Hadrian tangasida Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali

Hadrian tangasida Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali


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Zevs haykali

Zevs haykali qadimgi dunyoning etti mo''jizasidan biridir. Bu xrizelafantin haykali, demak u fil suyagi va oltindan qilingan. Tarix bizga bu haykalning qoldiqlarini qoldirmagan, u vayron qilingan, va u mavjud bo'lgan davrga oid juda kam sonli tasvirlar mavjud, bu esa uni hayratlanarli narsalardan biriga aylantiradi, chunki uning haqiqatligiga shubha qolmoqda. shakli, Zevsning pozitsiyasi, uning atributlari va boshqalar. Biroq, uning tarixi juda yaxshi ma'lum. Uning quruvchisi - afidalik haykaltarosh Fidiyas, xuddi shu ishni Olimpiadan biroz oldin qilgan, bu bizga bugun ma'lumotnoma bo'lib xizmat qiladi, lekin bu rassom boshqa haykallar bilan mashhur edi. U miloddan avvalgi 436 yilda Zevs haykalini yaratgan.

Zevs haykali

Zevs haykalining takrorlanishi


Tarkibi

Zevs haykali miloddan avvalgi V asrning ikkinchi yarmida Olimpiya o'yinlari saqlovchilari Eleanlar tomonidan yangi qurilgan Zevs ibodatxonasi uchun buyurtma qilingan. Afinalik raqiblaridan ustun bo'lishga intilgan Eleanlar, ilgari Parfenonda Afina Parthenosning ulkan haykalini yasagan taniqli haykaltarosh Fidiyani ishlatgan. [2]

Haykal ma'badning yo'laklari kengligining yarmini egallagan. Geograf Strabon eramizdan avvalgi I asr boshlarida haykal "agar Zevs o'rnidan turib, tik tursa, u ma'badni ochib yuboradi" degan taassurot qoldirganini ta'kidlagan. [3] Zevs yog'ochdan yasalgan konstruktsiyada fil suyagi va oltin panellardan yasalgan xrizelafant haykali edi. Marmar yoki bronzadan hech qanday nusxa saqlanmagan, garchi yaqin atrofdagi Elis tangalarida, Rim tangalarida va o'yma toshlarda faqat taxminiy versiyalar mavjud. [4]

Miloddan avvalgi 2-asr geografi va sayohatchisi Pausanias batafsil tavsif qoldirgan: haykal zaytun purkagichidan yasalgan gulchambar bilan bezatilgan va shishadan yasalgan va hayvonlar va zambaklar o'yilgan zarhal xalat kiygan. Uning o'ng qo'lida g'alaba ma'budasi, tog'li Nikning kichik xrizelafant haykali, burgutni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan, ko'plab metallar bilan ishlangan tayoq. Taxt bo'yalgan raqamlar va yasama tasvirlar bilan bezatilgan va oltin, qimmatbaho toshlar, qora va fil suyagi bilan bezatilgan. [5] Zevsning oltin sandallari relefli Amazonomachi bilan bezatilgan oyoq osti tagida yotardi. Taxt ostidan o'tish bo'yalgan ekranlar bilan cheklangan edi. [6]

Pausanias, shuningdek, haykal Altis tog'ining "botqoqligi" tufayli fil suyagiga zararli ta'sirini oldini olish uchun doimo zaytun moyi bilan qoplanganini aytadi. Rasm oldidagi polga qora plitalar yotqizilgan va moyli marmar bilan o'ralgan chetiga o'ralgan. [7] Bu suv ombori haykalning ko'rinadigan balandligini ikki baravar oshiradigan aks ettiruvchi hovuz vazifasini bajargan. [8]

Rim tarixchisi Livining so'zlariga ko'ra, rim generali Aemilius Paull (Makedoniya ustidan g'alaba qozongan) haykalni ko'rgan va "xuddi xudoni shaxsan ko'rganidek, o'z joniga tegib ketgan", [9], milodiy I asr yunon. notiq Dio Xrizostom, haykalga bir qarashda odamning dunyodagi barcha muammolarini unutishini aytdi. [10]

Afsonaga ko'ra, Fidiyadan nima ilhomlantirgani so'ralganda - u Zevsni ko'rish uchun Olimp tog'iga chiqqanmi yoki Fidiya uni ko'rish uchun Zevs Olympusdan tushganmi yoki yo'qmi - rassom Zevsni Birinchi kitob 528 -oyatda tasvirlangan deb javob bergan. - Gomerning 530 yilligi Iliada: [11]

κ κυ κυ νέῃσ ν ν ὀφρύσ νεῦσε νεῦσε νεῦσε Κρ
ἀmρόσbρόσiαi δ 'ἄρα χαῖται ἐπερρώσαντοἄν ἄνακτος.
τὸς ἀπ νάτ νάτ ι ι έγ δ Ὄλυ Ὄλυ π.

U gapirdi, Kronosning o'g'li va qorong'i qoshlari bilan boshini qimirlatdi.
va buyuk xudoning o'lmas moylangan sochlari
uning ilohiy boshidan supurib tashladi va butun Olimpos larzaga keldi. [12]

Haykaltarosh, sakson oltinchi Olimpiadada o'g'il bolalar kurashi g'olibi bo'lgan Pantarkesni abadiylashtirgani uchun mashhur bo'lgan, u o'zining "sevgilisi" bo'lgan (eromenos), o'yma bilan Pantarkes kalos ("Pantarkes go'zal") Zevsning kichkina barmog'iga, va haykalning tagiga toj kiygan bolaning relyefini qo'yish orqali. [13] [14]

Pausaniasning so'zlariga ko'ra, "rasm tugagach, Fidiyas xudodan ibodat bilan ish unga yoqadimi yoki yo'qligini ko'rsatishini so'radi. Afsonaga ko'ra, shu payt polning shu qismiga momaqaldiroq tushdi. Bu joyni qoplash uchun bronza kavanoz turardi. " [7]

Rim tarixchisi Suetoniusning so'zlariga ko'ra, Rim imperatori Kaligula "boshlarini olib tashlash uchun Yunonistondan muqaddasligi yoki badiiy xizmatlari bilan mashhur bo'lgan xudolarning haykallarini, shu jumladan Olimpiada Yupiter haykallarini olib kelish to'g'risida" buyruq bergan. va o'z o'rnini o'z o'rniga qo'ying ». [15] Bu sodir bo'lishidan oldin, milodiy 41 -yilda imperator o'ldirilgan, go'yo uning o'limi haykal tomonidan bashorat qilingan, "to'satdan shunday kulgidan eshitildi, iskala qulab tushdi va ishchilar poshnalariga ko'tarildi". [16]

Milodiy 391 yilda xristian Rim imperatori Teodosiy I butparastlik kultlarida qatnashishni taqiqlab, ibodatxonalarni yopdi. Olimpiyadagi ma'bad foydalanilmay qoldi. Oxir oqibat, haykalning vayron qilinishi shartlari noma'lum. XI asr Vizantiya tarixchisi Georgios Kedrenos an'anaga ko'ra, uni Konstantinopolga olib ketishgan, u erda miloddan avvalgi 475 yilda Lausus saroyining katta olovida yo'q qilingan.

