General graf Guglielmo Pecori-Giraldi

General graf Guglielmo Pecori-Giraldi


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

General graf Guglielmo Pecori-Giraldi


Graf Guglielmo Pecori-Giraldi 1915 yildagi Karso jangida diviziyaga qo'mondonlik qildi. 1915 yil 10 avgustda unga armiya korpusi, 1916 yil 10 mayda esa Trentino frontida Italiya birinchi armiyasi qo'mondonligi berildi.


Italiya marshali Guglielmo Pekori-Giraldi

Muallif: genstab & raquo 01 avgust 2003, 23:20

Re: Italiya marshali Guglielmo Pekori-Giraldi

Muallif: Jerom & raquo 02 avgust 2003, 11:49

Salom
Men lavozimga ko'tarilish sanalarini aniq bilmayman
Lekin bu subjet mening qiziqishlarimdan biri, menga aynan shu italyan marshalining sanalarini ayta olasizmi /
Bu erda men italiyalik marshalllar/ coulud haqida bilganlarim ro'yxati, siz menga bit/ o'lim va aktsiyalar sanasini to'ldirishga yordam berdingizmi?

BADOGLIO, Pietro Duk d'Addis-Abeba (1871-1956) Mal le 25/06/1926
BALBO, Italo (1896-1940) Mal (Havo), 1933 yil
BATTISCO, Ettore (1876-1972) Mal le 16/08/1942
CADORNA, Luidji (1850-1928) Mal le 04/11/1924
KAVALLERO, Ugo Komte (1860-1943) Mal le 01.07.1942
Kavigliya, Enriko Mal? (KAVEGLIYA)
GIARDINO, Gaetano (1864-1935) Mal en 1926
GRAZIANI, Rodolfo Markiz de NEGELLI (1882-1955) Mal le 21/05/1936
MESSE, Jovanni (1883-1968) Mal le 13/05/1943
MUSSOLINI, Benito (1883-1945) Mal? Terre va amp havo
TARAGLIO, Franko Mal?
VACCARO, Giorgio Mal?
Hurmat bilan
RULO

Italiya marshallari

Muallif: genstab & raquo 02 avgust 2003, 13:21

Yordam berishdan xursandman. Men tuzgan ro'yxat - bu urush paytida yoki undan oldin Marshal unvoniga sazovor bo'lgan va urush paytida tirik qolganlar. Afsuski, agar ular urush paytida sodir bo'lmagan bo'lsa, men ularning o'lim sanalarini qayd qilmayman.

Badoglio 5-26-26
Bastico 8-12-42
Cavallero 7- 1-42 (43-sentyabrda vafot etgan)
Kavigliya* 6-25-26 (3/45 vafot etgan)
De Bono* 11-16-35 (1/44 vafot etgan)
Graziani 5- 9-36
Messe 5-12-43 (POW 5/43)
Pekori-Giraldi* 6- -26 (2/41 vafot etgan)
Thaon di Revel* 11- 4-24 (Grand Admiral) RoyalDecree N. 1908
Umberto, shahzoda 10-29-33
Balbo (havo marshali) 8-13-33 (6/40 o'ldirilgan)

Erkakning ismi yozilgan yulduzcha, u urush boshlanganda nafaqaga chiqqanligini bildiradi. Agar men mansabdorlar yoki o'zlarini targ'ib qilgan Mussolini kabi siyosatchilar bo'lsalar, men royalti tarkibiga kirmayman.

Men Taraglio yoki Vaccaro haqida hech qachon eshitmaganman. Siz ularni marshal deb o'ylamang. Hech kim aniq biladimi? Agar menga xabar bersangiz, minnatdor bo'laman- menda to'liq ro'yxat bor edi.


Sizning zanjirlaringizdan boshqa hech narsa yo'qotmaydi! / Germaniya inqilobi TL

Janubiy Avstriya xavfsizligi bilan VolkswehrBosh qo'mondon Teodor Korner, Tirol va Vorarlbergning oq qal'asini olish vaqti keldi, deb qaror qildi. Operatsiya 11 mayda boshlangan, asosiy maqsad - Innsbruk va Bregenzning 12000 askari Volkswehr hujumga tayinlanishdi. O'sha kuni Vorarlberg shtati hukumati Otto Ender boshchiligida va uning hamkasblari hukmron edi Xristian sotsiallari, Vorarlbergning Shveytsariyaga qo'shilishi taklifi bo'yicha referendum o'tkazdi. Qizil askarlar kelishidan oldin saylovchilarning sakson foizidan ko'prog'i qo'shilishni yoqlab, natijalar e'lon qilindi. Biroq, Avstriya va Germaniyada ichki urush bo'lmagan taqdirda ham, Shveytsariya hukumati bu fikrga qisman qarshi edi, chunki demografik o'zgarish katolik va nemis aholisining ko'payishiga olib keladi. Ayni paytda, Volkswehr 22000 kishilik mintaqani bosib oluvchi Italiya qo'shinlarini jalb qilmaslik to'g'risida qat'iy buyruq berildi. Yaxshiyamki, sotsialistlar uchun italiyalik askarlar o'z kuchlarini yo'qotmaydilar Volkswehr Innsbruk tomon oldinga intildi. Italiyaliklar, avvalo, chap va o'ng o'rtasida keskinlik kuchayib borayotganini eshitib, uylariga qaytishni xohlashdi.

Garchi Italiya urushning g'olib tomonida bo'lsa ham, mamlakat inqiroz bilan o'ralgan edi. 1917 yil boshida Italiya iqtisodiyoti davlat byudjeti taqchilligini, inflyatsiyani, real maoshning pasayishini, ishsizlikning ko'payishini va turmush darajasining pasayishini boshladi, bu esa bezovtalanuvchi va g'azablangan aholining paydo bo'lishiga olib keldi. Chaplar orasida Italiya sotsialistik partiyasi (Italiya sotsialistik partiyasi/PSI) ishchilarning eng ustun vakili edi va Evropadagi sotsialistik partiyalar orasida urush harakatlarini qo'llab -quvvatlashdan bosh tortgani uchun muhim edi. Albatta, partiya fraktsionizmga chalingan edi, ko'pchilik islohotchilar ilgari haydalgan edilar, bu esa maksimalistlar va kommunistlarning ko'pchilikni tashkil qilishiga imkon berdi. Kotib Kostantino Lazzari va Jakinto Menotti Serrati boshchiligidagi maximalistlar bolshevik inqilobi va Kommunistik Xalqaro tashkilotini qo'llab -quvvatlashlarini e'lon qilishgan edi. Kommunistlar, keyinchalik qarshi bo'lgan Amadeo Bordiga boshchiligidagi o'ta chapchilar o'rtasida bo'linishdi PSI burjua siyosatiga aralashish va ularning raqiblari Antonio Gramchi boshchiligida. The Umumiy mehnat konfederatsiyasi (Konfederatsiya generali del Lavoro/CGdL), Italiyaning asosiy kasaba uyushmalari markazi bilan bog'langan PSI va amaldagi rahbariyatning islohotchi qarashlari bilan bo'lishdi. Kasaba uyushmasining yanada radikal tarkibini anarxo-sindikalist ko'rsatdi Italiya Syndicalist Ittifoqi (Italiya Ittifoqi/USI) Liguriya, Romagna va Le -Marchedagi malakasiz ishchilarni qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Milliy sindikolog o'ziga xos diqqatga sazovor joy edi Italiya Mehnat Ittifoqi (Italiya italyan del Lavoro/UIdL) Alceste De Ambris. [1] Urush tugaganidan beri UIdL o'ng tomonga keskin burildi, De Ambris o'z tahririyatida Benito Mussolini harakatiga qo'shilmasligining yagona sababi uning etakchisi sifatida uning mas'uliyati bo'lganligini e'lon qildi. UIdL. Mussolini, jurnalning sobiq muharriri PSINing gazetasi Avanti!, shundan beri milliy sindikalizm va militarizmni qabul qilib, Italiya janglari (Italiya tilida Combattimento/FIDC). An'anaviy o'ta o'ng qanotlarni Enriko Korradini ko'rsatdi Italiya millatchilar uyushmasi (Nazionalista Italiana assotsiatsiyasi/ANI). Bu ikki raqib blok o'rtasida Vittorio Orlando hukumatining markazchi partiyalari bor edi, masalan Liberal ittifoq, Italiyaning radikal partiyasi, Italiya katolik saylov ittifoqi, va Italiya islohotchi sotsialistik partiyasi, islohotchilar va sotsial -demokratlardan tuzilgan PSI 1912 yilda.

