvvatlashlarini e'lon qilishdi. Biroq, qonunchilar sharqiy terminal haqida kelisha olmadilar va ular g'arbning bir necha yo'nalishlarining afzalliklarini ko'rmadilar. Munozarani hal qilish uchun 1853 yilda armiya topografik korpusiga "Missisipi daryosidan Tinch okeanigacha bo'lgan temir yo'lning eng amaliy va iqtisodiy yo'lini aniqlash uchun" pul ajratilgan.

1853 yil martdagi "Armiya mablag'larini o'zlashtirish to'g'risida" gi qonunga binoan, urush kotibi Jefferson Devisga Tinch okeaniga mumkin bo'lgan yo'llarni o'rganishga ko'rsatma berildi. Sharqdan g'arbgacha bo'lgan to'rtta yo'nalish, taxminan, ma'lum parallelliklardan so'ng, topografik korpus nazorati ostida partiyalar tomonidan tekshirilishi kerak edi. 47-49 -chi paralellar orasidagi eng shimoliy tadqiqot Vashington hududi gubernatori Isaak Ingalls Stivens boshchiligida o'tkazildi. Bu yo'nalish Asa Uitni taklif qilgan yo'lga yaqin edi.

Kapitan Jon V. Gunnison boshchiligidagi badbaxt partiya 38 va 39-chi paralellar bo'ylab yoki Missuri shtati senatori Tomas Xart Benton tomonidan ilgari surilgan Cochetopoa dovoni yo'lini o'rganishi kerak edi. Gunnison dushman hindular qo'lida vafotidan so'ng, leytenant Edvard G. Bekvit 41 -parallel bo'ylab tadqiqotni davom ettirdi. Kapitan Amiel V. Uaypl, Meksika chegara tadqiqotlari astronomi yordamchisi va leytenant Jozef Rojdestvo Ives Kaliforniya janubidan g'arbga qarab 35 -parallel yo'nalish bo'yicha tadqiqot o'tkazdilar. Bu yo'nalish Jefferson Devis tomonidan ma'qul ko'rildi va 1839 yilda Joziya Greg tomonidan o'tgan va keyinchalik polkovnik Jon J. Abert tomonidan so'ralgan yo'nalish edi. 32 -sonli parallellikdan keyingi eng janubiy so'rov Kaliforniyadan Gila daryosi bo'yidagi Pima qishloqlari va Rio Grandegacha leytenant Jon G. Park tomonidan o'tkazilgan. Kapitan Jon Pap Papa Nyu -Meksiko shtatining Dona Ana shahridan Qizil daryoga boradigan yo'lning sharqiy qismini xaritaga tushirdi.

Shimoliy-janub yo'nalishi bo'yicha beshinchi so'rov leytenant Robert S. Uilyamson rahbarligida o'tkazildi. Bu partiya Kaliforniya, Oregon va Vashingtonni bog'laydigan marshrutni aniqlash uchun Serra Nevadas va Kaliforniya qirg'oqlari oralig'idan o'tadigan joylarni aniqlash uchun topografik tadqiqotlarni o'tkazdi.12].

Bu so'rovlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, temir yo'l har qanday yo'nalish bo'yicha ketishi mumkin va 32 -chi parallel yo'nalish eng arzon. Tinch okeanining janubiy temir yo'li keyinchalik shu parallel bo'ylab qurildi. Janubiy marshrutlar shimoliy siyosatchilarga, shimoliy yo'nalishlar esa janubiy siyosatchilarga qarshi edi, lekin so'rovlar, albatta, bu bo'lim masalalarini hal qila olmadi.

1850 -yillarning oxirida bo'limlar va kelishmovchiliklar muhokama qilingan bo'lsa -da, Tinch okeani temir yo'li masalasida Kongressdan hech qanday qaror qabul qilinmadi. Sakramento vodiysi temir yo'li muhandisi Teodor D. Yahuda transkontinental temir yo'l qurish istagi bilan ovora edi. 1860 yilda u Sakramento savdogarlari bo'lgan Leland Stenford, Kollis P. Xantington, Mark Xopkins va Charlz Krokerga yaqinlashdi va tez orada ularni qit'alararo liniya qurilishi ularni boy va mashhur qilishiga ishontirdi. Nevada kon shaharlarining boyligi va temir yo'llarga federal yordam to'g'risidagi kelgusi qonunchilikka ega bo'lish istiqboli ularni Kaliforniyaning Tinch okeani markaziy temir yo'l kompaniyasini birlashtirishga undadi. Bu chiziq keyinchalik Tinch okeanining janubi bilan birlashdi. Yahudiyaning sa'y -harakatlari va Avraam Linkolnning qo'llab -quvvatlashi natijasida, harbiy yo'nalishlarning afzalliklari va Tinch okeani sohilining Ittifoq bilan bog'lanishini ko'rgan Tinch okeani temir yo'li nihoyat haqiqatga aylandi.

1862 yildagi temir yo'l to'g'risidagi qonun davlatning qit'alararo temir yo'lini qo'llab -quvvatladi va Tinch okeani temir yo'lini yaratishga yordam berdi, keyinchalik 1869 yil 10 -mayda Yuta shtatining Promontori shahrida Markaziy Tinch okeani bilan birlashdi va qit'aning bog'lanishini ko'rsatdi.


Tarixiy jurnallardan transkontinental temir yo'l haqida maqolalar

Amerikalik yozuvchi Markiya Deyvenport o'zi uchun Yovvoyi G'arbni kashf etmoqchi edi. Muammo shundaki, uning G'arbga bo'lgan intilishi 1932 yilda sodir bo'lgan, bir necha o'n yillar kech, ko'p amerikaliklar o'ylashgandir. O'sha yili ko'pchilik odamlar uchun eng dahshatli uchrashuv iqtisodiy tanglik va halokat bilan kurashish bo'ladi. Biroq, Davenport o'zining Yovvoyi G'arbini topdi va bu haqda yozdi Yaxshi uy xo'jaligi jurnalida u "Yopiq vagon - 1932" deb nomlangan maqolasida.

"[Men] sarguzashtni xohlardim, yoki 1932 yilda qanday ko'rinishda bo'lishini", - deb yozadi u. "Shunday qilib, men uchib ketdim." Davenportning fikricha, AQShdan Los -Anjelesdan Nyu -Yorkka o'tish uchun "temir yo'l orqali prozaik tarzda aldash kerak". Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, "men ko'p kunlar davomida katta kreslolarda o'tirish, tajribali xizmatchilar qo'shinlari nazorati ostida, yeb -ichish, shirin taomlarni iste'mol qilish yo'llarini izlash ma'nosiz" edi. "Xavfsiz po'latdan yasalgan relslar" o'rniga, Deyvenport "Oh, Susanna!" Romantikasini chaqirgan sayohatni boshladi. Oregonga yopiq vagon bilan "tizzamda banjo" bilan ketdi.

Qit'alararo sayohatni amalga oshirish uchun unga to'rtta alohida parvoz kerak edi. Solt-Leyk-Siti segmentida Yunayted sakkiz yo'lovchini "qo'shiq, oyat va hikoya, ho'kiz poezdlarining marshruti, qirq to'qqizinchi, stagecoaches, the pony express. " Cheyen shahriga boradigan yo'lda yomon ob -havo Davenport samolyotini AQSh hukumati Parco, Vyo nomli favqulodda vaziyatli maydoniga rejasiz qo'nishga majbur qildi. dala chetidagi junli-g'arbiy kichkina kulba. "

Internetga obuna bo'ling va qariyb 40%tejang.

Bu alohida aerodromda yo'lovchilar bo'ronni kutishdi. Kichkina uyqusiz tundan so'ng, guruh ertasi kuni yana sharqqa uchib ketdi, faqat zich tuman majburan ikkinchi favqulodda qo'nishga majbur bo'ldi, bu safar Laramida. Deyvenport uchun bu kabi qiyinchiliklar G'arb bo'ylab sayohatlarning oldindan aytib bo'lmaydigan tabiati har safarni unutilmas sarguzashtga aylantirgan paytni baxtli eslatgandek tuyuldi, lekin ko'p yillar oldin temir yo'llar "yovvoyi" ni G'arbdan olib chiqib ketishdi. uzoq masofali sayohatni xavfsiz, bashoratli qildi va shuning uchun Davenport kabi sarguzashtli sayohatchilarni zerikarli qildi.


Janubiy yo'nalish va Gadsden sotib olish

Kaliforniya 1848 yilda Meksika-Amerika urushini tugatgan Guadalupe Hidalgo shartnomasi bilan AQSh hududiga aylandi. Xuddi o'sha yili Kaliforniyada "Oltin yugurish" (1849 yilda yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan) boshlandi, bu g'arbga ko'plab odamlarni olib keldi, ularning ko'plari qoldi. Kaliforniya Qo'shma Shtatlarning tobora muhim qismiga aylandi va unga temir yo'l orqali ulanish g'oyasi qo'llab -quvvatlandi.