Shu bilan bir qatorda, haykal miloddan avvalgi 425 yilda yong'in natijasida qattiq shikastlangan ma'bad bilan birga halok bo'ldi. [17] Ammo avvalgi yo'qolish yoki shikastlanish haqida 2 -asr oxirida Samosatalik Lusian nazarda tutgan va u bunga ishora qilgan. Timon"Ular sizning odamingizga Olimpiada qo'llarini qo'yishdi, xo'jayinim, momaqaldiroqchi, va siz itlarni uyg'otishga yoki qo'shnilaringizni chaqirishga kuchingiz yo'q edi, ehtimol ular qutqarish uchun kelishgan va yig'ishni tugatmasdan hamkasblarini ushlab qolishgan. o'ljani yuqoriga ko'taring. " [18] [19]


Tarkibi

Olimpiya Peloponnesning g'arbiy qismida joylashgan Alfeos daryosining keng vodiysida (shuningdek Alfey yoki Alfeyos deb ataladi), bugungi kunda Ion dengizidan taxminan 18 km uzoqlikda, lekin, ehtimol, qadimda, bu masofaning yarmi. [3] Altis, muqaddas joy sifatida, ma'lum bo'lganidek, har tomondan 200 yarddan (183 metr) oshiq va devor bilan o'ralgan to'rtburchaklar shaklidagi notekis bo'lib, u Kronion bilan chegaralangan (Kronos tog'i). [4] Bu binolarning biroz tartibsiz joylashuvidan iborat edi, ularning eng muhimi Hera ibodatxonasi (yoki Heraion/Heraeum), Zevs ibodatxonasi, Pelopion va Zevsning eng katta qurbongohi. qurbonliklar keltirildi. Ma'bad ichida hali ko'p ochiq yoki o'rmonli joylar bor edi. Altis nomi "o'rmon" degan ma'noni anglatuvchi Elean so'zining buzilishidan kelib chiqqan, chunki bu hudud o'rmon, zaytun va chinorlar edi. [5]

Pausaniyaning so'zlariga ko'ra, jami 70 dan ortiq ma'bad, shuningdek, ko'plab xudolarga bag'ishlangan xazinalar, qurbongohlar, haykallar va boshqa inshootlar bo'lgan. [6] Delfidan farqli o'laroq, xuddi shunday katta yodgorliklar kollektsiyasi temenos chegarasida to'plangan edi, Olimpiya chegara devori tashqarisiga, ayniqsa o'yinlarga bag'ishlangan maydonlarga tarqaldi.

Ma'badning shimolida Prytaneion va Filippeion, shuningdek, turli shahar-davlatlarni ifodalovchi xazinalar to'plami joylashgan. Metroon bu xazinalarning janubida, Echo Stoa sharqda joylashgan. Ipodrom va keyinchalik stadion Echo Stoaning sharqida joylashgan edi. Muqaddas joyning janubida Janubiy Stoa va bouleuterion, palaestra, Pheidias ustaxonasi, gimnaziya va Leonidaion g'arbda joylashgan.

Olimpiya, shuningdek, Sidon Antipateri tomonidan qadimgi dunyoning etti mo''jizasidan biri deb nomlangan Fidiy tomonidan haykaltaroshlik qilingan ulkan xrizelafantin (fil suyagi va yog'och ramkadagi oltin) Zevs haykali bilan mashhur edi. Bu haykal joylashgan Zevs ibodatxonasiga juda yaqin, 1950 -yillarda Fidiya studiyasi qazilgan. U erda topilgan dalillar, haykaltaroshning asboblari, bu fikrni tasdiqlaydi. Qadimgi xarobalar Alfey daryosining shimolida va Kronos tog'ining janubida joylashgan (yunon xudosi Kronos nomi bilan atalgan). Bu hududni Alfeylarning irmog'i Kladeos oqadi.


Yana bir narsa: Olimpiada qadimiy mo''jizasidan qolgan hamma narsa

Bularga qarang. Juda ta'sirli emas, shundaymi? Taxminan 30 sm (12 dyuym) yoki undan kattagina tekis pishirilgan loy bo'laklari, o'rtada qandaydir to'lqinli va aniq jant bilan o'ralgan. Juda qiziq emas, ehtimol, O'rta er dengizi bo'ylab qazishmalarda topilgan va yildan-yilga oshib ketadigan minglab aniqlanmagan kulolchilik buyumlari orasidan tasodifiy narsalar.

Aniq emas. Olimpiadaning mashhur joyida - Peloponnesdagi Zevsning buyuk muqaddas joyida topilgan bu ashyolar juda muhim. Ular tarixning eng mashhur san'atkorlaridan biri bo'lgan antik davrning eng mashhur san'at asarlaridan saqlanib qolgan juda oz sonli dalillardan biridir: Qadimgi dunyoning etti mo''jizasidan biri hisoblangan Fidiyning Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali.

Nima? Biz ilgari tushuntirganimizdek, ma'bad xudo yoki ma'budaning ramziy uyi bo'lgan ma'badda, odatda, "diniy tasvir", ya'ni bu xudoning haykali, ilohiy huzur uchun tayanch bo'lgan. Uning kelib chiqishi va qadimiyligiga, shuningdek, ma'badni boshqaradigan yoki egalik qiladigan shahar-davlat boyligiga va shu tariqa moliyalashtirishga qarab, bunday haykallar hajmi, moddiy va ulug'vorligi jihatidan turlicha bo'lishi mumkin edi. Qishloq ibodatxonasida biz muhim shahar ma'badidagi yog'ochdan yoki loydan yasalgan oddiy ishni ko'rib turibmiz, ehtimol bu bronza yoki marmardan yasalgan haykal bo'lishi mumkin, uning o'lchamlari haddan tashqari kattalikdan tortib monumentalgacha. Eng qimmatbaho va eng hayratlanarli xudolar haykallari, ular sifatida tanilgan xrizofantinya'ni ular oltin va fil suyagidan qilingan, ya'ni o'sha paytdagi eng qimmatbaho materiallardan

Olimpiyadagi Zevs buyuk ziyoratgohining markaziy maydoni maketi (bir necha yil oldin Britaniya muzeyidagi eksponatning bir qismi). Katta Zevs ibodatxonasi ustunlik qiladi, rasmning chap chetida Fidiy ustaxonasi ko'rinadi.