Inqiroz sharoitida Italiyada birinchi zavod ishg'oli 1919 yil 16 martda ular o'rtasida muzokaralar olib borildi UIdL va Dalminadagi (Milan yaqinida) po'lat zavodining egalari buzildi. Ishg'ol faqat ikki kun davom etdi, 1500 askar kelib, ishchilarni haydab yubordi, lekin inqilobiy davrning ohangini ishchilar ishlab chiqarishni o'zlari davom ettirdilar va boshqardilar. Zavoddagi kasblar keyinchalik kamdan -kam uchraydigan hodisa bo'lib qoldi PSI va CGdL o'z ishchilarini burjua bilan muzokaralar olib borishda sakkiz soatlik ish kunini belgilashga undadi, lekin zavod kengashlari ko'payishda davom etdi va ish tashlashlar hamma joyda qolmadi. Tanglik kuchayganiga qaramay, qarama -qarshi bo'lgan ikki lager o'rtasida zo'ravonlik minimal darajada edi. Bu aldamchi tinchlik davri 15 aprel kuni nihoyasiga etdi Fashistlar va Millatchilar shtabiga hujum qildi Avanti! Milanda. Yaqinda g'azablangan Sotsialistik Rimdagi ish tashlash va Milan, Ferruccio Vecchi, Mario Kiesa va Filippo Tommaso Marinetti uchun uyushtirilgan qurolli faxriylar va talabalarning katta guruhi hujum uyushtirdi. Sotsialistlar. Ish tashlashni tarqatib yuborganidan so'ng, reaktsionerlar gazetaning bosh qarorgohiga bordilar, binoni o'g'irlab, yoqib yuborishdi, o'sha kechada Mussoliniga. Hujumdan so'ng, politsiya va armiya shaharni blokirovka qilib, ish tashlashni to'xtatdi, urush vaziri Enriko Kavigliya Vecchi va Marinetti bilan uchrashib, ularning harakatlarini maqtadi. Bundan tashqari, Milan sanoatchilari hujum ishtirokchilarini mukofotlash uchun 10 000 lirani yig'ishdi.

Shahar manzarasi mojarolarning yagona teatri emas edi, lekin qishloq ko'plab dehqonlar va uy egalari o'rtasida qattiq qarama -qarshilik uchun sahna edi. The Qishloq xo'jaligi ishchilarining milliy federatsiyasi (Federatsiya Nazionale fra lavoratori della Terra/Federterra), islohotchi boshchiligida Sotsialistik Argentina Altobelli, ish tashlashlar uyushtirdi va fermerlarga o'z-o'zini boshqarishda yordam berdi. Ammo shimolda Federterra yangi tashkil etilgan katoliklarning chap qanotidan raqobatga duch keldi Italiya xalq partiyasi (Italiya partiyasi/PPI). O'z partiyasining sinfiy hamkorlikdagi pozitsiyasiga qarshi, Guido Miglioli va uning kasaba uyushmalari erni keng isloh qilish uchun kurashdilar. Ko'p hollarda ular hatto radikal ekanliklarini isbotladilar Federterra yer egalari va agrosanoat burjuaziyasi bilan ziddiyatda. The PPI chapchilar va Federterra kamdan -kam hollarda hamkorlik qilar edilar - qisman ruhoniylarga an'anaviy sotsialistik dushmanlik tufayli, qisman Miglioli xususiy mulkni himoya qilgani uchun - va uy egalari muzokaralar paytida ba'zida bu bo'linishni o'z foydasiga ishlata olishardi. Inqilobni kuchli qo'llab -quvvatlashiga qaramay PSI va Federterra, Katolik kasaba uyushmalarining radikal harakatlari grotesk deformatsiyalari yoki hiyla -nayrangda ayblangan PPI tomonidan ish tashlashlar va kasblar Sotsialistlar ish haqi va kasaba uyushmalari huquqlari kabi qisqa muddatli maqsadlarga qaratilgan edi. Serrati va uning maksimalistlari har ikki tomondan ham xuddi shunday tanqidlarga uchragan PSI: kommunistlar inqilobiy vaziyatdan foydalanmaganliklari uchun va islohotchilar proletariatni inqilobga da'vat qilib, keyin ularni davlat qatag'onlari rahmiga topshirishdi. [2]

Kommunistlarning maksimalistik pozitsiyasidan charchadim PSI -Bordiga va uning o'ta chap tarafdorlari, Gramsci va uning guruhi gazeta atrofida L'Ordine Nuovo - pozitsiyani egallashga qaror qildi. Kommunistlar ishchilar kengashlarining ahamiyatini targ'ib qilib, ularni rus sovetlari va nemislarga o'xshatdilar rateva butun mamlakat bo'ylab ko'proq tashkil etishga yordam beradi. Bir muncha munozaradan so'ng, ular bilan ham ishlashga rozi bo'lishdi USI va Anarxist kommunistlar ittifoqiqisman to'g'ridan -to'g'ri harakatga qaytarilmas urinishlarini konstruktiv narsaga aylantirish umidida.