Xavotirlar qor markaziy marshrutni amalga oshira olmasligidan xavotirda edi. So'rov shuni ko'rsatdiki, eng yaxshi janubiy yo'l Meksika hali ham bosib o'tgan hududdan o'tib ketdi. 1853 yilda, Kaliforniyani zo'rlik bilan olganidan atigi besh yil o'tgach, Qo'shma Shtatlar Meksikadan Gadsdenni sotib olib, hozirgi Nyu -Meksiko va Arizonaning janubiy qismlarini sotib oldi. Bu janubiy transkontinental marshrutni butunlay AQSh tarkibiga qo'ydi, ammo sotib olishni ma'qullaganiga qaramay, Kongress o'sha paytda temir yo'l qurilishi uchun mablag 'ajratmagan. Janubiy marshrut 1881 yilda tugatilgan, bu unga Amerikaning shubhali farqini bergan ikkinchi qit'alararo temir yo'l. Marshrutni bugun odatda davlatlararo 10 kuzatadi.


Hozir oqim

Janob Tornado

Janob Tornado tadqiqot va amaliy fan sohasidagi ulkan ishlari minglab odamlarning hayotini saqlab qolgan va amerikaliklarga xavfli ob -havo hodisalariga tayyorgarlik ko'rish va ularga javob berishga yordam bergan odamning ajoyib hikoyasidir.

Poliomiyelit salib yurishi

Poliomiyelit salib yurishi haqidagi hikoya, amerikaliklar dahshatli kasallikni yengish uchun birlashgan paytga to'g'ri keladi. Tibbiy yutuq son -sanoqsiz odamlarning hayotini saqlab qoldi va Amerika xayriya ishlariga keng ta'sir ko'rsatdi, bu hozir ham sezilmoqda.

Amerikalik Oz

Sevimli ijodkor L. Frank Baumning hayoti va davrini o'rganing Ozning ajoyib sehrgari.


Transkontinental temir yo'l

1869 yil 15 mayda Amerikaning birinchi transkontinental temir yo'lida muntazam poezdlar qatnay boshladi. Sharqiy shtatlarda sayohat qilishni o'rgatgan minglab amerikaliklar endi temir ot ortida Uolt Uitmanning G'arbiy dengizigacha sayohat qilishlari mumkin edi. Sharqiy shaharda mashinaga chiqish va Kaliforniyaga uzluksiz sayohat qilish, maxsus ekskursiyalardan tashqari, imkonsiz bo'lsa -da, bu kashshof sayohatchilarning ko'pchiligi Chikago va Omaxada, Promontori yoki Ogdenda kerakli transferlarni ko'rib chiqishganday tuyuldi. sakkizdan o'n kungacha bo'lgan sarguzashtdagi tanaffuslar.

"Vaqt va pulni boshqarishga qodir bo'lgan har bir kishi sayohatni xohlardi", deb e'lon qildi baquvvat sayohat muxbiri Jon Beadl, "siyoh sig'adigan hamma muxbirga aylandi". Haqiqatan ham, ko'p sayohatchilar boshidan kechirganlarini yozma ravishda yozib olishga majbur bo'ldilar. Ularning hisoblari, odatda, Chikago yoki Omaxadan o'tmaguncha juda chalkash edi. Qit'alararo xizmatning birinchi yilida Sharqdan kelgan yo'lovchilar Michigan markaziy temir yo'li orqali Chikagoga kelishdi, lekin i87-yillarning o'rtalariga kelib ular Pensilvaniya, Eri yoki Nyu-York markazidan aloqa tanlash imkoniyatiga ega bo'lishdi.

1869 yil oxirida sayohat qilgan ingliz Uilyam F. Rey: "Yetib kelish bekatidan jo'nab ketish stantsiyasiga yetmish besh daqiqa vaqt ajratiladi",-dedi. Angliyalik sayyoh Uilyam R. bitta poyezd boshqasi kelishidan bir soat oldin boshlangan edi. U qisqa vaqt ichida Chikagoda to'xtashni rejalashtirgani uchun, Rey yigirma to'rt soatlik kechiktirilishdan hafsalasi pir bo'lmadi, lekin uning ko'plab yo'lovchilari, yana bir asr davomida, Chikago bo'ylab sayohatchilar poezdlarni almashtirishda noqulaylikni boshdan kechirishdi. aloqa o'rnatilmasligi. Amerika temir yo'l yo'lovchilarining sayohatining gullab -yashnashi paytida, oddiy so'zlardan biri shundaki, cho'chqa mashinani almashtirmasdan, butun mamlakat bo'ylab Chikago bo'ylab sayohat qilishi mumkin edi, lekin odam buni qila olmasdi.

Chikagodan Tinch okeani ittifoqiga etib borish uchun sayohatchilar ikkita to'g'ridan -to'g'ri yo'lni tanlashdi: Rok oroli yoki shimoli -g'arbiy va bilvosita yo'l - Chikago, Burlington va Kvinsi. To'g'ridan-to'g'ri yo'nalishlarga ega bo'lgan bilimdon odamlar tez orada kechki tez poezdlardan qochishni o'rgandilar, bu esa ularni Buyuk Britaniyaning Tinch okeani sohiliga kundalik poezdining jo'nab ketishini kutib, yigirma to'rt soat davomida Kengash Bluffs yoki Omaxada qoldirdi.

1872 yilda Missuri daryosi bo'ylab ko'prik qurib bitkazilgunga qadar, g'arbiy tomonga sayohatchilar ham Kengash Bluffsidan Omaxaga paromda qayiqda o'tishga majbur bo'lishdi. Ko'prik qurilganidan keyin ham, temir yo'llar Sharq yo'llarining mashinalarini daryo bo'ylab Union -Tinch okeani stantsiyasiga olib boradigan darajada kooperativ bo'lishni rad etishdi. Bluffs kengashiga kelgan yo'lovchilar o'zlarini va yuklarini Transfer kompaniyasi mashinalariga olib ketishlari kerak edi. Sog'lig'ini yaxshilash umidida 1872 yilda g'arbga sayohat qilgan Rod -Aylend provinsiyasidan Jon Erast Lesterning aytishicha, Transfer kompaniyasi "katta kitobdan o'chirilishi mumkin bo'lgan so'zlarni bir kun davomida o'chirib tashlashdan ko'ra og'ir so'zlarni keltirib chiqardi". U nafaqat kompaniyaning yo'lovchilarga bo'lgan munosabatidan, balki barcha yuklarni Sharqiy vagonlardan tushirishni va keyin daryo bo'ylab jo'natish uchun qayta qadoqlashni talab qilganidan norozi edi.

Qit'alararo temir yo'lda birinchi sayohatchilar Omaxani hayratda qoldirgan. Ulardan biri "men ko'rgan eng loyli joy" deb topdi, lekin "yo'llar odatda chang bilan qoplangan" deb qo'shimcha qildi. Yana biri shaharni loy bilan qoplangan deb ta'riflagan. "Omnibus asta -sekin ishlay boshladi, tashqi yo'lovchilarga haydovchi haddan tashqari yuklangan mashinani buzishdan saqlanish uchun tomning bir chetidan boshqasiga o'tishni maslahat berdi. Tinch okeani temir yo'llari stantsiyasiga etib kelganida umumiy yengillik hissi paydo bo'ldi.

Deyarli hamma rozi bo'lishdi, ular kamdan -kam hollarda poezd jo'nab ketishida Omaxa stantsiyasida paydo bo'lgan shov -shuvli chalkashliklarni kamdan -kam ko'rishadi. G'arbga sayohat jasoratli korxona deb hisoblangan dastlabki yillarda grinxorn chiptalarini sotib oluvchilar o'rtasida yovvoyi hindlarning poezdlarni buzishi yoki hujum qilish xavfi borligi haqida mish -mishlar tarqaldi, bu, albatta, Omaha temir yo'l agentlariga sayohat uchun sug'urta polisini sotishda yordam berdi.

Dvigatelning hushtagi va konduktorning "Hammasi bortda!" poezdning ketishi haqida hech qanday ogohlantirish yo'q edi. Bu, odatda, harakatlanayotgan mashinalarga o'tirishga majbur bo'lgan yo'lovchilarning shoshilishiga olib keldi. "Uch -to'rt millik masofada biz Omaxada qurilgan blöflar bo'ylab o'tamiz, - yozdi Jon Lester, - keyin ochiq dashtga, Nebraskaning unumdor erlariga boramiz. Bu erda va u erda daraxtlar bilan o'ralgan keng tekislik har tomondan cho'zilgan. "

Bahor aylanayotgan er yovvoyi gullar bilan qoplangan edi, ularning xushbo'y hidi yozda soatiga yigirma mil tezlikda harakatlanayotgan mashinalarning ochiq derazalariga tushdi, minglab g'ildiraklar g'ildiraklari qurigan o'tlar va kuzgi dasht olovlari bilan ufqda yonib ketdi. "Yonayotgan dala manzarasi cheksiz ulug'vorlikdir", dedi Uilyam Rey. "Har tarafdan millarcha masofada havo og'ir tutun bilan to'lib -toshgan, er qichqirgan va shiddatli olovdan qizarib ketgan."

Chet eldan kelgan sayohatchilar Buyuk tekislikdagi o'tlar kutilganidan ko'ra qisqaroq bo'lishini aniqladilar va ular shamol bilan boshqariladigan kulrang-yashil rangni okean to'lqinlari bilan solishtirdilar. Ular, shuningdek, manzara bir xilligidan charchagan ko'zlari, poezd juda katta bo'shliqda turganga o'xshaydi. Hamma tekislikdagi monotonlikdagi birinchi tanaffusni - Platte daryosini kutib oldi, bu temir yo'l g'arbga qarab, oldingi yillardagi vagonli poezdlar kabi.