Miloddan avvalgi V asrda Olimpiya butun Yunon dunyosidagi eng hurmatli muqaddas joylardan biri edi. Garchi u Elis shtatiga tegishli bo'lsa-da, u "panellenik" ("hamma yunoncha") hisoblanar edi, ular hamma yunonlar uchun katta muqaddaslik joyi edi, xoh ular materik Yunonistonda, orollarda, Anatoliyada, Sitsiliyada yashasalar ham. Italiya, Afrikaning shimolida yoki undan uzoqroqda. Har to'rt yilda, minglab odamlar, Zevs sharafiga o'tkaziladigan sport musobaqasi va Yunon olamini tashkil etgan yuzlab shahar-davlatlar uchun musobaqada qatnashish uchun Olimpiya o'yinlarini ko'rish yoki tomosha qilish uchun maydonga tushishdi. va shuning uchun uchrashish.

Miloddan avvalgi 472-456 yillarda qurilgan Olimpiya Zevsga monumental ma'bad bilan ta'minlangan edi - bu o'sha paytda yunonlikning eng ajoyib me'moriy ifodalaridan biri bo'lgan va ehtimol hamma ko'rganidek, eng ta'sirli. O'yinlarga tashrif buyuruvchilar. Bir avlod o'tib, miloddan avvalgi 435-yillarda, Afina shahar-davlati, keyin boyligi, qudrati va ta'sirining avj nuqtasida, ma'badga o'rnatiladigan xudolar otasining munosib haykalini sovg'a qilishga qaror qildi. Albatta, bu haykal monumental va xrizofantin bo'lishi kerak edi.

Pausanias ta'rifiga asoslanib, 19 -asrda Zevs haykali qanday ko'rinishga ega bo'lgan o'yma.

Uning haykaltaroshi - afinalik va Periklning yaqin hamkori, o'z davrining eng qudratli afinalik siyosatchisi Fidiyas (ba'zan "Fidiya" deb yoziladi). Pheidias, shuningdek, Afina Akropolini qayta loyihalash va Parthenon ichidagi Afina oltin va fil suyagidan yasalgan haykal uchun, shuningdek, bu binoning haykaltaroshlik bezaklari uchun mas'ul bo'lgan. Boshqacha aytganda, u o'z davrining eng ko'zga ko'ringan rassomi edi.

Olimpiyada u ma'badga o'rnatiladigan Zevsning balandligi 13 m (43 fut) bo'lgan haykalini loyihalashtirdi. Fidiyasning ustaxonasi sifatida Zevs ma'badidan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan joyda, uning o'lchamlari ma'badnikiga o'xshash bo'lgan maxsus bino qurilgan edi. sela yoki ichki ma'bad, uning ishi joylashadigan fazoviy sharoitlarni (shuningdek, yoritishni) takrorlash uchun. Haykalning o'zi yog'och yoki metalldan yasalgan ichki ramka, uning tashqi ko'rinadigan qismlari, ya'ni tashrif buyurgan odam nimani ko'rishi mumkin edi. Xudoning kiyimlari, sochlari va fil suyagi uchun oltin choyshabdan yasalgan qoplama. Haykal ajoyib bo'lishi kerak edi: qadim zamonlardan buyon maqtovga sazovor bo'lgan, afsonaga ko'ra, Zevs ma'badga chaqmoq urmasdan ziyon etkazgan holda o'z roziligini ko'rsatgan va u tez -tez ko'chirilgan, shuningdek Olimpiada zarb qilingan tangalarda tasvirlangan. Iskandariya donishmandlari "etti mo''jiza" ro'yxatini tuzishga qaror qilishganda, ular siyosiy sabablarga ko'ra, Afinadagi teng darajada ajoyib Afinadan ko'ra, ulardan birini tanladilar.

Qayta tiklangan ustunli, bir paytlar qudratli Zevs ibodatxonasining xarobasi.

Undan hech narsa qolmadi. Ishonchimiz komil bo'lmasa -da, ehtimol, haykal miloddan avvalgi IV asrda Rim vorisi Konstantinopolga ko'chirilgan va u erda, ehtimol, keyingi bosqichda, ehtimol, 4 -chi salib yurishida, bu shaharni ag'darish paytida halok bo'lgan. milodiy 1204 yilda. Biz nima bo'lganiga amin bo'lolmaymiz, lekin bu yo'qotish Sistine ibodatxonasi, Van Gogning "Yulduzli tun" yoki Mikelanjeloning Devidi yo'qolishiga tengdir. Ming yil yoki undan ko'proq vaqt davomida odamlarni hayratda qoldirgan va ilhomlantirgan insoniy yutuqlarning katta va ta'sirchan qismi yo'qoladi. - lekin umuman emas.

XIX asr oxiridan boshlab Olimpiada qazish ishlarini olib borgan (nemis) arxeologlari, ehtimol miloddan avvalgi 6 -asr atrofida zilzila natijasida vayron qilingan ma'bad qoldiqlari ichida katta xrizelafantin haykalining izini topmaganidan ajablanmadilar. Miloddan avvalgi II asr sayohatchisi Pausanias bizga taqdim etgan muqaddas joyning ajoyib aniq ta'rifiga asoslanib olib borilgan qazishmalar, shuningdek, haykal loyihalashtirilgan va yasalgan "Fidiya ustaxonasi" ni ham aniqladi. Pausanias Olympia -ga tashrif buyurganida, Pheidias u erda ishlaganidan taxminan 600 yil o'tgach, u hali ham buyuk haykalni saqlashga bag'ishlangan dastgoh sifatida ishlatilgan. 1870- va 1880 -yillardagi dastlabki qazishmalar miloddan avvalgi 5 -asrga oid, aniq ma'badning aniq o'lchamiga ega bo'lgan tuzilmani aniqladi. sela, lekin keyinchalik qayta ishlatilib, erta xristian cherkovi sifatida o'zgartirilgan.

Qoliplar topilgan Feydiya ustaxonasining ichki qismi. Ohaktosh poydevori miloddan avvalgi 5 -asrning asl tuzilishiga, g'isht devorlari va ichki armaturalari miloddan avvalgi V asrga (?) Tegishli. (Wikimedia Commons foydalanuvchisi Joanbanjo surati).

20-asrning o'rtalarida qayta qazilgan qazish ishlari natijasida binoning dastlabki ishlatilishiga va shu tariqa Zevsning buyuk haykaliga tegishli ob'ektlarning bir nechta keshlari aniqlandi. Ular fil suyagi va boshqa qimmatbaho materiallarning ko'plab chiplarini, "juda ziddiyatli" ichimlik kosasini, "men Fidiyaga tegishli" yozuvi va bu erda ko'rsatilgan qoliplarni o'z ichiga olgan. Ular shunday. Ular loydan yasalgan qoliplar bo'lib, juda ehtiyotkorlik bilan yasalgan va deyarli xudoning oltin kiyimlarini bolg'alash uchun ishlatilgan repoussé texnika Ehtimol, ular asrlar davomida ehtiyotkorlik bilan saqlangan va saqlangan, chunki oltin zabt etilgan taqdirda o'g'irlanishi yoki qiyin paytlarda sotilishi mumkin, lekin uni yaxshiroq vaqtda almashtirish mumkin.