Bu orada Avstriyada Italiyaning Vena shahridagi missiyasi generali Roberto Segre va G'arbiy Avstriyadagi istilochi qo'shinlardan general Guglielmo Pecori-Giraldi vahimaga tushishdi. Volkswehr. Segre va uning missiyasi inqilobiy qo'zg'olon oldida o'z kuchini yo'qotmagan edi. Pecori-Giraldi, o'z navbatida, qochqinlar va yaradorlarga gumanitar yordam ko'rsatgan holda, boshqaruvni qo'llab-quvvatlagan. U o'z qarori bilan jang qilmaslikni oqladi Volkswehr fuqarolar urushi Avstriyaning ichki masalasi va Italiya ishg'oliga qarshilik ko'rsatilmaguncha shunday bo'lib qoladi deb o'ylab. Shaxsan Pecori-Giraldi ham urushni qayta boshlash uchun javobgar bo'lishni xohlamadi. Shunday qilib, qizil askarlar 15 mayga qadar Innsbrukni egallab olishdi va 18 -kuni Bregenzni Richard Stidle va Otto Ender Shveytsariyaga qochishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Vaziyat faqat ular o'rtasida emas, balki keskin edi Volkswehr va italiyalik askarlar, balki qizillar bilan asosan konservativ aholi o'rtasida. Shunga qaramay Volkswehr tomonidan boshqariladigan ishchilar kengashlariga vakolat berish orqali viloyat ma'muriyatini qayta tashkil etdi Xristian ijtimoiy militsiya mojaroning boshida.

Germaniyada harbiy xuntaning razvedka tarmog'i aniqlaganidan so'ng, juda muhim siyosiy o'zgarish yuz berishi kerak edi Sotsial -demokrat Parij tinchlik konferentsiyasi bilan yashirin yozishmalar. Militaristlarning reaktsiyasi tez edi va ularning hammasi SPD Frankfurt -Mayndagi rahbariyat, shu jumladan prezident Fridrix Ebert va kantsler Gustav Noske 14 may kuni hibsga olingan. Keyingi tergovdan so'ng, Noske dalil yo'qligi va xunta sadoqati uchun qo'yib yuborildi, ammo qolganlari xoinlikda ayblandi. General Pol von Xindenburg prezidentlik lavozimini egalladi, Volfgang Kapp kansler lavozimiga o'tdi. Xunta buni e'lon qilishga qaror qildi SPDUning xiyonati, natijada o'ng va chap axborot agentliklari hujumga o'tdilar. The SPD Frankfurt hukumati hududiy nazoratida taqiqlangan va partiyaga qaratilgan repressiyalar rasmiy siyosatga aylangan. Ning pozitsiyasi Sotsial -demokratlar Berlindagi hukumat ham birdaniga xavf ostida qoldi. Hermann Pol Reyshshaus Xalq deputatlari kengashining hamraisi sifatida o'z lavozimini egalladi va Berlindagi hamkasblari partiyaning haqiqiy yuzini ifodalayotganini e'lon qildi. KPD va USPDva Sotsial -demokrat maslahatchilar o'z saylovchilari tomonidan chaqirib olindi. Fuqarolik urushida ishtirok etmaslikka urinayotganlarning ko'pchiligi uchun Frankfurt hukumatining o'ng tomonga burilishi va uning Antanta bilan tinchlikdan bosh tortishi, militaristlarga qarshi hamkorlik qilmaslik va qarshilik ko'rsatish yanada jozibador bo'lardi, agar xunta bostirib kirmasa. egiluvchan Sotsial -demokratlar, markaziy liberal partiyalar keyingi bo'lishi mumkinmi?

[1] Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyin tashkil etilgan va o'z faoliyatini davom ettirayotgan markaziy/sotsial -demokratik UIL bilan adashtirmaslik kerak.
[2] Hozirgacha Italiyaning barcha tarkibi OTL edi.

Dramatis Personae (OTL tarjimai holi)

Kostantino Lazzari: PSI va uning oldingi partiyalarining asoschilaridan biri, Lazzari 1912 yildan 1919 yilgacha partiya kotibi bo'lib ishlagan, lekin u 1918 va 1919 yillarning ko'p qismini mag'lubiyat uchun qamoqda o'tkazgan. U inqilobchi va pasifist, u partiyaning "qo'shilmaslik, ham sabotaj qilish" siyosatini birinchi jahon urushiga olib keldi. Lazzari partiyaning Kominternga qo'shilishini qo'llab -quvvatladi va islohotchilarni chiqarib yuborish shartiga rioya qildi, bu esa fraktsion nizolarga olib keldi. U fashistlar ta'qibiga uchradi va 1927 yilda vafot etdi.
Giacinto Menotti Serrati: PSI inqilobiy maximalistik fraktsiyasining etakchi arbobi, Serrati PSIning Kominternga qo'shilishini qo'llab -quvvatladi, u erda Ijroiya qo'mitasida ishladi. Biroq, u 1921 yilda kommunistlarning bo'linishiga olib kelgan PSI islohotchilarini quvib chiqarishga qarshi edi. Serrati va PSIning boshqa inqilobchilari 1924 yilda kommunistlar safiga qo'shilishdi. Avanti! va 1926 yilda vafot etdi.


Pecori Giraldi Villa

1979 yilda Borgo San Lorensoga hadya qilingan Pecori Giraldi oilasiga tegishli bo'lgan Rimorelli villasi Borgo San Lorenso hududining eng qiziqarli binolaridan biridir. Borgo San Lorenso hududining eng taniqli oilalaridan biri bo'lgan Giraldisning qadimiy qurilishi o'rnida ko'tarilgan bo'lishi mumkin, u 1748 yilda graf Antonio Pecorining mulkiga aylangan, u o'z familiyasini Giraldis familiyasiga qo'shgan. Ikki qavatdan kattalashgan buyuk villada 1902 yilda to'liq tiklangan mustahkam qal'ali minorasi bilan uyg'ongan Uyg'onish davri ta'mi tasvirlangan. Villaning ichki muhitini bezash o'tgan asrda boshlangan bo'lishi kerak. Chini o'zining "Mugello tarixi" kitobida qishloq rassomi Angiolino Romagnoli (1836 - 1890) o'sha erda amalga oshirgan rasmlarini eslaydi. Bundan tashqari, asrning o'rtalarida (1854) xitoylarning villani bezashga aralashuvi boshlandi, chunki Pietro Alessio o'zining kichik o'g'li Pio bilan birgalikda ichki ishlarni olib bordi. Bu asar yoki hech bo'lmaganda uning qoldiqlari, ehtimol, sabzavot va groteskeri turlarining, aniq polikromatik, villaning birinchi qavatining ba'zi bezaklari bilan tanilgan. Keyinchalik, dekorativ korxonani, birinchi navbatda, binoning olijanob qismi, Leto Chini davom ettirmoqda, uning ishtiroki, ehtimol, o'rta asr va 15 -asrning kirish zalining ilhom rasmlarida tanilgan. Aslida, o'sha Leto, akasi otasi Lino Chini tarjimai holidagi izohda, 1902 yil avgustda Rimorellidagi Pecori Giraldi villasining geraldik zalida ishlaganini eslatib o'tadi.