Qit'alararo temir yo'l xizmatga ochilganda, Jorj Mortimer Pulman to'rt yil davomida uxlab yotgan vagonlarining eksperimental modellarini ishlab chiqargan va 1869 yilda Union Tinch okeani ulardan bir nechtasini qabul qilgan. Ular Pullman saroyi mashinalari deb nomlangan va tashqi ko'rinishi boy jigarrang ranglarga bo'yalgan. ularni murabbiylardan farqlash uchun. Birinchi darajali yo'l haqi uchun qo'shimcha 25 dollar va Pullman Palace avtomashinasi uchun kuniga 4 dollar to'lashi mumkin bo'lgan har bir kishi yo'l olish uchun intilardi. Birinchi darajali sayohatchilar Omaxadan Sakramento ikkinchi darajali yoki murabbiygacha bo'lgan yo'l uchun 75 dollar to'lashdi. Shuningdek, taxtadagi tor o'rindiqlarga o'tirgan muhojirlar uchun 40 dollarlik maxsus stavka belgilandi. Safarni ekspressda, olti dan etti kungacha aralash poezdda bajarish uchun odatda 4-5 kun kerak edi. Poyezdlarning tezligi yo'llar va ko'priklar sharoitiga qarab o'zgarib turardi, shoshilinch qurilgan uchastkalarda soatiga to'qqiz milga tushdi va tekisroq yo'llarda soatiga o'ttiz besh milgacha oshdi. 1870*5 yillar boshidagi sayohatchilarning ko'pchiligi o'rtacha soatiga o'n sakkizdan yigirma ikki milgacha tezlikni eslatdilar. O'n yil ichida tezlik ikki barobarga oshgan bo'lsa-da, ikki yuzdan ortiq stantsiyalarda va suv omborlarida ko'p vaqt to'xtab, to'xtab, uzoq safarga sarflangan umumiy soatlarning sezilarli darajada kamayishiga to'sqinlik qildi.

Hatto eng yuqori malakali amerikaliklar oyiga 100 dollardan kam maosh oladigan davrda ham, qit'alararo temir yo'lda Pullmanning yuz dollarlik maydoniga bo'lgan talab shu qadar katta ediki, Union Pacific 1870 yil boshida ba'zi poezdlarda uchta uxlab yotgan vagonni ishlata boshladi va hali ham yuz o'girdi. -chipta xaridorlari. Jorj Pullmanning Tinch okeani ittifoqiga bo'lgan qiziqishi tufayli u temir yo'lni Sharq yo'llariga etib kelishidan ancha oldin de -lyuks yangiliklari bilan ta'minlagan. Sayohatchilar "Saroy mashinalari" haqida eshitgan yoki o'qigan va qanday narxda bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, ularga minishni xohlagan. "Menda divan bor edi, uning yonida stol va chiroq bor edi", deb yozdi qoniqqan chavandoz. “Divanlar kengaytirilib, kechasi to'shakka aylantiriladi. Mening to'shagim kengligi uch fut uch dyuym va uzunligi olti fut uch dyuym edi. Uning poezdga qaragan ikkita derazasi, chiroyli oynasi bor edi va to'shak va pardalar bilan yaxshi jihozlangan edi ”.

Ayniqsa, britaniyalik sayohatchilar katta taassurot qoldirishdi va Londondagi temir yo'l direktorlariga "amerikaliklarning kitobidan varaq olib tashlash va uzoq tungi sayohatlar uchun uxlab yotgan aravalarni berish" ni talab qilib, jiddiy xat yo'llashdi. Ular, shuningdek, bir mashinadan ikkinchisiga o'tish erkinligidan xursand bo'lishdi, garchi o'zini "London Parson" deb imzolagan sayohatchining aytishicha, o'zini ikki fut balandlikdagi qutiga kiyish juda noqulay. "G'alati tajriba edi, deyarli bir xonada o'ttizga yaqin xonim, janob va bola yotardi. Ikki kecha men yosh uylangan er -xotin meniki tepalikda uxlab qolishdi. Xonim birinchi bo'lib uyga kirdi va shu payt uning xalati to'shak pardalari bog'langan temir yo'l ustida osilgan edi. Ammo uning uyasini yashirgan pardaning qo'zg'alishi keyingi yechish jarayonlarini ko'rsatdi. Xuddi shu parda ikkala yotoqxonaga ham xizmat qilgani uchun, men nafaqaga chiqishim kerak bo'lganida, janob o'z qismini boshim ustida ushlab turardi. Nihoyat, hammasi uyga joylashtirildi va poezdning shovqinidan ba'zi xo'rsinlar ko'tarildi. Men birinchi kechada ko'p uxlamadim, lekin yostiqdan oy nurli dashtga qaradim ».

Garchi Pullman 1870 yilda oshxona bilan "mehmonxona mashinasi" ni taqdim etgan bo'lsa-da, u erda ovqat xonasi o'rindiqlari o'rtasida olinadigan stollarda ovqat berilsa-da, Union Pacific mashinani har haftada faqat bitta safarga rejalashtirgan. I88 -yillarga qadar transkontinental temir yo'l yo'lovchilarini yo'l bo'yidagi ovqatlanish stantsiyalarida boqdi, bu ularga o'ttiz daqiqada ovqatlarini olishlari va sayohatni davom ettirishdan oldin murvat bilan bog'lab qo'yishlariga imkon berdi.

Sayohatchilarning fikriga ko'ra, taomlar baxtsizdan tortib yarmarkaga qadar bo'lgan. Omaxadagi birinchi ovqatlanish joyi Grand oroli edi. "Yomon pishirilgan va xizmat ko'rsatilmagan", - yo'lovchilardan biri. "Biz sifatni umuman yomon deb topdik", dedi Shotlandiyalik Uilyam Robertson, "va uchta taom, nonushta, kechki ovqat va kechki ovqat deyarli bir xil edi: choy, bufalo bifteklari, antilopalar, shirin kartoshka va qaynatilgan hind makkajo'xori, ketmonli kek va sirop bilan ko'ngil aynishi. " Nyu -Yorklik Syuzan Kolidj ham dietaning bir xilligidan shikoyat qildi. "Biz nonushta, kechki ovqatmi yoki kechki ovqatmi, shuni bilish uchun soatiga qarab turish kerak edi, bu taomlar biftek, qovurilgan tuxum, kartoshkaning bir xil xususiyatlarini o'z ichiga oladi." U Nebraska shtatining Sidney shahridagi oshpazga "g'ayrioddiy ajoyib nonushta turkumidagi qovurilgan qo'zichoq kublari" bergani uchun maqtash uchun etarlicha saxiy edi. Ogayo shtatining Klivlend shtatidan Xarvi Rays Sidneydagi nonushta stantsiyasini taxtalar va tuvallarning qo'pol tuzilishi deb ta'rifladi. "Bu erda yo'lovchilar ajoyib nonushta bilan to'ldirishdi-ular taxmin qilganidek, tovuq go'shti, lekin ularga ma'lum bo'lishicha, dala itlaridan-yangi turdagi tovuqlar, tuklarsiz. Bu ma'lumot turli xil oshqozonlarda yoqimsiz his -tuyg'ularni keltirib chiqardi.

Konnektikut shtatining Xartford shahridan Uilyam L. Xumasonning so'zlariga ko'ra, qanchalik tekislik bo'ylab sayohat qilgan bo'lsa, ovqatlanish stantsiyalari shunchalik yomonlashib ketgandiki, "baxtsiz uylardan iborat, stollari iflos, ofitsiantlar nafaqat iflos, balki sho'r. Choy xuddi adaçayı cho'tkasining barglaridan tayyorlanganga o'xshardi-tom ma'noda adaçayı choyi. Pechene sodasiz, lekin ko'p miqdordagi gidroksidi bilan, biz yutgan ko'p miqdordagi gidroksidi chang bilan uyg'unlashgan. Kaliforniya shtatining Cisco shahridagi "Humason" taomxonasi haqida yaxshi so'z bor edi, u erda stol ustidagi suv billurdek tiniq edi, lekin u bir dollar va chorakni "qovurilgan jambon va kartoshka uchun juda qimmat narx deb o'ylagan. ”

Aksariyat ovqatlanish joylarida ovqatlanish narxi bir dollarni tashkil etdi va Tinch okeanining Kaliforniyadagi bo'limida, agar ovqatlanuvchi qog'oz pulga emas, kumush bilan to'lagan bo'lsa, narxlar etmish besh tsentga tushirildi. Tinch okeani ittifoqi ham, Tinch okeanining markaziy qismi ham ovqatlanish uylarini ishlatmagan, ularni xizmat ko'rsatish standartlari bo'lmagan holda, xususiy shaxslar bilan shartnoma tuzishni afzal ko'rmagan. Ularning aksariyati yo'lovchilar poezdlardan tushganda, katta stollar bilan to'ldirilgan, uzun stollar bilan to'ldirilgan qo'pol ramkali binolarda edilar. Asta -sekin, alohida stantsiyalar Laramiyadagi biftek, Grin daryosida issiq pechene, Sidneyda antilop, Kolfaksda baliq kabi ba'zi mutaxassisliklar bo'yicha obro' -e'tibor qozondi. Eng tez -tez maqtovga sazovor bo'lgan ovqatlanish joyi - Vayoming shtatining Evanston shahri bo'lib, u erda tog 'alabalığı o'ziga xos bo'lgan. "U Xovard V. Krossli ismli rangli odamda saqlanar edi, uning aniq istagi hammaga yoqish edi", deb yozgan Jon Lester. Uning qo'shimcha qilishicha, "ovqatlanish joylari egalarining ko'pchiligi yuqori chaqiriqlarga ko'tarilishi kerak, chunki ular mehmonxonani boshqarishdan ko'ra yuqori".