Antik davrning eng mashhur haykali (yoki ulardan biri, boshqa da'vogarlar bor) abadiy yo'q bo'lib ketgan bo'lishi mumkin va biz tasavvur qila olmasligimiz mumkin. Ammo uning mavjudligi va ba'zi tafsilotlari haqida amaliy dalillar mavjud. Ba'zida arxeologiya shunday ishlaydi: biz haddan tashqari ishlatilgan so'zning haqiqiy ma'nosida ajoyib bo'lgan hikoyalar va g'oyalarga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri kirishni ochadigan oddiy ko'rinadigan narsalarni topamiz. Siz bu loydan yasalgan qoliplarni va boshqa ko'p narsalarni Olimpiya muzeyiga tashrif buyurganingizda, Peloponnesni o'rganish bo'yicha ekskursiyamizda ko'rishingiz mumkin, bu erda Olympia Evropaning tarixiy va afsonaviy markazlaridan birining diqqatga sazovor joylaridan biridir.


Olimpiya faktlaridagi Zevs haykali

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali Phidias ismli haykaltarosh tomonidan yaratilgan. U haykalni tugatish uchun miloddan avvalgi 430 yildan 422 yilgacha 12 yil vaqt sarflagan. Zevs yunon xudolarining shohi hisoblangan va bu haykal uni ulug'lash uchun yaratilgan. U har to'rt yilda Olimpiya o'yinlari o'tkaziladigan Zevs ziyoratgohi Olimpiya ibodatxonasiga joylashtirilgan. Haykal miloddan avvalgi V asrda yonib ketgan.

Olimpiya o'yinlari har to'rt yilda Zevs sharafiga o'tkazildi. Zevs "xudolar va erkaklar otasi" deb hisoblangan. U boshqa xudolarning shohi edi.

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali taxminan 42 fut balandlikda edi.

Haykal yog'och ramkadan yasalgan va fil suyagi va oltin panellar bilan qoplangan.

Haykaltarosh Fidias ilgari xuddi shunday o'lchamdagi ma'buda Afina haykalini yaratgan edi. Afina haykali Afinadagi Parfenon uchun qilingan.

Fidias Olimpiyadagi Ma'badning g'arbida ustaxona qurdi, u erda Zevs haykali bo'yicha ko'p ishlarni bajaradi.

Zevs haykalining o'lchami shunchalik katta ediki, agar Zevs o'rnidan tursa, boshini ma'bad tomidan o'tkazgan bo'lardi.

V asrda Olimpiada Zevs haykali yong'in natijasida vayron qilingan va hech qanday nusxasi topilmagan. Hozirgi kunda haykalning barcha detallari tangalardagi tasvirlardan va qadimgi yunon tavsiflaridan olingan.

Haykalning ramkasi yog'ochdan qilingan. Haykal alohida g'amxo'rlikni talab qildi, chunki Olimpiya juda nam joy edi va namlik haykalga zarar etkazishi mumkin edi. Yog'och buzilmasligi uchun haykalga muntazam ravishda zaytun moyi surtilgan.

Miloddan avvalgi 97 yilda Zevs haykaliga tashrif buyurgan Dio Crysostomos haykalni oltin, qora, fil suyagi va qimmatbaho toshlardan yasalgan deb ta'riflagan. U, shuningdek, o'rindiqda o'yilgan hayvonlarning tasvirlari (yarim sher/yarim odam sfenksi) va yunon xudolari borligini aytdi. Zevsning o'ng qo'lida g'alaba ma'budasi Nike tasviri bor edi. Chap qo'lida u burgut bilan qoplangan tayoqni ushlab turardi.

5 -asrda Olimpiada Zevs haykali, ehtimol, Qadimgi Rim poytaxti Konstantinopolda yoki Olimpiyadagi Zevs ibodatxonasida yonib ketgan.

Haykal miloddan avvalgi 170 yilda sodir bo'lgan zilzila natijasida vayron bo'lgan, ammo u qayta tiklangan.

Yunon afsonasiga ko'ra, Fidiya Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykalini tugatganida, Phidiasning duo qilishiga javoban ma'badga chaqmoq urilgan.

IV asr boshlarida imperator Konstantin xristianlikni qabul qilganida, u barcha oltinlarni butparast ziyoratgohlardan, shu jumladan Olimpiya Zevs haykalidan olib tashlashni buyurgan.

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali tayoqchani o'z ichiga olgan, burgut bilan birga chap qo'l va o'ng tomonda, qadimgi yunon g'alabasi ma'budasi Nike haykali.

Milodiy 392 yilda Rim imperatori Teodoziy I Olimpiada o'yinlarini bekor qilgan. U, shuningdek, o'yinlar butparastlarning marosimi ekanligini his qildi.

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykalining barcha zamonaviy tasvirlari tarixiy tavsiflarga asoslangan va qadimgi yunon rassomlari ’ tasvirlari qadimgi yunon tangalarida uchraydi.

Bir nazariyada Laus ismli yunon san'at kollektsiyasi haykalni Konstantinopolga ko'chirgani aytilgan. Bu uning shaxsiy to'plamining bir qismiga aylandi. Milodiy 475 yilda Konstantinopolda yong'in sodir bo'ldi va haykal yo'q qilindi.

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali tashrif buyurgan odamlarning tepasida bo'lib, qo'rquvni uyg'otdi va qadimgi Olimpiya o'yinlarida qatnashgan sportchilar haykal oldida o'yin qoidalariga qasamyod qilishlari odat edi.

Boshqa bir nazariyada, haykal milodiy 425 yilda yonib ketganda Olimpiya ibodatxonasida hali ham asl joyida bo'lgan.

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali asosan fil suyagi va oltin bilan qoplangan sadr yog'ochidan qilingan va qimmatbaho metallar va toshlar, yog'och va fil suyagi bilan bezatilgan.

Arxeologlar 1950 -yillarda Fidiyaning ustaxonasini topdilar. Qazish paytida ular Olimpiada Zevs haykalini yasash uchun ishlatgan asboblarni topdilar.

Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali balandligi 13 metr (43 fut) qilib qurilgan va qadimgi dunyoning etti mo''jizasi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan.


Qadimgi dunyoning etti mo''jizasini qayta tasavvur qilish

Iskandariya bandargohi, Iroqning Xillo shahri va Rodosning shimoliy chekkasida qanday umumiylik bor? Bularning barchasi qadimgi dunyoning etti mo''jizasidan biriga aylanadi. Bu ettita sirli me'moriy go'zal asarlarga Iskandariya chirog'i, Bobil osilgan bog'lari, Rodos kolossusi, Galikarnassdagi maqbara, Artemida ibodatxonasi, Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali va Buyuk Giza piramidasi kiradi. Belgilangan joylar butun dunyodagi odamlarning tasavvurlarini qo'lga kiritishda davom etmoqda va insoniyatning zukkoligi, tasavvuri va tinimsiz mehnatini eslatib turadi.