Ehtimol, 1906-1911 yillar oralig'ida, asrning birinchi yillarida restavratsiya qilinganidan so'ng, Gallileo Chini, asosan, kirish zalining murakkab tasviriy bezaklarini davom ettirishga g'amxo'rlik qiladi, general Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi bu bezakni o'z ichiga oladi. gerblar va asrlar davomida Pecori Giraldis bilan bog'liq bo'lgan Florentsiyalik olijanob oilalarning va uning taniqli a'zolarining qarindoshlari. 29 -zilzila bilan. 1919 yil iyun oyida villa va uning bezaklari ham katta zarar ko'rgan bo'lishi mumkin, va keyingi restavratsiya ishlari, birinchi navbatda, general Guglielmo Pecori Giraldining buyrug'i bilan bajarilgan Tito Chiniga topshirilgan. Jahon urushi. Tito 1920-1922 yillar oralig'ida amakisi Pietro yordamida topshiriqni boshqargan, bu sanalarni hanuzgacha villaning ikki xil joyida o'qish mumkin, bu esa talabchan ish uning olijanob qismining barcha bezaklari ekanini isbotlaydi. bino. Asosiy eshik ochiladigan katta kirish zali villaning yuragini va butun dekorativ displeyning tayanchini tashkil qiladi. Uning barcha devorlari rasmlar bilan qoplangan.

G'arbiy va janubiy devorlarda Alessandroning rafiqasi Eleonora Von Tautfoousning 1892 yildagi to'rtta Gerbini ko'rish mumkin (bu yil rasmning ijro etilishi deb hisoblanishi mumkin), Anna Mariya Kapponi, Juliya Nikolini, 1809 yildagi Bernardo Pecori Giraldining rafiqasi va Tereza Suarez De La Koncha: Bu rasmlar XIX asrning akademik tuslarini ko'rsatadi va, ehtimol, o'tgan asrning oxiriga to'g'ri keladigan bezakning eng qadimiy qismlarini tashkil qiladi. . Ikkinchi ko'p sonli guruhni shiftning murakkab bezaklari, gerblar va geraldika figuralari, devorlarning dekorativ faskalari va to'rtburchaklar bilan qoplangan, monoxromatik panelli yubkalar taxtasi tashkil qiladi. Bu aniq o'rta asr va 15 -asr rasmlari. asr taqlidini, 1902 yilda Leto Chini ishlaganlar bilan aniqlab olish mumkin, chunki u 1887 yilda akasi Dario bilan birga tugatgan Cafaggiolodagi Medicea Villa zallarining bezaklariga o'xshashligini hisobga olgan holda. Cheklangan, lekin juda muhim aralashuvlar guruhida Galiley tufayli uning qismini tan olish mumkin. Ular zalni bezashni davom ettirish va tugatishga mo'ljallangan ishlardir va ehtimol Mugelloda San Lorenso o'choqlari paydo bo'lgan 1906 yil va 1911 yillar oralig'ida bajarilgan. Zalning sharqiy devorida Sankt -Peterburg tasviri. Jorj ajdodni o'ldirdi, uni Nikolay aniq Galiley bilan bog'laydi. Dinamizmga boy va ranglarning tiniq ranglariga ega bo'lgan buyuk rasm o'rta asrlarga xos, ajoyib va ​​ajoyib taassurot qoldiradigan, ajoyib grafik taassurot qoldiradi, bunda odatiy grafik zerafet va Ozodlik chiziqli yuksaluvchilari va Galilioning eng yaxshi ilhomlari bilan bog'liq. . Ehtimol, bir necha marotaba aytilgan va Tito tiklagan zilzila, zalni bezatishning boshqa mavjud qismlari bilan bir qatorda, muhim asarga zarar etkazgan. Aniqroq aytganda, Tito bilan bu ishda hamkorlik qilgan Pietro Chini yozuvidan ma'lum bo'lishicha, Sent-Gorge fonini dekorator Donatello Pietracaprina Tito boshchiligida qayta ishlagan. Galileyning turg'un qo'liga Guglielmoning birinchi rafiqasi Kamilla Sebregondi singari boshqa gerblar ham berilishi mumkin, u ikkita oqlangan model va o'zgaruvchan pufaklar, Glazgo va Iakopo, Neri va Francesco Giraldi, San -Jovanni Maggiore cherkovi cherkovining markaziy nefining derazalarini eslatuvchi qobiq motifli qalqon bilan, va uni o'rab turgan go'zal sabzavot bayrami.

Gerbi Francesco Guglielmo Pecori GiraldiRassom stilize qilingan, mavhum, dixromatik gulchambar ichida makkajo'xori quloqlari bilan bezatilgan sabzavotli bezakni va nozik rangdagi meva savatini ushlab turgan ikkita ajoyib puttis bilan bezatilgan qalamchani o'z ichiga oladi. Galileyga. Pietra Altovitining gerbi, chiroyli sabzavotli bayrami bilan, Galileyga ham tegishli. Minora ostidagi xonaga olib boruvchi G'arbiy devor eshigi arxitravining tepasida ko'k fonda majolika tasvirlangan. Tikanlar bilan tojlangan Masihning yuzi. Chiroyli xromatik kontrasti va aniq dizayni uchun ajoyib sifatga ega bo'lgan artefakt, avvalo, sariq sochlar, Galileyga ishonib bo'lmaydigan bo'lib tuyuladi va hech bo'lmaganda, 20 -asrning boshlariga to'g'ri keladi. Titoning ko'rsatmasi va to'g'ridan -to'g'ri aralashuvi bilan davom etadigan dekorativ kompleksning qurilishi Dino Chini kabi boshqa hamkasblarning ishtirokini ko'rgan bo'lishi kerak, bundan tashqari, tabiiyki, Pietro. Haqiqatan ham, gerblar guruhini stilistik jihatdan juda xilma-xil, biroq xitoylarning taniqli dekorativ tipologiyasiga mos keladigan tarzda kuzatish mumkin.

Gerblarning hech bo'lmaganda bir qismi 1911-1920 yillar orasida, Galiley borligi bilan Tito va Pietro asarlarining boshlanishi orasidagi vaqt oralig'ida chizilgan bo'lishi ham mumkin. Sharqiy devorda, kaminning katta zaliga kirish eshigi yonida, 1917 yilda Marshall Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi ikkinchi nikohda turmush qurgan Lavinia Morosini geraldika ishining rasmini ko'rish mumkin. Asar 1921 yilga tegishli. 1922 yil va Tito Chinining ikki tomonlama imzosi, uning o'sha paytdagi Pecori Giraldi villasidagi faoliyatining ma'lum bir namoyishi. Morosini gerbi bilan bir qatorda, Venetsiya shahri va taniqli zodagon venetsiyaliklar oilasining o'tmish yillari haqidagi juda murakkab alegoriyaga ega bo'lgan rasm, xromatik yorqinlik uchun ajoyib sifat darajasidir. Tito uslubining o'ziga xos xususiyatiga ko'ra shaklni sintez qiladigan va deyarli Art Dco-ga o'xshash o'tkir qirrali, aniq dizaynning aniqligi. Shuni ham unutmaslik kerakki, Tito, birinchi navbatda, shisha ishlab chiqarishda ham, Galileynikiga o'xshash uslubiy jihatdan ishlaydi, chunki buni Roma mehmonxonasining katta derazalarida, Santa -Mariya Novella maydonida aniqlash mumkin. Florensiyada 1920 -yillarda tugatilgan. Tito Chini va uning amakisi Pyotroning imzosi va 1920 yil sanasi villaning kichkina minorasiga olib boruvchi eshik oldida juda eskirgan holda topilishi kerak. Zilzila natijasida vayron bo'lgan villaning bezaklarini tiklash va tugatish uchun ikki Xitoyning aralashuvi juda katta bo'lgan va ko'plab muhitlarni hisobga olgan bo'lishi kerak.