Qo'llanmalar kitobida Cheyen Omaxa va Sakramento o'rtasidagi eng katta shahar sifatida ro'yxatga olinganligi sababli, ko'plab yo'lovchilar u erda oziq -ovqat xizmatining yuqori sifatini kutishgan. Taxta va tuvalli binolardan iborat kichik bir shaharchani uch mingga yaqin "katta etikli, keng shlyapali va revolverli xavfli ko'rinadigan konchilar" egallab olganidan hafsalalari pir bo'ldi. Ovqatlanish stantsiyasidagi yagona qo'shimcha - bu katta yo'g'on hayvonlarning boshlari, ular och qolgan yo'lovchilarga devorlardan qarab turishardi. "Choplar, odatda, qaymoqqa o'xshaydi, pichoqlar esa g'isht teruvchilarning molga singari qattiq edi", dedi sayohatchilardan biri.

Ovqatlanish uchun to'xtashlar oralig'ida yo'lovchilar yo'lning har ikki tomonida notanish yovvoyi tabiat yurishi bilan boshqa joyga ko'chirildi, antilopalar va dala itlari eng ko'p ko'rilgan. Bufalodan ko'ra ko'proq antilopalar Tinch okeani ittifoqi yo'llari bo'ylab cho'zilgan va bu oyoqli hayvonlarning uzun fayllari tez-tez poezdlarga yaqinlashar, ular mashinalar bilan poyga qilishardi va odatda g'olib bo'lishardi. Tinch okeani ittifoqi bu amaliyotga norozi bo'lsa -da, g'ayratli ovchilar ba'zida mashinalarning ochiq oynalaridan bu hayvonlarni miltiq va to'pponchalar bilan o'qqa tutdilar. Bir nechta zarbalar qayd etildi.

Prair-it qishloqlari ham etarlicha yaqin edilar, shuning uchun yo'lovchilar o'z uylarining kiraverishida o'tirgan kemiruvchilarni ko'rishlari mumkin edi. "Ular gomoseksual harakatchanlik bilan havoda uchib yurishadi, ko'rish, chayqalish va sayohatchining hayratli nigohiga ikkita mo'ynali poshnali va kalta mo'ynali dumini taqdim etishadi, - deb yozadi u. yo'lovchi

Elk, bo'rilar va ayiqlar ko'pincha temir ot G'arbda momaqaldiroq gumburlagandek ko'rishar edi va bir sayohatchining aytishicha, ular chakalakalar ekanini bilib olmaguncha, temir yo'l bilan parallel ravishda yugurayotgan yovvoyi itlar to'plamini ko'rgan. Chigirtka va chigirtka to'dalari - ular ba'zan izlarga tushib, lokomotiv g'ildiraklarining vaqtincha to'xtash joyiga aylanishiga sabab bo'lgan yana bir notanish manzara edi.

Garchi poezdlar sayohati boshlanganidan keyin Union Tinch okeani yaqinida faqat ingichka bufalo podalari qolgan bo'lsa-da, Kanzas Tinch okeanining temir otlari (janubdan ikki yuz mil narida yugurgan va Cheyen shahridagi Tinch okeani ittifoqi bilan bog'langan). Bufalo bilan o'ralgan va suruv o'tguncha sekinlashishi yoki kutishi kerak edi. Tinch okeanining Kanzas shtatida sayohatchilardan biri ko'zlari yetib boradigan cho'chqani ko'rganini aytdi. "Boshlarini quyi va dumlari yuqoriga ko'tarib, ular lokomotiv oldidan o'tish uchun g'ayrioddiy kuch sarflab, trekka yugurishdi. Bu strategik jasoratni sinab ko'rayotganda, bitta namuna zo'rlik bilan havoga ko'tarildi va chuqurga tashlandi, u chalqancha yotdi, oyoqlari aqldan ozdi.

Dastlabki kunlarda, boshqa temir yo'llar bilan aloqa o'rnatilgunga qadar, Kanzas -Tinch okeani muhandislari yo'lovchilarga vagonlarni tashlab ketayotgan bufaloni otishlariga ruxsat berish uchun poezdlarni xohlagancha to'xtatib qo'yishdi. 1868 yilda Topekalik advokat Jon Putnam do'stiga shunday yozgan edi: "Hamma yuguradi va otishni boshlaydi." Biz bufaloni yuklay olmadik. Men ov qilmadim, ov miltiqlari haqida aniq tasavvurga ega bo'lmagan holda, men yuk tashardim va oxirigacha qo'yib yubordim ... Lekin men qolganlari bilan yugurib chiqdim - baqirdi - Buffalo! - Poezdni to'xtating - "Meni qo'yib yuboringlar" "u erda!"-Vop-pey '-"Momaqaldiroq bering"-"Yo'q"-"Qaytib kel"-"Haydang"-Shunday qilib, men yaxshi yordam berganimni ko'rdingiz. "

Bufalo va boshqa hayvonlar sayohatchilarni tekisliklarni tark etganda tobora maftunkor bo'lib borayotgan manzaraning fonida zavqlantirdilar. Rokki tog'larning qorli oralig'ining birinchi ko'rinishi har doim yengil avtomobillar orqali hayajon to'lqini yuborgan. "Mening bolalik orzularim amalga oshdi", deb yozadi bir kishi. "Men soatlab, maktab stolida, xarita ustida mulohaza yuritib, xayolparast Lyuis va Klark bilan ovchilar, tuzoqchilar va erta muhojirlar bilan, bu sirli tuyulgan Rokki tog'larga, -orzu qilardim, umid qilardim va umid qilardim, ko'zlarim qachonlardir ularning toj balandliklarini ko'radi. Aniqki, bu erda uzoqdan oqning tozaligida birinchi katta diapazon yotardi, lekin u erda u go'zallik bilan qoplangan edi.

Vayoming Sharqdan kelgan sayohatchilar uchun ajoyibotlar bilan to'lgan edi, lekin temir ot ularni tunnellar orqali Yuta va Viber kanyonlariga olib kirganida, ular qasrga o'xshash qasrga o'xshash qoyalarni tasvirlab bera olmasdilar. "Ta'riflab bo'lmaydigan darajada ajoyib ... havodagi qal'alar ... hayoliy shakllar va profillar ... sahna qanchalik dahshatli bo'lsa, qo'rqinchli." Viber kanyonining tor joylariga kirganidan ko'p o'tmay, deyarli hamma Omaxadan masofani belgilaydigan, ming millik daraxtga, tosh va adaçayı xarob bo'lgan bitta yashil qarag'ayga e'tibor qaratdi. Evropalik sayohatchilar Viber kanyonini Alp tog'lari eshiklari bilan solishtirishgan. Qal'a roki, osilgan tosh, minbar roki, iblis darvozasi, shayton slaydlari - bular Xudoning yoki Shaytonning ijodlari ekanligi haqida bir xil fikrda bo'lmagan yo'lovchilarning daftarlariga kirdi.

Yo'lda vaqti-vaqti bilan kashshoflarning oldingi kuni haqida eslatmalari bor edi-uzoq o'lik ho'kizlar va otlarning suyaklari, yopiq vagonlar sudralib ketgan chuqur yo'llar yonida, yolg'iz qabr belgisi, g'ildirak singan, tashlangan mebellar. "Dyuym -dyuymli jamoalar yuqori pog'onani egallash uchun harakat qilishdi", dedi minnatdor poezd sayohatchilaridan biri, "ular dyuym -dyuym bilan dashtli temir yo'llarda, temir otlar bilan, haydovchiga mohir muhandis bilan, qo'pol dovonlardan pastga tushishdi. qulaylik bilan olib ketildi. "

Ko'ngil ochish yoki hayratga soladigan hayvonlar yoki manzaralar bo'lmaganida, G'arbning ob-havosi doimo o'zgarib turardi. 1869 yilda Xarvi Rays Kaliforniyaga ketayotgan poezd Buyuk tekislikdagi kuchli momaqaldiroqdan o'tib ketdi. "Osmon birdaniga tungi yulduzsiz qora rangga aylandi. Chaqmoq har tomonga chaqnab ketdi va tekisliklar ustidan elektr olovli sharlar dumaladi. Go'yo osmon artilleriyasi vodiyni nishonga aylantirganday tuyuldi va biz bir zumda halokatga mahkum bo'ldik. Ammo baxtga ko'ra, qo'rquvimiz tez orada yo'qoldi. Bo'ronning o'rnini ajoyib kamalak egalladi. ”

Kuchli yomg'ir yo'lda toshib ketishi mumkin edi va yo'l to'shaklari yaxshi balastlanmagan dastlabki yillarda rishtalar loyga cho'kdi. Bir sayohatchining orqasida turgan mashina suv ustida ketayotgan qayiqqa o'xshab, loy ko'pikini ag'darayotganini ko'rib, hayron bo'ldi. Do'l bo'ronlar mashinaning oynalarini sindirib yuborishi odatiy hol emas edi va tornado poezdni relsdan ko'tarib yuborishi mumkin edi. Tinch okeani Kanzas afsonalaridan biri kuchli momaqaldiroqdan tushib, olti ming metr yo'lni yuvib, yuk poezdini yutib yuborgan to'fonli suv oqimi bilan bog'liq. "Garchi uni topish uchun ko'p harakat qilingan bo'lsa -da," deydi temir yo'l faxriysi Charlz B. Jorj, - uning izi hech qachon topilmagan.