Afsuski, bu diqqatga sazovor joylardan faqat bittasi - Buyuk Giza Piramidasi. Miloddan avvalgi 2700 yildan 2500 yillarga qadar qurilgan bu joy Qohira tashqarisida joylashgan, Eygpt va uzoq vaqt davomida dunyodagi eng baland bino bo'lgan.

Buyuk Giza Piramidasining tasviri butun dunyoda ikonaga aylangan bo'lsa -da, qadimgi dunyoning boshqa etti mo''jizasi unchalik taniqli emas. O'rta er dengizidagi Misr portida joylashgan ulkan qo'lda qurilgan Iskandariya mayog'ini oling. Oq marmardan yasalgan va taxminan 137 metr balandlikdagi mayoq miloddan avvalgi 280-247 yillar oralig'ida qurilgan, ammo yillar davomida zilzilalar natijasida vayron bo'lgan va endi yo'q.

Yaxshiyamki, mayoqni yunon shoiri Posidippus dramatik tarzda tasvirlab bergan edi, u shunday yozgan edi: "Bu minora, to'g'ri va tik chiziqda, osmonni kunduzi son -sanoqsiz stadionlardan uzib tashlaganga o'xshaydi, lekin tun bo'yi tez orada dengizchi to'lqinlar uning tepasidan yonayotgan buyuk olovni ko'radi. "

Bugun biz faqat mayoq, Bobil osilgan bog'lari yoki Rodos kolossusi qanday ko'rinishini tasavvur qila olamiz, lekin yangi loyiha buni biroz osonlashtirdi.

Yo'qotilgan joylar Expedia tomonidan "Etti mo''jizaning" har biri sayohat plakatlari turkumi sifatida qayta ko'rib chiqildi va ular juda ajoyib.

Agar siz ko'proq qadimiy tarixni qidirmoqchi bo'lsangiz, bu shanba kuni soat 19:00 da yo'qolgan piramidani o'tkazib yubormang, ekspert Misrshunoslar Giza piramidasi yo'qolgan deb o'ylaydigan narsalarni ochmoqchi.


Zevs haykali

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

Zevs haykali, Olimpiya, Gretsiya, dunyoning etti mo''jizasidan biri. Bu haykal yunon haykaltaroshi Fidiyning ikkita eng yaxshi asarlaridan biri bo'lgan (ikkinchisi - Afenaning Parfenondagi haykali) va G'arbiy Gretsiyadagi Olimpiyadagi ulkan Zevs ibodatxonasiga joylashtirilgan. Balandligi deyarli 12 m (40 fut) va oltin va fil suyagi bilan qoplangan haykal, qora, fil suyagi, oltin va qimmatbaho toshlar bilan bezatilgan sadr daraxti taxtida o'tirgan xudoni ifodalagan. Uning cho'zilgan o'ng qo'lida Nike (G'alaba) haykali, xudoning chap qo'lida esa burgut joylashgan tayoq bor edi. Sakkiz yil davomida qurilgan haykal ilohiy ulug'vorlik va yaxshilik bilan ajralib turardi. 1950 -yillarda Olimpiada Fidiy ustaxonasi qoldiqlarining topilishi haykalning miloddan avvalgi 430 yilga to'g'ri kelganligini tasdiqlagan. Ma'bad 426 yilda vayron qilingan va aniq nusxalari saqlanmagan haykal o'sha paytda yoki taxminan 50 yildan keyin Konstantinopoldagi (hozirgi Istanbul) yong'inda vayron qilingan bo'lishi mumkin.

Ushbu maqola oxirgi marta tuzatishlar menejeri Emi Tikkanen tomonidan qayta ko'rib chiqilgan va yangilangan.


Hadrian tangasida Olimpiyadagi Zevs haykali - Tarix

Yahudiylarning Rim nemisi

Taqvo va qasos Hadrian haqida

Iso hech qachon mavjud bo'lmagan Tanlangan odamlar

Imperator Hadrian (117-138), Rim ishlab chiqargan eng ajoyib va ​​iste'dodli odamlardan biri.

Hadrian muvaffaqiyatli harbiy qo'mondon, taniqli ma'mur va islohotchi, ajoyib me'mor, faylasuf va shoir edi.

& quot; Kichkinagina ruh, yurgan va oqarib ketgan, mening tanamning mehmoni va hamrohi, endi siz oqarib ketgan, qotib qolgan va bepusht joylarga borasiz va siz odatdagidek hazil qilmaysiz. & quot

– Hadrian, she'riy kayfiyatda.

Hadrian villasi

Hatto vayronagarchilikda ham

Odammi yoki Xudo?

Yunon tafakkuri, uni ifodalagan arxitektura kabi, diqqatni jamlagan inson hamma narsaning o'lchovi sifatida, ideal sifatida, nafaqat yodda, balki tanada ham …

Yahudiy fikrida inson oliy va oliy Xudoning kamtar xizmatkori edi. O'zidan u hech narsa emas edi … '

– S. Perown (Hadrian, 136/7)

Masihning yarmi

Xudo-odam Antinous bir qo'lida xochni ushlab turadi – ikkinchisida Dionisning uzumlari!

(Stino Antinoopolisdan. Berlin)

Antinous oxirgi butparastlarning ramziy markaziga aylandi.

Uning tasvirlari 391 yilda Teodoziyning oxirgi taqiqlariga qadar mashhur bo'lgan. Jinsiy organlarga e'tibor bering – hali anjir barglari yo'q!

Legion X Fretensisning provokatsion cho'chqasi

Tinchlanmagan yahudiylar

"Yana va yana ko'plari (yahudiylar) millatchilik afsonasini ishlab chiqishdi, o'z farzandlariga ibroniy patriarxlari ismini berishdi va o'z xalqini ozod qilish va Quddusni tiklash uchun paydo bo'lishi kerak bo'lgan Masihni orzu qilishdi."

– S. Perown (Hadrian, p139/140)

Hadrian isyonkor yahudiy bilan shug'ullanadi

& quotHadrian o'z misolida ham, ko'rsatmalari bo'yicha ham butun imperiya bo'ylab butun harbiy kuchni shunday tarbiyalagan va tarbiyalaganki, bugungi kunda ham u ilgari surgan usullar askarlarning kampaniya qonunidir.& quot

& ndash Dio Kassius, Rim tarixi, 69.9.

Antinous obelisk (2 -asr, Rim) xotirasiga bag'ishlanganOsiris-Antinous adolatli'.