Minora xonasidan nariga qaytsak, XIX asrga tegishli gulli rasmlar bilan bezatilgan boshqa zalga etib boramiz, u erda ishlab chiqarishning standart ishlab chiqarishiga mansub, pechkalarning plitkali qoplamasi bilan to'liq qurilgan kichik, ammo yoqimli o'tinni topamiz. Qizil niqobli, zambaklar va oddiy olmosli motifli plitkalar alohida qiziqish uyg'otadi. Bu kamin o'choqlarning, xususan Tito Chinining, ishlab chiqarishning normal ishlab chiqarishidan foydalanib, vaqti -vaqti bilan yuqori dekorativ ma'noga ega bo'lgan asl buyumlarni ishlatish imkoniyatlarining baxtli va muvaffaqiyatli namunasidir.

Kirish zalidan yana bir marta o'tib, keng zalga kiradi, oxirida monumental Yong'in joyi bo'yalgan terakotalarda topish mumkin. Uning tuzilishi Uyg'onish davri taqlidining bezakiga ega va lateral pilasterlarda Pecori Giraldi gerblari bor. Olovli joyning ichki qoplamasi singan chiziqli motifli plitalar yordamida va 1906-1911 yillarda Galiley tomonidan ixtiro qilingan kichik uchburchakli geometrik bezakli va optik san'at uslubini kutgan plitalar yordamida amalga oshiriladi. chizilgan edi. Qabul zalining derazasi ostida polikromatik majolitka plitalaridagi ajoyib panellarni ko'rishingiz mumkin, ular sun'iy matolarni sharqona ta'mga ega metall yaltiroqli, chiroyli gulli bezak bilan bezatilgan. Devorlarning yuqori qismida dekorativ monoxromatik bo'yalgan fasya mavjud bo'lib, unda stilize qilingan gulli motiflar va boshqalar Galiley o'z vazalarini bezash uchun ishlatganlariga o'xshash uzum to'plamlari tasvirlangan. Ba'zi muhitlarda Pietro Alessio yoki Tito Chini kabi mualliflarning shkafi bo'lishi mumkin.

Villaning birinchi qavatiga tashrif buyuklarga kirish zalida yakunlanadi Spiral narvon bu yuqori qavatga ko'tariladi. Bu nisbatan kichik muhit, oq va qora olmosli, yarmidan pastga tushadigan soxta gobelen motifidan tashkil topgan ikkita devorni bezatadi. Devorlarning yuqori yarmi ko'k rangga bo'yalgan, kichik trefoil kamarlari bilan bo'yalgan ramka esa oxirgi pardadir. Neo-o'rta asrlarning oqlangan bezagi, zinapoyaga olib chiquvchi uchta kamar bilan birga, xitoylar tomonidan saqlanib qolgan eng yaxshi muhitlardan biri hisoblanadi. Dinamik spiral Ozodlik uslubiga tegishli bo'lgan zinapoyaning ajoyib egri, monoxromatik geometrik naqshlar bilan bezatilgan bo'shliqni egallaydi, uning shiftida soxta kassa motifi bilan bezatilgan, chiroyli gulchambar uchburchaklar bilan bezatilgan. gerbi Pecori Giraldis. Villa hammom bezaklarining ba'zi qismlarini saqlaydi, aksariyat hollarda, afsuski, plitkalardan yoki bo'yalgan sabzavotli motiflardan, shuningdek, yog'ochdan yasalgan eshiklardan yo'qolgan. Binoning ko'plab muhitlari hali ham ba'zi qismlarda geometrik spiral naqshlar yoki stilize qilingan sabzavotlar bilan bezatilgan ko'rinadi. Ehtimol, beshta deraza paneli villaning ba'zi muhitidan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin, ularning ba'zilari deyarli butunlay vayron bo'lgan, shisha tesseralari Ozodlik va Diko o'rtasida chiroyli bezakni saqlab qolgan. Panelning markaziy qismi oltin bilan qoplangan mayda kvadratchalar va uchburchaklar geometrik bezaklaridan iborat bo'lsa-da, ba'zi tesseralar asrning birinchi yillaridan boshlab Galiley uchun juda qadrlangan, stilize qilingan qo'ng'izning motifini aks ettiradi. pechlar.


Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Italiya armiyasi qanchalik qobiliyatsiz edi?

Men birinchi jahon urushi paytida Italiyaning harbiy qobiliyatsizligi, xususan Luidji Kadorna haqidagi ko'plab hazillarni ko'rmoqdaman. Men ofitserlarning shafqatsizligi va qobiliyatsizligi haqidagi gaplarni ko'rganman.

Bu tarixiy jihatdan qanchalik to'g'ri? Bu shunchaki mashhur afsona?

Mening oldingi javobimdan deyarli o'zgarmadi.

Birinchi jahon urushi paytida butun Italiya armiyasi har xil kamchiliklar va cheklovlarga ega bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, bu cheklovlar italiyaliklarga xos emas edi va uning bosh shtabi "qiyin" xarakterli kishilarga qo'shilgan bo'lsa -da, Italiya armiyasi barcha davrlarda o'zining eng yaxshi ko'rsatkichlarini taklif qildi. Buyuk Evropa, ikkinchi darajali, lekin har xil sabablarga ko'ra, haqiqatan ham dahshatli jabhada, Evropaning yirik kuchiga qarshi turdi. Ko'p jihatdan, salbiy xulosa - bu Buyuk Urushning turli qahramonlariga fashistik davrda berilgan hagiografik muolajaga reaktsiya sifatida paydo bo'lgan umumiy hikoyaning natijasi va barcha harbiy narsalarga dushmanlik an'analarining natijasi. Hech qachon harbiy dunyo va fuqarolik dunyosi o'rtasida bunday bo'linishni boshdan kechirmagan ba'zi mamlakatlarda tushunish qiyin - bu urf -odat urushdan keyin darhol jamoatchilik muhokamasi mavzularida namoyon bo'ladi.

Urush paytida intizomdan tortib, shafqatsizlikka o'tadigan harbiy hokimiyatning xatti -harakatlarini oqlash uchun emas, shuning uchun ham, ularning merosi borasida ham javobgarlikka tortilishi kerak. Xushmuomalalikni qobiliyatsizlikka tenglashtirish noto'g'ri bo'lardi.