Qishki sayohatchilar ajoyib qor bo'ronlari yoki kuchli bo'ronlarni kutishlari mumkin edi, ular ba'zida qit'a bo'ylab sayohatni sinovga aylantirdi. 1870 yil qishda Uilyam Rey Kaliforniyadan sharqqa qaytganida, uning poezdini tortib olgan dvigatel Laramie tekisligining to'rt mil narida qor bo'roni bilan ikki soatlik jang olib bordi. Kechikish Union Pacific bir yo'lli poezdlar jadvaliga putur etkazdi, lekin Reyning xabar berishicha, uning Pullman avtomashinasidagi issiq havo pechi uni "ingliz uyidagi eng yaxshi isitiladigan xona kabi qulay" saqlagan.

Agar u bo'rondan momaqaldiroqdan ko'ra qattiq azob chekkan Kanzas okeani bo'ylab sayohat qilganida, Ra omadli bo'lmasdi. High winds drifted both snow and sand into cuts, leveling them across the tops, and the sturdy little wood-burning locomotives would have to back up, be uncoupled from the cars, and then run at full speed into the snowbanked cuts. This was called “bucking the snow,” and usually had to be repeated several times before it was effective. Engineer Cy Warman told of bucking an eighteen-foot drift with double engines so hard that his locomotive trembled and shook as if it were about to be crushed to pieces. “Often when we came to a stop only the top of the stack of the front engine would be visible. … All this time the snow kept coming down, day and night, until the only signs of a railroad across the range were the tops of the telegraph poles.” If the passengers were lucky, the train was backed to the nearest station, but even then conditions might be harsh. A group of snowbound train travelers who crowded into a hotel in Hays City, Kansas, spent an uncomfortably cold night and at daylight found their beds covered with snow which had drifted through cracks in walls and roof.

The universal desire of all pioneer travelers on the transcontinental was to see a “real wild Indian.” Few of them did, because the true warriors of the plains hated the iron horse and seldom came within miles of it. After the resisting tribes finally realized they could not stop the building of the Union Pacific’s tracks, their leaders signed treaties which removed their people from the broad swaths of land taken by the railroad. As the buffalo herds also fled far to the north and south, there was no economic reason for the horse Indians to approach the tracks. The Indians that the travelers saw were mostly those who had been corrupted and weakened by contacts with the white man’s civilization—scroungers, mercenaries, or beggars by necessity.

Except for a few acculturated representatives of Mississippi Valley tribes (who still plaited their hair but wore white man’s clothing and frequented railroad stations from Chicago to Omaha) the westbound travelers’ first glimpse of Plains Indians was around the Loup Fork in Nebraska where the Pawnees lived on a reservation. Although the Pawnees had virtually abandoned their horsebuffalo culture and lived off what they could cadge from white men, the warriors still shaved their heads to a tuft, painted their faces, and wore feathers and blankets. To travelers fresh from the East the Pawnees had a very bloodthirsty appearance, and according to the guidebooks every one of them had several scalps waving from the tops of lodgepoles.

Anywhere across western Nebraska or Wyoming, a traveler might catch a quick glimpse of a passing Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, or Crow staring at the iron horse, but they were few and far between. Not until the train reached Nevada was there a plenitude of Shoshones and Paiutes hanging about every station and using their treaty rights with the Central Pacific to ride the cars back and forth. Because these desert Indians were generally covered with dust and were often unbathed (there was no water readily available), the fastidious passengers found them objectionable, and the Central Pacific gradually put restrictions on their use of trains. At first they were confined to the emigrants’ coaches, and then after the emigrants objected to their presence, the Indians had to ride in the baggage cars or outside on the boarding steps.

Despite these docile remnants of the Great Plains tribes, some travelers spent a good deal of time worrying about Indian attacks. But train wrecks, and not ambushes, were the most immediate danger. Because of the relatively slow speeds of the early years, bruises rather than fatalities were the likely results unless the accident occurred on a high bridge or mountain shoulder. Poor tracks and hot boxes (overheating of axle bearings) caused many wrecks, and a surprising number of passengers suffered injuries from falling or jumping out of open car windows. One of the pioneer passengers of 1869 recorded how it felt to be in a train wreck in Echo Canyon: “On we bounded over the ties, the car wheels breaking many of them as though they were but pipe-stems. Every instant we expected to roll down the ravine. We ordered the ladies to cling to the sides of the seats and keep their feet clear of the floor. It seemed as if that train could never be stopped! But it was brought to a standstill upon the brink of an embankment. Had the cars gone a few rods further the reader would probably never have been troubled by these hastily written pages.”

Still another westbound traveler during that first year told of being shaken out of his seat when a Central Pacific train ran into a herd of cattle between Wadsworth and Clark’s Station, Nevada. The collision threw the locomotive off the track, but a telegrapher aboard climbed the nearest pole, tapped the line, and summoned a relief engine. During the eight-hour delay the hungry passengers butchered the dead cattle, built a fire, and cooked «teaks. Such encounters with cattle were among the most common causes of train wrecks in the West, and railroad men and ranchers were in constant friction for more than half a century over the rights of cattle to trespass on railroad property.

There were, of course, less-violent diversions than wrecks. At times on the journey, said Henry Williams in The Pacific Tourist , one could “sit and read, play games, and indulge in social conversation and glee.” By “glee” the guidebook author probably was referring to the improvised musicales and recitations that were especially popular among the Pullman passengers. In the early 1870’s some Pullman cars had organs intalled on them, and in the evenings amateur musicians as well as traveling troupes of professionals willingly gave performances. As one Pullman passenger described it, “music sounds upon the prairie and dies away far over the plains merrymaking and jokes, conversation and reading pass the time pleasantly until ten o’clock, when we retire. … If people who are traveling together will only try to make those about them happy, then a good time is assured. The second night on the road we arranged a little entertainment in the car and invited the ladies and gentlemen from the other cars into our ‘improvised Music Hall.’ The exercises consisted principally of recitations, with the delineation of the characters of Grace Greenwood. … The young ladies sang for us and we were all happy—for the time, at least.”

It was customary on Sundays to hold religious services in one of the cars. On a train rolling through western Wyoming in 1872, John Lester read the Episcopal service, the Reverend Mr. Murray delivered a sermon entitled “To Die Is Gain,” and a choir sang “Nearer, My God, To Thee” and the American national hymn. “Here in the very midst of the Rocky Mountain wilderness,” wrote Lester, “our thanksgivings were offered up and our music floated out upon the air, and resounded through the deep caverns, and among the towering hills.”

According to most travelers the popular pastimes were cards, conversation, and reading. “We had an abundant supply of books and newspapers. A boy frequently traversed the train with a good store of novels, mostly English, periodicals, etc. … In the evening we had our section lighted, and played a solemn game of whist, or were initiated into the mysteries of euchre, or watched the rollicking game of poker being carried on by a merry party in the opposite section.”

There may have been some “rollicking” poker games on Pullman cars, but most of them were as deadly serious as the real money-making endeavors of the players in that gilded age of the robber barons. Brakeman Harry French told of witnessing such a game one evening in the course of his duties. “The car was loaded to capacity with wealthy stockmen, and I suspect, a number of fancy women. In the cramped quarters of the men’s smoking room, a highplay poker game was in progress. Gold pieces and bills were the stakes, and they were very much in evidence. I was particularly interested in one of the players. Fine clothes, careful barbering, diamond-decked fingers marked him as a gambler.” Poker-playing professional gamblers, fresh from the declining riverboat traffic of the Mississippi River, could indeed be found on almost any transcontinental train in the 1870*5, and many a greenhorn bound west to seek his fortune lost his nest egg before reaching the end of his journey.

By the time the passengers arrived at Sherman Summit on their second day out of Omaha, they had formed into the usual little groups and cliques, and knew each other by sight if not by name. Sherman Summit, the most elevated station on the Pacific railroad (the highest in the world, according to the guidebooks), was also the halfway point between Omaha and the Union Pacific’s end of track at Ogden. If the westbound express was on schedule, the engineer would stop his panting iron horse longer than usual at the Sherman water tank in order to give the passengers a chance to stretch their legs, inhale the rarefied air, and enjoy the view before crossing Dale Creek bridge and plunging down the mountains into Laramie for a noon meal stop.