Epitafda Antinous yozilgan "O'limdan keyin tushida paydo bo'ldi".

II asrning uchinchi o'n yilligi va eramizning 120 -yillari, 150 -yillar, shubhasiz, qadimgi dunyoning yuqori yozidir, bu davrning eng yuqori cho'qqisi Edvard Gibbon deb nomlangan. Insoniyatdagi eng baxtli va#146 -yillar tarixi, qachon ‘ Yerning eng go'zal qismi va insoniyatning eng madaniyatli qismi ’ edi "muloyimlik bilan, lekin qat'iy yo'l -yo'riq" fazilatli va qobiliyatli imperatorlar ketma -ketligi bilan. Rimliklar o'zlarining ajoyib omadlaridan bexabar emas edilar. Tangalar 123 va 150 yillarda zarb qilingan, imperiya tashkil topganining 150 yilligi yozilgan. ‘saeculum aureum ’ ("Oltin asri"). Lekin unumdor tuproqda Pax RomanaBu ajoyib tsivilizatsiya fuqarolari deyarli sezmagan holda, g'arbiy osiyolik sig'inadigan din, o'z vaqtida, Rimning qadriyatlarini buzadigan va Evropani vahshiylikka qaytaradigan e'tiqodni to'qib chiqardi. Bu din xristianlik edi.

Oltin davri

Pragmatik va dunyoviy hukmdor, u imperator edi Hadrian xudolar oldidagi qarzini tan oldi, nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar. O'n ikki yildan ziyod vaqt mobaynida u o'z hukmronliklarini ziyorat qilib, barcha xudolarning ziyoratgohlari va ma'badlariga tashrif buyurdi, ularni ta'mirlashni buyurdi, ularning sharafiga o'yinlar ochdi, marosimlarni to'g'ri bajarish uchun yangi ruhoniylarni jihozladi va hokazo. Turli xil xayr -ehsonlari uchun uni sharqda kutib olishdi Xudo erga tushdi (R. Lambert, p43).

121 yilda Rimda Xadrian shaharning o'ziga sig'inishni o'rnatdi va bir necha yil o'tgach, shahardagi eng katta ma'badni imperator bag'ishladi. Rim aeternae’ Hadrian Venerani imperator oilasining homiysi sifatida qabul qildi. 123 -yilda u yana sevimli Yunonistonga qaytdi Cabiri sirlari Egey dengizidagi Samothraceda. Keyingi yili Afinada Hadrianning inauguratsiyasi bo'lib o'tdi Eleeterda Demeterning marosimlari, va keyin Dionis. Yunonistondan o'tib, Hadrian ma'badni qayta tiklashni buyurdi Zevs Olimpiada uch asr davomida vayron bo'lgan va Fidiyaning 146 -yillari tiklangan Zevs Olimpiya va uning muqaddas joyida Poseydon.

O'n yillikning oxiriga kelib, Hadrian va uning qo'shnilari Kichik Osiyoning janubi - Kariya, Kilikiya, Kapadokiya bo'ylab sayohat qilishdi. Bu erda boyitilgan yunon shaharlari imperatorni hurmat qilgan ‘saviour va xudo ’ (va uni shaxsan Zevs bilan bog'lagan). 129 yilda u Suriya va shahriga yetib keldi Antioxiya, u erda bir yil sud o'tkazdi. Ellinlashgan shaharning bu timsolida imperator shpon ostida uning irqiy aralashgan aholisi joylashganligini anglab, bezovta bo'ldi. aqidaparast dinlar Rimga dushman. U shaharning maqomini pasaytirdi va Misrga ketdi.

Hadrian va nasroniylar
Butparastlarning bag'rikengligi va cheklovi

& quot; Men sizning taniqli salafingiz Seren Gratianusdan xat oldim va uning so'rovini javobsiz qoldirishni xohlamayman. Shunday qilib, begunoh odamlar bezovtalanmaydilar va yolg'on ayblovchilar qaroqchilik uchun imkoniyatdan foydalanadilar.

Agar provinsiya vakillari xristianlarga qarshi da'voni isbotlash uchun shaxsan kelishga tayyor bo'lsa, demak, agar ular sizning ayblovlaringizni ma'qullash uchun sizning oldingizga kelishsa, men ularni ta'qib qilishni taqiqlamayman.

Lekin Men ularga faqat iltijo va e'tiroz bildirishga ruxsat bermayman. Adolat shuni talab qiladiki, kimdir ayblamoqchi bo'lsa, ayblov bo'yicha qonuniy tekshiruv o'tkazishingiz kerak.

Agar shunday ayblov qo'yilsa va ayblanayotganlar noqonuniy ish qilganliklari isbotlansa, siz ularni yomon ishlariga yarasha jazolaysiz.

Ammo, jannat nomidan, agar kimdir bu odamlardan birortasini yolg'on ayblov bilan ta'qib qilsa, siz ayblovchiga, uning yomonligi loyiq bo'lganidek, qattiqroq jazolar bilan tashrif buyurishingizdan ehtiyot bo'ling.

& ndash Hadrian, Minicius Fundanusga yozishmalar, Osiyo gubernatori (milodiy 124) .

Antinousning o'limi

Nil daryosida tasalli topib, Adrianning shaxsiy fojiasiga va dunyo uchun tasavvur qilib bo'lmaydigan oqibatlarga aylanishi kerak edi. Uning erkak sevgilisi, Antinous ismli go'zal yunon yoshi, bir necha yillar uning hamrohi, Nilda g'alati sharoitda cho'kib ketgan. Uning aql bovar qilmas ulug'vor, yangi va#146 muqaddas shahri bor edi Antinoopolis, voqea sodir bo'lgan joyda qurilgan. Afina misolida, xarobalar Antinoopolis ular 19 -asrda ham ko'rinishda edi. Ikkinchi asrda shaharda nasroniy episkopi, uchinchi asrda ikkita raqib bo'lgan!

Antinous ‘ ga ega ekanligiga ishonch hosil qildivafot etdi, lekin Xudo bo'lib qayta tug'ildi ’ Hadrian A. ibodat qilish uchun yangi din, ibodatxonalar va yillik o'yinlar bilan to'la. Asosiy e'tiqod shu odobli yigit edi. fidokorlik bilan o'limni mag'lub etdi va endi boshqalarga xuddi shunday najot va himoyani taklif qildi.

Antinous uchun epitaf, u o'zida bo'lgan voqealarni aytib beradi ‘ o'limdan keyin kasallarga shifo berish uchun tushida paydo bo'lgan. ’ U haqiqiy yunon ‘Hero edi, va odam o'lmaslikka erishgan va xudolar bilan shafoat qila olardi. Rasmiy homiylik va rag'batlantirish bilan Antioxiyadan tashqari, uning ziyoratgohlari, tasvirlari va ruhoniyliklari butun imperiyada paydo bo'ldi. U tangalarda paydo bo'lgan yagona imperator bo'lmagan bosh edi va uning haykali antik davrdan beri eng keng tarqalgan bo'lib, Avgust va Xadrianning o'zi bundan mustasno. IV asrda Antinousning qayta ishlangan haykallari unga Dionis uzumini bir qo'lida ushlab turganini ko'rsatdi. va ikkinchisida xoch!