Bu fikrlarni batafsilroq ko'rish uchun, men Isonzo daryosining fronti va janglaridan boshlayman.

Umuman olganda, Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Italiyaning Isonzo daryosining old tomoniga taktik yondashuvni yaxshilash mumkin edi, lekin ularning strategik yondashuvi daryo bo'yida o'z hujumlarini o'tkazishni talab qildi - shuni esda tutingki, ikkinchi eng yaxshisi Cadorna hokimiyatiga qarshi (shuningdek, operatsiyani olib tashlash usuli sifatida) taklif qilingan reja, ko'p sonli qo'shinlarni Albaniya frontiga ko'chirish va u erdan hujum qilish edi (Kadorna shtab boshlig'i edi) er Italiya harbiy nazorati ostida edi, lekin Albaniya fronti ittifoqchi ta'sir doirasiga kirdi) haqiqiy logistik do'zax bo'lardi.
Old tomondan, taktik darajadagi italiyaliklarning yo'nalishlari oz -ozdan cheklanib qoldi: biri janubga, Monfalkon ustidan Triest va Fiumga, ikkinchisi Goriziya bo'ylab, lekin Lyubiana tomon, oldingi chiziqni tog'ga o'rnatilgan aylanuvchi eshik kabi itarib yubordi. Neron, Avstriya ko'prigining boshini Tolminodan olib tashlash uchun, kichik tuzatish bilan, Idoniya daryosi bilan kesishgunga qadar, Isonzo oqimini kesib o'tdi. Aslida, bu 1917 yildagi holat edi, chunki har xil jinoyatlar yuqorida aytilgan maqsadlarga erishish uchun "davom etayotgan ish" edi. Albatta, janubiy yurishni yakunlash uchun dushmanni Italiyaning chap qanotidan, ya'ni Avstriyaliklarni Isonzoning chap qirg'og'idagi tog'lardan haydab chiqargani ma'qulroq edi (bu chiroyli yigitlar bo'lardi). Bu omillarni hisobga olgan holda, kamdan -kam odamlar Kadornani jinoyat joyi va yo'nalishi uchun ayblashlari mumkin edi, aksincha, ba'zilari qo'llaniladigan usullar bilan bog'liq muammolarga duch kelishadi.

1915 yil may oyida Italiya va#27 urush e'lon qilgan paytdagi umumiy strategik vaziyatga kelsak, front uchta sektorga bo'lingan: Avstriyaning Tridentin mintaqasining eng muhim qismi - Karoniya va Kadore tog 'yoyi Isonzo daryosi vodiysi. qismi shimoldan janubga yuguradi, bu yo'lda bo'lmagan vodiy.
Tridentinani iloji boricha kamaytirish kerak edi, chunki bu Italiya kuchlarining sharqqa tarqalishiga tahdid solgan edi - va bu urush oxirigacha shunday bo'lardi - lekin, afsuski, bu faqat ketma -ketlik bilan belgilanmagan. balandroq va balandroq tog 'cho'qqilari, lekin ayni paytda og'ir mustahkamlangan
Italiyaliklar birinchi hujum rejasiga Karni Alp tog'lari bo'ylab o'tishni qo'shishganida (Tarvisiodan o'tib keta oladigan yo'nalish Drnava daryosi vodiysiga yo'l ochgan bo'lardi - ma'lumot uchun, bu Tarvisio: eng yaxshi er emas) for a rapid advance), the bulk of the forces (15 divisions of the II and III Armies – later integrated with 7 from the reserve) was concentrated on the portion of front that offered the less unfavorable ground, the line of the Isonzo, from Tolmino to the sea. As G. Rochat explained “geography oriented the Italian offensive effort towards the Isonzo front”. And in fact the worst results in terms of gains and casualties actually took place during the first attempt made by the IV Army into the Carnian Alps to the north.
It didn't really help that Cadorna was a strong supporter of the French school of thought that favored a frontal assault following a substantial artillery preparation over maneuvering in order to gain a flank position – his tactical views were exposed and publicized within the Army Commands in a notorious pamphlet that Cadorna had written at the turn of the century: Attacco frontale e ammaestramento tattico and then reissued in large numbers in February 1915. The booklet soon became infamous among the trench officers as a symbol of the High Command obtusity and its detachment from the actual front condition. Nonetheless, there was nothing exceptional in it, not in terms of novelties or innovation, not in terms of particular backwardness it was in large measure consistent with the similar doctrine proposed at the time by the French school of Josef Joffre. Since you couldn't move artillery fast enough to outflank your enemy with it, and the large fronts made impossible to maneuver in the same way XIX Century armies had done going around the enemy and taking position of favorable ground, the only possibility left was a heavy concentrated fire followed by advance in a rapid succession of platoons.

As for the French school, morale was the key element of success. The quality of the soldier rested on their will, resolution and discipline. But there were also clear political motivations for the Italian offensive. Italy had apparently timed its intervention with the expectation of providing the last blow to the Austrian house of cards. Unfortunately, on early May 1915 an Austro-German offensive (Gorlice-Tarnow) had surprisingly sent the Russian into a rushed retreat so that the Austrian situation was slightly less difficult when the Italians declared war. More so, due to the difficulties of preparations, the Italians could not (or just did not, that something better might have been achieved) advance deep into the Austrian lands, contenting themselves with following the retreating Austrians onto their fortified defensive lines the Austrians had in fact all the time to even “relocate” some 70,000 civilians of suspect loyalty from the border regions. Nonetheless, it was apparent that the Austrians would have been more than happy of jut holding their defensive line with as few men as possible (note that the Austrians had left some troops there even in times of Italian neutrality – for very obvious reasons – so that they had not been forced to divert much resources on the already solid mountain fortifications) therefore the task of engaging the enemy fell on the Italians who had to take an offensive stance, a fact that their allies frequently reminded them.
So far, this would explain the general ideas behind Cadorna's offensive plans on the Italian front, and how his strategic and tactical conduct was neither particularly impressive nor particularly incompetent. But, as the drunken analogy I quickly conjured up should suggest, there were other reasons to question Luigi Cadorna's conduct of the Italian war – reasons that went beyond the choice of the offensive ground.

One major problem in attempting an objective evaluation is that the whole historiography of the Great War has been largely influenced by the fascist narrative (in fact not that dissimilar from the liberal narrative itself) that made the conflict into the monumental effort of the Italian nation, the culmination of the Risorgimento process and the testing ground of a renewed sentiment of national unity. On such ground stood the great men that led the nation through enormous challenges until the final victory – heroes standing on the edge of the world and fending off a whole sea of darkness.