At Sherman some passengers were afflicted with nosebleed from the height, or were badly chilled by the cold wind, and were glad to leave it behind. Others found it inspiring: “Never till this moment did I realize the truthfulness of Bierstadt’s scenery of these hills. The dark, deep shadows, the glistening sides, and the snow-capped peaks, with their granite faces, the stunted growth of pine and cedar, all render the scene such as he has painted it.” And another traveler, Dr. H. Buss, whose medical skill may have been better than his poetry, preserved the memory of his visit in verse:

After lunch at Laramie, where “the people around the station are more intelligent-looking than at any place since leaving Omaha,” the train was soon across Medicine Bow River and into Carbon Station. Coal had been discovered there and was rapidly replacing wood for fuel on the Union Pacific locomotives. Westbound travelers usually crossed Wyoming’s deserts after nightfall, but even by moonlight the endless sweep of dry sagebrush and greasewood was described by various travelers as dreary, awful, lifeless. They complained of burning eyes and sore lips caused by the clouds of alkali dust swirled up into the cars, and thought Bitter Creek and Salt Wells appropriately descriptive names for stations.

About sunrise the train arrived at Green River for a breakfast stop, and for the next hundred miles everyone looked forward to the moment of crossing into Utah Territory, the land of the Mormons and their plural wives. Wahsatch was the noon dining station, and every passenger from the East who stepped down from the train peered expectantly around for Mormons, but the What Cheer Eating House looked about the same as all the others they had seen.

At Ogden, passengers awaiting connecting trains frequently had to spend many hours in a long narrow wooden building which had been erected between the tracks of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific. In addition to ticket offices and a large dining room, sleeping rooms furnished only with curtains for doors were available upstairs. One Englishwoman considered her enforced stay there an adventure: “Except for the passing trains this is a most lonely, isolated spot, weird and still, lying in the heart of the mountains. In the evening a blinding snowstorm came on, and the wind, howling fearfully with a rushing mighty sound, shook the doors and rattled at the windows as though it wanted to come in and warm itself at our blazing wood fire.”

Upon boarding the Central Pacific at Ogden, the firstclass passengers found themselves in Silver Palace cars instead of Pullmans. Collis Huntington and his Big Four partners refused to accept George Pullman’s arrangement for the use of his sleeping cars and ordered their own constructed. The Silver Palaces were attractive with their white metallic interiors, but although they were outfitted with private sitting rooms and smoking rooms, they lacked the luxurious touches which travelers from the East had grown accustomed to in their Pullmans. Passengers complained that their berths were not as roomy or as comfortable, and some said the cars were often too cold. Eventually the Central Pacific had to give up the Silver Palaces because transcontinental passengers resented having to change from their Pullmans.

The Cosmopolitan Hotel of booming Elko, Nevada, was the first dining stop west of Ogden. Alkali dust swirled in streets filled with freight wagons drawn by long mule teams hauling supplies to miners in nearby Pine Valley. Chinese workers discharged by the railroad had established a colony here and were much in evidence around the hotel. Beyond Elko was the valley of the Humboldt and the crossing of Nevada’s barren deserts. In summer, passengers choked on dust if they left the windows open, or sweltered in heat if they closed them. After passing Winnemucca, the iron horse turned southward to the Humboldt Sink (where the river was literally swallowed up by the desert) and thereafter, instead of facing the sun, continued a southwesterly course to the Sierra.

By this time the passengers were beginning to show the effects of several days travel, “a drooping, withered, squeezed-lemon appearance,” as one observer put it. “There were the usual crumpled dresses, loose hanging and wayward curls, and ringlets, and possibly soiled hands and faces which reduces the fair sex from that state of perfect immaculateness. …” Even the self-reliant Susan Coolidge admitted that after two or three days on the Pacific railroad she began to hate herself because she could not contend with the pervasive dust which no amount of brushing or shaking could completely remove from her hair and clothing. And one of the most frequent complaints of all early travelers was the discomfort caused by “the very oppressive smoke” from locomotives which constantly drifted into the cars.

The bracing air of the Sierra, however, was a perfect restorative for the weary travelers. With two locomotives pulling the cars, the train slowly climbed the winding canyon of the Truckee River, rising eighty feet to the mile. Pine and fir replaced the dreary desert sagebrush, and then came a spectacular view of Donner Lake encircled by forested mountains. The guidebooks told the travelers all about the gruesome tragedy of the Donner Party during the winter of 1846–47. And then, as one observer wrote, “after snorting and puffing, whistling and screaming, for an hour and a quarter, our pair of Iron Horses stop in the snow-sheds at the station called ‘Summit.’ Here we have a good breakfast, well cooked and fairly served although we could not expect waiters enough to attend in a rush such as they have when the passengers, with appetites sharpened by mountain-air and a long ride, seat themselves at table, and all with one voice cry, ‘Steak! coffee! bread! trout! waiter! a napkin!’”

From the summit of the Sierra to Sacramento was 105 miles, a drop from 7,017 feet to thirty feet above sea level. According to William Humason, fifty miles of the descent was made without the aid of steam. “The conductor and brakeman ran the train with brakes on most of the way.” For some travelers the ride down the western slope of the range was terrifying, and the coasting trains made so little noise that unwary railroad workers, especially in the snowsheds, were often struck and killed. “The velocity with which the train rushed down this incline, and the suddenness with which it wheeled around the curves,” said William Rae, “produced a sensation which cannot be reproduced in words. … The axle boxes smoked with the friction, and the odour of burning wood pervaded the cars. The wheels were nearly red hot. In the darkness of the night they resembled discs of flame.”

Corresponding somewhat to the biggest drop and swing of a modern amusement park’s roller coaster was Cape Horn, nine miles below Dutch Flat. The guidebooks warned timid passengers not to look down upon the awful gorge of the American River two thousand feet below, and John Beadle said that although Cape Horn offered the finest view in the Sierra, the sight was not good for nervous people. “We’re nearing Cape Horn!” someone would always cry out, and the next moment the train would careen around a sharp curve. “We follow the track around the sides of high mountains,” said William Humason, “looking down into a canyon of awful depth, winding around for miles, until we almost meet the track we have before been over—so near that one would think we could almost throw a stone across. We have been around the head of the canyon, and have, therefore, ‘doubled Cape Horn.’”

Almost as fascinating as the scenery and the rollercoaster ride were the Sierra snowsheds built by engineer Arthur Brown. When passenger service began, these sheds—built with sharp sloping roofs against the mountainsides so that deep snowfalls and avalanches would slide right off them—covered forty miles of track between Truckee and Cape Horn. After numerous passengers complained that the walls blocked their view of the magnificent mountains, the Central Pacific responded by cutting windows at the level of those of the passenger cars. The result was a series of flickering scenes somewhat like those of an early motion picture, but even this pleasure was denied Sierra travelers during the snowy months of winter when the openings had to be closed again.

“A blarsted long depot—longest I ever saw,” was the comment of an oft-quoted anonymous Englishman as he passed through the snowsheds, and another British traveler said he had never seen “a more convenient arrangement for a long bonfire. The chimney of every engine goes fizzing through it like a squib, and the woodwork is as dry as a bone.” To prevent fires the Central Pacific kept watchmen at regular intervals inside the sheds, with water barrels and hand pumps always ready to extinguish blazes set by sparks from locomotives. There was little they could do, however, against the forest fires which sometimes swept across sections of sheds. And sturdy though the structures were, an occasional mighty avalanche would crush one of them. The train on which Lady Hardy was traveling was delayed all night by the collapse of a shed while fifty male volunteers from among the passengers went ahead to clear the tracks.

The snowsheds not only covered the main track, they also enclosed stations, switch tracks, turntables, and houses where workmen lived with their families. Children were born in this eerie, dimly lit world where without warning a huge boulder or avalanche might crash through the roof, where trains derailed with disastrous results, and at least on one occasion wild animals escaped from a wrecked circus train to terrify the inhabitants. As snowplows were improved, some sheds were removed, others were replaced with concrete, and the army of workmen declined to a handful of lookouts and track walkers.

Although passage through the Sierra was their introduction to California, most westbound travelers did not feel that they had truly reached that golden land until their iron horse brought them down into the blazing sunshine and balmy air of the Sacramento Valley and the flowers and orchards of the Queen City of the Plain. “We seem in a new world,” said one. “The transition was sudden and the transformation magical,” said another. “The sun descended in a flood of glory toward the Pacific Ocean.” In Sacramento they were still more than a hundred miles from the Pacific, and like inspired pilgrims most decided to travel on to that legendary Western sea. Until 1870 they transferred to the cars of the California Pacific, which took them to Vallejo—where again they had to change, this time to a steamboat running down the bay to San Francisco. After the Central Pacific completed its subsidiary Western Pacific to Oakland in 1870, the journey was easier, although they still made the final crossing by boat before reaching San Francisco and the Pacific shore. After a week of noise, dust, and locomotive smoke the first act of those travelers who could afford it was to register at the magnificent Palace Hotel and seek out a quiet room and a warm bath.