Hadrian yomon xulq bilan o'z hovlisiga o'tdi Yahudiya, u erda yahudiylarning murosasizlik kayfiyati yo'q edi. Imperator viloyatni ellinizatsiya qilishga qaror qildi.

Oltmish yil davomida Quddus vayronaga aylandi. On its ruins, as his gift to the Jewish people, Hadrian ordered the construction of a new city, complete with forums, theatres, baths, gymnasia and all the other amenities of a modern polis. This he named Aelia Capitolina – to honour his family (Aelius) va Zeus himself (whose temple in Rome graced the Capitol hill). On the spot which had once been an ancient quarry arose a vast new temple to Aphrodite and close by, where the Jewish temple lay in ruins, a temple to Jupiter-Zeus. In its atrium, Hadrian had placed a giant statue of himself, benefactor and ruler of the world.

Simon ben Kosiba

To the Jews, Aelia and its statue of Hadrian were the ‘abomination of desolation.’ For them, the final provocation was Hadrian’s ban on circumcision (which applied to Egyptians and Arabs as well as Jews). As the most Hellenized of all Roman emperors, Hadrian regarded circumcision as nothing less than mutilation.

The Emperor returned to Rome. Hardly had he done so than news reached him that the Jews, armed with weapons secreted for years, had staged a revolt.

"At this time, the Jews started a war because they were forbidden to mutilate their genitals. & quot
– Historia Augusta, Hadrian,
14.2.


A new ‘messiah’ had been identified – an adventurer claiming Davidic descent called Simon ben Kosiba (punned into a portentous 'Bar Kochba' yoki ‘son of the star’ by his followers). He was led on a horse – ‘as prophecy foretold’ – through Jerusalem by the aged Akiba.

Kosiba/Kochba’s messiahship was endorsed by the High Priest Eleazar and even the normally pro-Roman Sanhedrin. Aelia was torched and a re-dedication made on the temple ruins. War with Rome was now inevitable.

Catching the Roman forces off-guard and out-numbered, the rebels seized control of Jerusalem. The Roman governor, Tineus Rufus, ordered his garrison to evacuate the city as best they could and they retreated towards Caesarea. His command, the X Legion Fretensis, had as its emblem a wild boar – a provocative 'pig' to the Jews. Rome’s initial response was to assign the XXII legion, based in Egypt, the task of retaking the city but such was the fury and force of the rebels that the legion was destroyed before it got anywhere near.

When the full extent of the uprising was gauged in Rome, the Emperor dispatched Julius Severus, victor of the recent war in northern Britain, at the head of two legions, to suppress the rebellion. The war proved protracted and merciless. The rebel forces, perhaps half a million strong, adopted a guerilla-style warfare which denied the Romans a decisive battle, favourable to their cavalry and the use of the phalanx.

& quotThe Jews . did not dare try conclusions with the Romans in the open field, but they occupied the advantageous positions in the country and strengthened them with mines and walls, in order that they might have places of refuge whenever they should be hard pressed, and might meet together unobserved underground and they pierced these subterranean passages from above at intervals to let in air and light.

Soon, however, all Judaea had been stirred up, and the Jews everywhere were showing signs of disturbance, were gathering together, and giving evidence of great hostility to the Romans, partly by secret and partly by overt acts many outside nations, too, were joining them through eagerness for gain, and the whole earth, one might almost say, was being stirred up over the matter.& quot

&ndash Dio Cassius, Roman History , 69.9.12-13.


Drawing troops from everywhere from Egypt to Syria a full-scale invasion force was assembled. Twelve legions were ultimately to be deployed in the province, systematically annihilating hundreds of towns and villages. Jerusalem was retaken only in the third year of the war. Akiba and nine other ‘doctors of the Law’ were executed although some fanatics escaped to Persia. After three years of attrition, Simon and the last of the rebels, plus many refugees, were trapped in the fortress of Bethar, south west of Jerusalem. Hadrian himself joined the besiegers for the final capitulation. Famously, he refused to accept a Triumph for this brutal war.

The Romans had been badly mauled – ninety thousand troops lost in conflict and related pestilence. Shunga qaramay cost to the Jews was total: the end of their existence as a self-governing nation within the Empire half a million war-dead (from a nation of perhaps three million) tens of thousands sold into slavery and the arena. Even the name of Judaea was erased from the map, replaced by ‘Siria Palestinia.’

On pain of death, Jews were forbidden to enter the new city of Alia – rebuilt more modestly – save for one day a year, to mourn their lost temple. On the holy mountain of the Samaritans Hadrian erected a temple to Zeus, embellished with the bronze doors taken from Jerusalem. For a time, study of Jewish scripture was outlawed, as was also the keeping of the Sabbath. The ‘pious’ resistance of the Jews had exacted a terrible human price.

Throughout the year 135, the Mediterranean ports were flooded with Jewish refugees and the slave markets overflowed with captives. With the catastrophic defeat a new pun on Bar Kosiba's name was coined by the rabbis: 'bar Kozeba', ma'nosi 'son of the lie'. Only the Christian Jews, who harboured a resentment against the rest of the tribe, drew comfort from the disaster. The Romans, they reasoned, were the instrument of divine wrath, incurred by the Jews for the rejection of their prophet.

& quot And thus, when the city had been emptied of the Jewish nation and had suffered the total destruction of its ancient inhabitants, it was colonized by a different race . And as the church there was now composed of Gentiles, the first one to assume the government of it after the bishops of the circumcision was Marcus.& quot

– Eusebius Pamphilus , Church History, 4.6 .

Marcus? Marcus? Now there's a name to ponder .

Postscript: Invention of the Jewish Diaspora

Conventional estimates suggest a population for the Roman empire of 50-60 million at the time of Hadrian, with Jews numbered perhaps 4-5 million. In comparison, Christians of various stripes numbered 10,000 at most, a tiny minority, unnoticed by Rome. Even in the 3rd century the historian Herodian does not mention them.

But the estimated number of Jews, so-called, may be woefully misleading.

Most Jews within the Roman Empire were YO'Qexiles from Judaea, nor were they descendants of exiles. Although, in consequence of the Jewish wars, trouble-makers were enslaved in considerable numbers and elite elements fled or were exiled from their homeland, the majority of Jews (Judaeans) &ndash peasant farmers in the main &ndash remained in Siria Palestinia . Rome had neither the means nor the desire to exile an entire population (and hence such a migration appears nowhere in Roman or Jewish histories). In later centuries they were to be increasingly oppressed by Byzantine Christians and in consequence welcomed the armies of Islam in the 7th century. Gradually, these Jews converted to the new faith and became Palestinians (something acknowledge by the first Zionists).