On the first week of January 1929, the Italian periodical Il Mattino Illustrato celebrated the recently deceased (December 21^st 1928) “Marshal Count Luigi Cadorna, first strenuous defender of Italy in our glorious war epic against Austria, dead in these days in Bordighera”

The portrait, the words chosen, fit the official take of the Regime on Cadorna's tenure as Chief of Staff of the Italian Army – the Regime had elevated Cadorna to Marshal of Italy, in a purely honorary fashion as he was retired, on November 4 th 1924 together with the other victors of the Great War, Armando Diaz and Grand Admiral Paolo Thaon de Revel (joined two years later on June 25 th 1926 by the heroes of the Piave, Enrico Caviglia, Pietro Badoglio, Gaetano Giardino, Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi and the King's cousin, the Duke of Aosta Emanuele Filiberto). That's not to mean that criticism of Cadorna was non existent among contemporaries in fact even his fellow Marshal and former subordinate Enrico Caviglia had expressed his negative view of certain traits of the Italian Commander.
Caviglia, in his monograph on the battle of Caporetto, “The twelfth battle” published in 1933, subscribed to the general positive, heroic view of the generalissimo a man – he wrote:

that looked to his contemporaries like a figure fate itself had cut in stone with broad and energetic strokes, and imposed to Italy, so that it might learn that the greatness of a people was proportional to the sacrifices it required. […] An uncommon man, of strong character and great moral stature. He possessed an elevated conscience of his duty, and he took upon himself the consequent responsibilities with serene and secure resolution […] firmly loyal to his moral principles […] the principles of military honor and discipline, the self sacrifice for his King and his Motherland, formed in him with birth had been strengthened by education and by the strong belief in their necessity, in the contemporary historical phase, for the solidity of the army and the nation. […] As a military leader, he absolved his role with strong and safe hand, with iron cast discipline […] he assumed the entire responsibility of the war, something that was an absolute necessity in the political environment of the time, where the unsure parliamentary atmosphere led the Government to evade its own. […] He prepared the Army for war, firmly calling for the material means to achieve such goal […] he carried the Army Command to the highest esteem of the nation, leaving behind such a strong impression in the souls of the Italians, that any successor of his had an easier task exerting his command with the approval of public opinion.

Besides the circumstantial praise, a few notes of agreement with the regime narrative and some ideas that betray Caviglia's personal caesarism, there are a few “good qualities” of Cadorna's character that were not made up in fact some of those could become fairly dangerous qualities for a military commander. Caviglia's accent fell on Cadorna's moral fiber, his discipline, his unyielding resolve, his spirit of sacrifice. But for now let's continue and see instead Cadorna's flaws according to the Marshal:

[Cadorna], as far as the technical conduct of war was concerned, was not a well balanced general. He could see with clarity the general strategic lines but he lacked the immediate sensibility to the events […] He also lacked tactical adaptability and a good perception of the enemy's weak points, so that he has been subject to criticism for the uniformity of method and planning of his ten Isonzo offensives. The results he obtained, inadequate for the efforts demanded and given by the troops, lead to blame him for disregarding the principle of economy of forces. He thought of war as a mechanical endeavor and tactical units as mere abstract numbers […] as mindless indifferent machinery wheels, working until worn down. He did not care for the soldier's spirit, nor to provide them with those moral satisfactions that could lead them to forget their sacrifices and sufferance and danger […] And these blemishes were also due to the incomplete practical mastery of the kind of war [Italy] was fighting […] so that he was often oblivious to his shortcomings as well as those of his collaborators.

Even in the context of a “celebratory” chapter, these are pretty major flaws for a military leader. But there are also reasons to argue that the official history of the Great War never truly mirrored the amount of criticism placed onto Cadorna by his contemporaries. Even during his tenure as Head of Staff, he was an absolutely divisive figure. Not that all the criticism and praise was the result of a good objective analysis after all Cadorna, as any career military man, had his enemies among fellow career military men. He had been suggested for the position of Chief of Staff of the high Command already in 1908. Cadorna was considered a competent general and he had a long and illustrious family history, being the son of General Raffaele Cadorna who had led the Italian bersaglieri through the Porta Pia breach into Rome in 1870, but the less unyielding General Alberto Pollio had been preferred to him – or, as Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti summarized: “I know nothing of Pollio but Iɽ rather have him than Cadorna”.
Pollio had died of a stroke – perhaps consequence of a heart infection – two days after the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. And Cadorna was hurriedly appointed to replace him and possibly get the country in shape for war.
The opposition between Cadorna and Pollio – which involved also the general strategic approach, although for obvious reasons Pollio, who was a supporter of the Triple Alliance, had not prepared for extensive offensive operations against the Austrians – would resurface in the political debate after the defeat of Caporetto and Cadorna's dismissal as Chief of Staff, with partisans of Pollio singing the praise of the old Chief of Staff, and those of Cadorna replying with the quality of the former Commander.
After Caporetto the figure and reputation of Cadorna came to be indissolubly tied to the conflict over the reasons of the Italian rout: whether they were strategical and tactical, therefore ultimately to be blamed on Cadorna, or moral and political, therefore to be blamed on the socialists and in general to the defeatist propaganda of the neutralist forces, that Cadorna had often cautioned the Government against. Cadorna himself, while later recognizing that the Italian defensive positions at the time of the Austro-German offensive were inadequate in some measure, took the latter view that Caporetto had been a moral crisis or even more a “moral strike” of the front troops. And Cadorna's obstinate defense of his own operate – perfectly in line with his character – his anti-political way of approaching the whole “Caporetto inquest” led him to become even more of a straw man for the interventionists who championed Cadorna, the slandered idol, and the neutralists who sought one man to take the blame for the military disaster.

There were of course tactical responsibilities for the defeat within the High Command and the Army Commands, even if not all of them were directly connected to Cadorna as a whole this had been acknowledged already during the first weeks of the Caporetto inquest which had been promoted by the Italian Government, but whose results in 1919 would become soon irrelevant and immaterial to the public opinion and the official narrative of the Great War.
But, as I mentioned before, there were other flaws in Cadorna's conduct of the war. For these though, contemporary historiography and polemics might not suffice. The entire narrative of the Great War, promoted already during the last weeks of the War and later sanctioned by both the liberal system and the fascist regime, inherited by the Italian Republic has been subject to a process of revision, among which some very relevant contributions have been given by the works of Giorgio Rochat as well as more recently those of Giovanna Procacci. Those works tend to highlight the organic responsibility of the Italian political and social establishment in the conduct of the war for good and for worse.


General Count Guglielmo Pecori-Giraldi - History

You are using anoutdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.

Find the experience that's right for you

The Chini Manufacture Muzey ichida Borgo San Lorenzois housed inside Villa Pecori Giraldi. The old noble home has a typical Renaissance-style façade, while the inside was decorated in the 19th century by painters Angiolino Romagnoli, Pietro Alessio Chini and Pio Chini. Between 1906 and 1901 general Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi commissioned Galileo Chini to complete the coat of arms and devices of Florentine nobility related to his household.

The rooms of the villa were frescoed by the whole Chini family, with geometric, floral and medieval inspired patterns, include a spectacular cycle of San Giorgio.