And what were the feelings of travelers after they had completed their first journey by rail across the American continent? Those from other countries were impressed by the grandeur of the Western land, and of course they made comparisons with their own nations, sometimes favorable, sometimes unfavorable. They found travel by train across the West less tedious because they could walk about in the cars and stand on the platforms to enjoy the passing landscapes, yet at the same time they complained of the lack of privacy. They praised the comforts of the Pullman cars, but deplored the necessity for constantly changing trains. They confessed that before the journey they had feared the rumored American defiance of rules and regulations and recklessness in regard to speed, but they were pleased to find that American railway men held human life in as high regard as it was held in their native lands.

American travelers on the other hand were more concerned with feelings of national pride. After crossing the vastness of the American West, the endless unclaimed fertile lands, the prairies and forests, the broad rivers and towering mountains, they felt that they had seen a new map unrolled, a new empire revealed, a new civilization in process of creation. In the first years after the Civil War, the salvation of the Union was still a glorious promise of destiny. “I felt patriotically proud,” wrote one traveler to California. He saw the transcontinental railroad as a force binding the Union together “by links of iron that can never be broken.” Although Americans were aware that private corporations had built this first railroad to the Pacific, they rejoiced in the belief that California was a rich prize of empire which had been won for them by those connecting links of iron. In their first flush of triumphant pride, they viewed the railroad as a cooperative venture shared by the builders and the people. The disillusionment would come later, as would their doubts in an everexpanding empire.

For Americans and foreigners alike, there was a deepening sense of wonder at this final link in the encirclement of the earth by steam power. From San Francisco they could now journey to China and Suez by steam-powered vessels, from Suez to Alexandria by rail, from Alexandria to France by water, from France to Liverpool by rail and water, from Liverpool to New York by water, and from New York to San Francisco by rail. In reaching the Western sea, the iron horse had shrunk the planet.


Transcontinental Railroad of 1869

The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 called for the laying of track by the Union Pacific (UP) and the Central Pacific (CP), the former going west from Omaha and the latter going east from Sacramento. The two roads would eventually link.

The project had more than its share of problems. The government subsidies introduced perverse incentives, all chronicled by Professor Folsom. Since the railroad companies received land and loans in proportion to the amount of track they laid, management had an incentive to lay track rapidly in order to collect as much federal aid as possible. There was much less emphasis on the quality of track laid or on following the shortest possible route than there would have been in the absence of these government handouts. To the contrary, circuitous routes meant more track laid and therefore more federal aid. Moreover, since low-interest loans were granted in higher amounts for more mountainous terrain, the railroad companies had greater incentive to lay track over less suitable land than if they had had to lay track with their own resources.

As the two tracks approached each other in Utah in 1869, more serious troubles began. Seeing the end of subsidies looming, the two lines built track parallel to each other instead of joining, and both lines applied for subsidies on the basis of the parallel track. Worse, physical destruction and even death resulted when the mainly Irish UP workers clashed with mainly Chinese CP workers. The celebrations that took place on May 10, 1869, when the two lines finally met, obscured the often shoddy workmanship that government grants had inadvertently encouraged, and it was not until several years later that all the necessary repairs and rerouting were completed. Looking back on the construction process, UP chief engineer Grenville Dodge remarked, “I never saw so much needless waste in building railroads. Our own construction department has been inefficient.”


Transcontinental Railroad

The first Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and also as the &ldquoGreat Transcontinental Railroad&rdquo and the &ldquoOverland Route&rdquo) was a continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869. It connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast on San Francisco Bay.

While Asa Whitney published his ideas on the idea of a railroad to California in 1849, others also joined the chorus. Eventually Theodore Judah, chief engineer for the Sacramento Valley Railroad, undertook a survey to find a manageable route through the Sierra Nevada mountains and presented his plan to Congress in 1856. The next stop on the timeline is July 1, 1862 when Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 which created the Central Pacific Railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad. In total, the rail line was built by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California (CPRR), Union Pacific, and Western Pacific Railroad Company over public lands provided by extensive US land grants.

It opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" (later dubbed the "Golden Spike") at Promontory Summit. The entire line wasn&rsquot completed until November 1869 when the Central Pacific finally connected Sacramento to the east side of San Francisco Bay and Union Pacific connected Omaha to Council Bluffs completed the Union Pacific Missouri River Bridge in 1872.

The material here is just a fraction of what is written on the topic and is only intended to get researchers started. The following materials link to fuller bibliographic information in the Library of Congress Online Catalog. Links to digital content are provided when available.


Transcontinental Rail Service Begun - History

Not everything the railroads brought was desirable. Railroads provided an endless supply of transient strangers, which proved great prospects for those of evil intent. Historian Ryan Roenfeld noted, "The wily skills shown on the muddy streets of Council Bluffs during the late 19th century would be the envy of the author of any Nigerian e-mail scam circulating the Internet today." Council Bluffs was a centralized location for con artists to work from it was so much easier to just stay put and let the pigeons flock to them. Better yet, the victims were generally just passing through. Before they could cause too much fuss they were on another train out of town, somewhat less financially well off than when they arrived. Where were the police during all of this? It appears as long as no locals were hassled strangers passing through were considered fair game. It was a different era with a different attitude one law enforcement officer was quoted as saying it serves the victims right "The shenanigans only succeeded because of the fundamental dishonesty of the victims wanting something for nothing."

The railroads were, and remain, as important as ever, but it doesn't take nearly as many people to keep the trains rolling. Diesels don't require the manpower that steam locomotives did they need less maintenance and a fireman isn't necessary in the cab. Much that had been done by hand became mechanized. Even the Railway Mail Service terminal became a casualty of the ZIP code and the mechanization it permitted. Though the trains kept right on rolling to and through Council Bluffs employment dipped precipitously and the city fell into economic doldrums. As business dipped local merchants couldn't afford improvements, making the downtown look outdated by the 1960s a whopping 77% of southwest Iowa retail business was going across the river to Nebraska. This triggered the aggressive urban renewal project that dramatically changed downtown.

So where does that leave us in our "what if" game? If the transcontinental railroad had started elsewhere the best guess is the metro area would be much smaller some prognosticators have speculated the Council Bluffs/Omaha population would be closer to ten thousand than the nearly one million it is today. We would likely be minus some of our tourist attractions. Seems unlikely the Union Pacific would have placed their museum in Council Bluffs had milepost zero been elsewhere. Would UP Chief Engineer Dodge have built his home in Council Bluffs if he had been working out of a different city? The "Squirrel Cage" jail came into being because the explosive growth of the city fueled by the railroads outpaced the efforts of law enforcement to keep up. Additional capacity was need quickly and economically. Certainly there wouldn't have been a Golden Spike monument, as there would have been no milepost zero along Ninth Avenue to mark.

What Council Bluffs really would have looked like without the transcontinental railroad will never be known exactly. It's not a risky assumption, however, that the metro area would be much different had that encounter between Lincoln and Dodge not taken place on the veranda of the Pacific House Hotel 160 years ago this summer.

The economy was booming Council Bluffs was the fifth largest rail center in the country— quite an impressive feat considering it was nowhere near the fifth largest in population. Then times changed.

The railroads were, and remain, as important as ever, but it doesn't take nearly as many people to keep the trains rolling. Diesels don't require the manpower that steam locomotives did they need less maintenance and a fireman isn't necessary in the cab. Much that had been done by hand became mechanized. Even the Railway Mail Service terminal became a casualty of the ZIP code and the mechanization it permitted. Though the trains kept right on rolling to and through Council Bluffs employment dipped precipitously and the city fell into economic doldrums. As business dipped local merchants couldn't afford improvements, making the downtown look outdated by the 1960s a whopping 77% of southwest Iowa retail business was going across the river to Nebraska. This triggered the aggressive urban renewal project that dramatically changed downtown.

So where does that leave us in our "what if" game? If the transcontinental railroad had started elsewhere the best guess is the metro area would be much smaller some prognosticators have speculated the Council Bluffs/Omaha population would be closer to ten thousand than the nearly one million it is today. We would likely be minus some of our tourist attractions. Seems unlikely the Union Pacific would have placed their museum in Council Bluffs had milepost zero been elsewhere. Would UP Chief Engineer Dodge have built his home in Council Bluffs if he had been working out of a different city? The "Squirrel Cage" jail came into being because the explosive growth of the city fueled by the railroads outpaced the efforts of law enforcement to keep up. Additional capacity was need quickly and economically. Certainly there wouldn't have been a Golden Spike monument, as there would have been no milepost zero along Ninth Avenue to mark.

What Council Bluffs really would have looked like without the transcontinental railroad will never be known exactly. It's not a risky assumption, however, that the metro area would be much different had that encounter between Lincoln and Dodge not taken place on the veranda of the Pacific House Hotel 160 years ago this summer.


The Chinese railroad workers who helped connect the country: Recovering an erased history

May 10, 1969, marked 100 years since the golden spike was hammered in at Promontory, Utah, signifying the completion of America’s first transcontinental railroad — a monumental engineering feat that linked together the nation's coasts.

A ceremony commemorating the anniversary drew a crowd of around 20,000. Among the attendees were Philip P. Choy, president of the San Francisco-based Chinese Historical Society of America, and Thomas W. Chinn, one of its founders.

Centennial officials had agreed to set aside five minutes of the ceremony for the society to pay homage to the Chinese workers who had helped build the railroad, but whose contributions had been largely glossed over in history. Choy, Chinn and the others gathered at Promontory that day had hoped this would be the moment when the more than 10,000 Chinese who labored for the Central Pacific Railroad finally got their due.