The majority of Jews tashqarida of Palestine were the descendants of converts from the indigenous pagan populations, won over by energetic proselytizers in Judaism's most expansive era. Judaism became a successful evangelizing religion in the 2nd and 3rd centuries (as Roman historians attest), and took variegated forms. Its success prepared a seedbed for factions which jettisoned Judaism's least appealling characteristics and were no longer shaded by the Jewish penumbra &ndash in a word, Masihiylar.

With Christianity's own triumph in the 4th century the momentum within the Roman empire for conversion to Judaism ceased. Indeed, "adoption of Jewish manners" became an illegal activity, and faced with official hostility the descendents of converts to Judaism found it prudent to convert to the favoured Christianity. But Jewish proselytizing continued in regions beyond the reach of Rome. Thus Iranians of Adiabene, Ethiopic tribes of the Horn of Africa, Arab tribes of the Yemen and Spasinou/Charax, Berber tribes of north Africa, and Turkic tribes of the Caucasus (Khazars), all in time embraced the religion of Judaism. Berber Jews in the army of the Caliph would seed the Jewish community in Spain and Khazar Jews would seed the Ashkenazi Jewish communities of eastern Europe.

& quotThe Jews as a self-isolating nation of exiles, who wandered across seas and continents, reached the ends of the earth and finally, with the advent of Zionism, made a U-turn and returned en masse to their orphaned homeland, is nothing but national mythology.& quot

&ndash Professor Shlomo Sand, Tel Aviv University, The Invention of the Jewish People.


The central idea of Zionism, that Jews should "return from exile" to a reclaimed homeland is starkly at odds with the demographic reality that very few Jews can make any legitimate claim to ancestral origins in the Levant. Even more alarming is that Christian Zionists energetically support the "return" of the Jews as a catalyst for the return of their own equally imaginary originator.

Where Did They Get Their Ideas From?

"Antinous was from Bithynium, a city of Bithynia, which we also call Claudiopolis he had been a favourite of the emperor and had died in Egypt, either by falling into the Nile, as Hadrian writes, or, as the truth is, by being offered in sacrifice. For Hadrian, as I have stated, was always very curious and employed divinations and incantations of all kinds. Accordingly, he honoured Antinous, either because of his love for him or because the youth had voluntarily undertaken to die, it being necessary that a life should be surrendered freely for the accomplishment of the ends Hadrian had in view, by building a city on the spot where he had suffered this fate and naming it after him and he also set up statues, or rather sacred images, of him, practically all over the world. Finally, he declared that he had seen a star which he took to be that of Antinous, and gladly lent an ear to the fictitious tales woven by his associates to the effect that the star had really come into being from the spirit of Antinous and had then appeared for the first time.

&ndash Dio Cassius, Roman History, 69.9.11.


Antinous:

Hadrian's male lover, a beautiful Greek youth from Bithynia (modern Turkey) and companion of several years. He drowned in odd circumstances in the Nile and speculation suggested a ritual suicide to somehow prolong the Emperor's own life.

A distraught Hadrian convinced himself that the dead Antinous had been 'reborn a god’ and instituted a new religion for his worship, complete with temples, priests and annual games.

Apparently, the self-sacrificing Antinous had conquered death and now offered similar salvation and protection to others. What an interesting idea!

An epitaph for Antinous in Rome recounts that he had ‘appeared after death in dreams to provide cures for the sick.’

The cult continued for three hundred years but slowly got subsumed into a more truculent cult – Christianity. In the 4th century, re-worked statues of Antinous showed him holding the grapes of Dionysus in one-hand – and a cross in the other!

"It is remarkable that [the cult of Antinous] should have survived as long as it did, well into the 4th century"

– S. Perowne (Hadrian, p159 )

Sprouting wings – the deified Antinous (Naples)

Antinous sculpted as a priest of Attis, the lover of Cybele.


Roman Period

Romans added many new buildings to the sanctuary, including Nymphaion, and continue the tradition of the Olympic Games. During the Roman period, the games were open to all citizens of the Roman Empire.

Nymphaeum (Nymphaion)

Located near the Temple of Hera, Nymphaion (also known as the Exedra of Herodes Atticus) was a magnificent two-story semi-circular building that housed a fountain. It was built in 150 CE by Herodes Atticus, a Greek aristocrat who became a Roman senator, to honor of his wife Regilla. Placed inside the niches on the walls of this building are the statues that included the statues of Roman Emperors Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Antoninus Pius, and Herodes Atticus and his family members. At each end of the building, there were two circular Naiskos (small temples).

This building served as the water reservoir for the sanctuary during the Roman period. An aqueduct brought the water from a spring a few miles away and stored in a semi-circular basin located in front of the building. The water was then distributed to the rest of the sanctuary through pipes.

The image shows the marble statue of a bull that was a votive offering at the Nymphaion and is now on display at the Olympia Archaeological Museum.

Roman Era Statues

During the Roman era, statues of emperors and other important people of the empire were erected in Metroon, which was a temple of the mother goddess. The statues were eventually moved to the Temple of Hera for safe keeping. During the excavation, many of these statues were discovered inside the ruins of the Temple of Hera. These statues were restored and put on display at the Olympia Archaeological Museum. Mana ulardan ba'zilari:

Agrippina Minor

The statue of Agrippina Minor, who was Emperor Nero’s mother, was discovered on a wall in the Temple of Hera.

Poppaea Sabina

Poppaea Sabina (30 -65 CE) was the second wife of Emperor Nero. This statue was also discovered on a wall in the Temple of Hera.

Emperor Hadrian

The statue of Roman Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 CE) was discovered in the Temple of Hera and is now on display at the Olympia Archaeological Museum.

As a supporter and admirer of Greece, Emperor Hadrian toured Greece in 124 CE and committed vast resources for numerous engineering projects, including aqueducts, and rebuilding temples and monuments throughout Greece.

Notice the tunic worn by Hadrian in the statue. His finely carved tunic symbolizes fusion of Greek and Roman cultures and represents his world-view.

At the center of the tunic is Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and war, standing on top of a she-wolf with two sucklings, and flanked by two figures with wings believed to represent Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. Above the wolf and to the right of Athena is an Owl and to the left is a snake standing upright. Goddess Athena represents Greece and the she-wolf suckling the twins, Romulus and Remus, symbolizes Rome as it is based on the legend of the founding of Rome.

Copyright © 2017 – 2019 by Lawrence Rodrigues. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.



Izohlar:

  1. Zulkikora

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  2. Kazimuro

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  3. Iphis

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  4. Raleigh

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  5. Haydin

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  6. Samulkree

    Bo'sh vaqtimizni ko'rib chiqaylik



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