The museum recounts the history of Chini Manufacture, which produced ceramic furniture pieces, stoneware and glassware that was popular in the bourgeois houses of the Liberty period ichida furnaces of Borgo San Lorenzo: Galileo Chini was in fact one of the biggest figures of Italian Liberty and took his creations around the world.

A new section has also been added to the museum since 2018, the Chini Contemporary: it is an exhibition space dedicated to contemporary art and visual art. It is a place that investigates the constant evolution of the artistic medium and its connections with other creative disciplines.

There you can also find the Museum of Children, a space of seven rooms designed for the little ones and their families, where everyone can express their talent, inspired by the artists of the twentieth century.


Description

The complex consists of two structures, the tower-like memorial, which also houses a chapel with a chancel and a plinth underneath, the actual ossuary with the grave niches. The tower and ossuary have their own entrance exactly opposite. The entire building is surrounded by a large outdoor area on which some Italian and Austro-Hungarian guns from the First World War are lined up.

Ossuary

The entrance to the ground floor ossuary, on which the tower rests, faces east. A central corridor leads from the entrance directly into the crypt , which is located in the middle of the building and was also artistically designed by Tito Chini. In the crypt there is also the final resting place of Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi and another 59 soldiers buried with military awards. Immediately after the entrance of the main corridor, two side corridors turn off to the left and right, in which the other tombs are located. In the outer corridors there are 450 individual graves marked by name, while in the two inner side corridors, which can be reached via a few steps, 94 communal graves for the unidentified dead are housed. A total of 1,629 known by name and 3,400 unknown Italian and 60 unknown Austro-Hungarian soldiers are buried in the ossuary.

Tower

The 31.50 m high tower, which narrows towards the top, can be reached via a 3.50 m high flight of stairs exactly opposite the entrance to the ossuary . It has a total of four floors plus a mezzanine. On the first floor there is the chapel with a statue of the Madonna in white Carrara marble by the sculptor Giuseppe Zanetti. The walls are decorated with various figures of saints, which, like the other frescoes on the floors above, are the work of Tito Chini. A picture of the Trinity on the ceiling . Sufficient daylight comes in through three large windows, which are also decorated with stained glass. A stone staircase leads over a mezzanine floor to the second floor with the so-called Hall of Waiting, a small and almost gloomy room compared to the chapel, with monochromatic figures of soldiers who persist in sitting. On the third floor is the Apotheosis room with celebrating war motifs, including the portrait of Pecori Giraldi in one corner. A steep iron staircase leads to the final domed hall on the fourth floor, which is adorned with a golden sun disk in the middle of the dome. There are cross-shaped windows in the four niches.

The memorial also includes a small war museum, which is housed in a separate building to the right of the entrance to the memorial area.


Guglielmo Marconi and the Transatlantic “S”

Marconi began to work on improving his wireless for a transatlantic broadcast. Many physicists argued that radio waves traveled in straight lines, making it impossible for signals to be broadcast beyond the horizon, but Marconi believed they would follow the planet’s curvature. (In fact, the waves do travel in straight lines but bounce off the ionosphere, approximating a curve.) After failed attempts to receive a signal from England on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Marconi decided to try a shorter distance, from Cornwall to Newfoundland.

The radio signal broadcast from Poldhu, Cornwall, was as powerful as Marconi’s team could make it𠅊t full power, the equipment sent out sparks a foot long. Some 2,100 miles away, atop Signal Hill in St. John’s, Marconi attached an antenna first to a balloon, which blew away, and then to a kite on a 500-foot tether. On December 12, 1901, he picked up a faint three-dot sequence—the Morse Code letter “s.”


Italian generals , World War I

Oson kirish (EZA) hisobingiz sizning tashkilotingiz tarkibiga quyidagi maqsadlar uchun tarkibni yuklab olish imkonini beradi:

  • Sinovlar
  • Namunalar
  • Kompozitlar
  • Tartiblar
  • Qattiq kesmalar
  • Dastlabki tahrirlar

Bu Getty Images veb -saytidagi harakatsiz tasvirlar va videolarga standart onlayn kompozitsion litsenziyani bekor qiladi. EZA hisobi litsenziya emas. Loyihangizni EZA hisobingizdan yuklab olingan material bilan yakunlash uchun siz litsenziyani olishingiz kerak. Litsenziyasiz, boshqa foydalanish mumkin emas, masalan:

  • Fokus -guruh taqdimotlari
  • tashqi taqdimotlar
  • tashkilotingiz ichida tarqatiladigan yakuniy materiallar
  • sizning tashkilotingizdan tashqarida tarqatilgan har qanday materiallar
  • jamoatchilikka tarqatiladigan har qanday materiallar (reklama, marketing kabi)

To'plamlar doimiy ravishda yangilanib borayotganligi sababli, Getty Images litsenziyalash paytigacha biron bir mahsulot mavjud bo'lishini kafolatlay olmaydi. Iltimos, Getty Images veb -saytidagi litsenziyalangan materiallar bilan bog'liq har qanday cheklovlarni diqqat bilan ko'rib chiqing va agar ular haqida savolingiz bo'lsa, Getty Images vakili bilan bog'laning. Sizning EZA hisobingiz bir yil davomida saqlanib qoladi. Getty Images vakili siz bilan yangilanishni muhokama qiladi.

Yuklab olish tugmachasini bosish orqali siz chiqmagan kontentdan foydalanish (shu jumladan foydalanish uchun zarur bo'lgan ruxsatnomalarni olish) uchun javobgarlikni o'z zimmangizga olasiz va har qanday cheklovlarga rioya qilishga rozilik bildirasiz.


Vacancy: Nursery Teacher

Successful candidates must be vibrant, energetic and outgoing. Minimum 2 years teaching experience and National Nursery Examination Board qualification or full qualification in Early Childhood.

An empathy with the aims and values of the IB Primary Years Programme is essential. However prior experience of teaching the programme is not a requirement as training can be provided as needed.

This full-time position will suit flexible, enthusiastic, internationally-minded and well-qualified candidates who educate students to become inquisitive, enterprising and independent learners.

Starting date: September 2019
Salary: competitive package

Rome International School is an International Baccalaureate World School. The school is in a pleasant area of north-west Rome. The campus is set amongst almost four hectares and has been designed to meet every teaching and learning requirement.

Applications should include: a personal statement, full CV, recent photograph and contact information of three referees, including one from your current employer.

Please note that applications will only be accepted from citizens of the European Union, including the UK, or those who have already obtained the right to be employed in Italy. The appointment process will include stringent recruitment procedures including a DBS check.

Due to the large number of applications we receive it is unfortunately not possible to respond to individual enquires about the post and only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.



Izohlar:

  1. Jamahl

    Demoqchimanki, siz noto'g'risiz. Men buni isbotlay olaman. Menga PM yozing, muhokama qilamiz.

  2. Mozil

    Bu masalada yordamingiz uchun sizga katta rahmat. Men buni bilmasdim.

  3. Zolorisar

    Bunda nimadir bor va menimcha, bu juda yaxshi g'oya. Gaplaringa qo'shilaman.



Xabar yozing