“Who else but Americans could drill 10 tunnels in mountains 30 feet deep in snow?” then-Transportation Secretary John A. Volpe said in his speech, according to a May 12, 1969, San Francisco Chronicle article.

“Who else but Americans could chisel through miles of solid granite? Who else but Americans could have laid 10 miles of track in 12 hours?”

Volpe’s remarks referenced some of the backbreaking and deadly work done on the Central Pacific by a labor force that was almost 90 percent Chinese, many of them migrants from China, ineligible to become U.S. naturalized citizens under federal law.

But the ceremony featured nothing more than a “passing mention of the Chinese.” The five minutes promised to the society never happened.

Choy and Chinn were incensed.

“Short of cussing at those people . I was beside myself,” Choy, who passed away in 2017, recalled during a 2013 interview.

This May, for the 150th anniversary, descendants of the Chinese railroad laborers and other advocates have been working hard to ensure history does not repeat itself. Among the events planned around the sesquicentennial is the 2019 Golden Spike Conference, organized by the Chinese Railroad Workers Descendants Association, which will feature workshops, lectures, tours and a musical by Jason Ma entitled “Gold Mountain.”

“It is the best opportunity I will have in my lifetime to have this story shared, to have it understood and appreciated by people outside our community,” said Michael Kwan, the association’s president, whose great-great grandfather worked for the Central Pacific.

AN EXPERIMENT YIELDS SUCCESS

The Central Pacific broke ground on the first transcontinental railroad Jan. 8, 1863, and built east from Sacramento. The Union Pacific Railroad pushed west from Council Bluffs, Iowa (bordering Omaha), where their rails joined existing eastern lines. Acts of Congress provided both companies with land grants and financing.

The first transcontinental railroad became a boon to the economy of a nation recovering from a civil war, shaving significant travel time across the continent from several months to about a week. Produce and natural resources were among the things that could now be moved more quickly and cheaply from coast to coast.

It also generated tremendous wealth for railroad tycoons such as Leland Stanford, a former California governor who ran under an anti-Chinese immigrant platform. Stanford also served as president of the Central Pacific and later established the university that bears his name.

To grow its workforce, the Central Pacific took out an advertisement in January 1865 seeking 5,000 railroad laborers, but only a few hundred whites responded, according to “The Chinese and the Iron Road: Building the Transcontinental Railroad,” a book scheduled for release in April and edited by Gordon H. Chang and Shelley Fisher Fishkin, co-directors of the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project at Stanford University.

Many whites who took the jobs did so for only a time, reluctant to shoulder the demanding and hazardous work expected of them. Eventually, they headed to the Nevada silver mines for better wages and the prospect of striking it rich, Hilton Obenzinger, the project’s associate director, said.

Facing a labor shortage, the railroad may have turned to recruiting Chinese at the suggestion of Central Pacific construction contractor Charles Crocker’s brother, E.B., a California Supreme Court justice and an attorney for the company. The Chinese had earlier worked on other California railroads as well as the Central Pacific in small numbers, according to the project.

But the plan hit opposition amid anti-Chinese sentiment that stemmed from the California Gold Rush. Among those initially against it was the Central Pacific construction supervisor, James H. Strobridge.

“He didn’t think they were strong enough,” Obenzinger told NBC News in a 2017 interview.

Strobridge also worried that the whites wouldn’t labor alongside the Chinese, who he thought lacked the brainpower to perform the work as well.

Eventually, he yielded and in 1865 the Central Pacific tested out 50 Chinese laborers. They were among the 50,000 to 60,000 Chinese living in California who arrived in the early 1850s to work in mining and other sectors of the American West, according to the project. They hailed from Sacramento, San Francisco and the gold-mining towns of the Sierra Nevada.

The success of the experiment led the Central Pacific to hire additional Chinese workers, but the Chinese labor pool in California soon ran out. So the company arranged with labor contractors to bring workers directly from China, mostly from Guangdong province in the south.

At the time, it was a region enmeshed in political and social turmoil, but residents there often had contact with foreigners and were less fearful of taking long ocean voyages, making them good recruits, according to Fishkin.

“And particularly for sons who were not the first sons in the families, it often made more sense to try to seek your fortune abroad,” Fishkin added.

By the end of July 1865, boatloads of Chinese were arriving in San Francisco. Less than two years later, almost 90 percent of the Central Pacific workforce was Chinese the rest were of European-American descent, mostly Irish. At its highest point, between 10,000 and 15,000 Chinese were working on the Central Pacific, with perhaps as many as 20,000 in total over time.

The Union Pacific, by contrast, had no Chinese laborers during the construction of the first transcontinental railroad. They instead relied on Civil War veterans and East Coast immigrants, among others, according to Chang.

THE LIVES THEY LIVED

“The Chinese and the Iron Road: Building the Transcontinental Railroad” and Chang’s separate book “Ghosts of Gold Mountain: The Epic Story of the Chinese Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad,” which is scheduled to be released in May, both describe the Chinese taking on some of the most dangerous, most exhausting assignments for less pay (and worse treatment) than their Euro-American counterparts.

Often toiling in extreme weather, they cleared obstructions, moved earth, bored tunnels and built retaining walls — work done virtually all by hand. They became experts in drayage, masonry, carpentry and track laying. Sometimes they were lowered off cliffs to plant explosive charges when blasting was necessary, knowing that once the fuse was lit the difference between life and death hinged on how fast they were brought back up.

But it wasn’t just the blasting that was dangerous.

“There were occasions when avalanches buried workers in snow and they weren’t found until the snow melted the following spring,” Fishkin said.

Since records of worker deaths weren’t kept, Stanford scholars don’t know precisely how many Chinese died building the railroad. They estimate there were hundreds, possibly more than a thousand.

Though they have discovered evidence that many workers were able to read and write in Chinese, Stanford researchers have found no letters or journals from them, perhaps because they were destroyed or not preserved during the ensuing social upheaval in China.

Despite this, the Chinese Railroad Workers Project has been able to glean insight into aspects of the laborers’ lives through their research.

They know, for instance, that the Chinese boiled water for tea, which helped stave off dysentery and other waterborne illnesses. They also know the men set up camps along the worksites, didn’t imbibe too much alcohol, worked well together, and sent money back to their families in China.

They even staged a strike in June 1867 demanding pay equal to whites, shorter workdays, and better working conditions, an action that helped counter the image that the Chinese were docile and wouldn’t fight for their rights.

Bog'liq

News 150 years ago, Chinese railroad workers staged the era's largest labor strike

From tunneling through solid granite to laying down 10 miles of track in a day, the Chinese workers proved their mettle time and again.

Even Leland Stanford, whose anti-Chinese views were central to his gubernatorial campaign, changed his tune.

“He comes to have open respect for the abilities, the work ethic, the talents and the hard work, the industriousness of the Chinese,” Chang said.

But at times Stanford, who was later elected to the U.S. Senate, still resurrected certain anti-Chinese rhetoric when running for or in office, Chang noted.

“Stanford became one of the wealthiest men in the world because of their labor,” he said. “But there’s also lots of evidence to show that the Stanfords had an affection for many of the Chinese, especially in their employ. So it wasn’t just an exploitative relationship.”

A HISTORY ERASED, A HISTORY RECOVERED

After completing the first transcontinental railroad in 1869, Chinese laborers fanned out across the United States to work on at least 71 other rail lines, according to Fishkin.

This came amid rising anti-Chinese sentiment and violence in the U.S., as whites blamed the Chinese for squeezing them out of jobs by accepting work at lower wages.

Owing to white hostility, tens of thousands of Chinese were forced to leave the U.S. by 1882, according to “The Chinese and the Iron Road.” That same year, Congress responded by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act, the first and only major federal law to explicitly suspend immigration for a specific nationality. It wasn’t repealed until 1943.

It is the best opportunity I will have in my lifetime to have this story shared, to have it understood and appreciated by people outside our community.

Almost a quarter of a century later, in 1969, amid the backdrop of the civil rights movement, Choy and Chinn found themselves at Promontory Point, Utah, waiting for a moment that never came.

Since that day, advocates have continued working toward giving Chinese railroad laborers the recognition they deserve, in an effort to recover a period of history that connects China and the U.S.

In 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor inducted Chinese railroad workers into its Hall of Honor. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders elected to Congress in record numbers are among supporters of a House resolution to recognize the workers and their contributions. And a commemorative postage stamp in their honor has been proposed as well.

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Hatto Xitoydan kelgan rassomlar, fotosuratchilar, jurnalistlar va akademiklar, shuningdek, Tayvan olimlari va Stenfordning Xitoy temir yo'llari ishchilari loyihasi ishtirokchilari o'zlarini shu mavzuga bag'ishladilar.

"Bu 10 mayda tugamasligiga ishonch hosil qilmoqchimiz", dedi avlodlar uyushmasi prezidenti Kvan.

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    Kechirasiz, lekin menimcha, siz adashyapsiz. Men buni muhokama qilishni taklif qilaman. Bosh vazirga elektron pochta orqali yuboring, biz gaplashamiz.

  6. Valiant

    Bu menga nima kerak emas.

  7. Yozshuktilar

    Qiziqarli mavzu, men ishtirok etaman.



Xabar yozing