Keyn II T-AGS-27-Tarix

Keyn II T-AGS-27-Tarix


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Keyn II

(T-AGS-27: 2,623 t.; 1. 282'111/2 ''; 48-son; 12-s .;
epl 44; a. hech kim )

Ikkinchi Keyn (T-AGS-27) 1965 yil 20-noyabrda Christy Corp., Sturgeon Bay, Wis tomonidan ishga tushirilgan; vitse -admiral Deutermanning rafiqasi Xarold T. Duetermann xonim homiylik qilgan; MSTSga tayinlangan; va 1967 yil 26 mayda Atlantika okeani ostidagi ilmiy operatsiyalar uchun xizmatga joylashtirildi. Sohil bo'yidagi gidrografiya va oeeanografiya tadqiqotlarini o'tkazish bilan bir qatorda, Keyn ham kichik kemalar, vertolyotlar va dengiz piyodalari tadqiqot guruhlarini boshqaradi. U flot va qo'nish kuchlari talablariga javob beradigan tayyor jadvallarni joyida yig'ish va chop etishga qodir va olimlar uchun turar joylarga ega.


Ha, Fausto qoyalar

Amy Winehouse (14/09/1983 - 23/06/2011) 27 -avgustdan boshlab har xil turdagi o'yinlar bilan shug'ullanadi va 27 klubdan (27 klub) y es verdad que quizá pueda ser una casualid asia asombrosa que varios músicos de estirpe y mundial hayan muerto a en edad. Mana, 20 va 20 -yillarning oxirigacha davom etadigan o'yinlar, Jeyms Dinning mashhur yulduzi, shuningdek, Jeyms Dinning "ajoyib o'yinlari". #8221.

  • 21: Kriketlardan Devid Box, Bill Murcia de los New York Dolls, Stu Sutcliffe The Beatles, Sid Vicious Sex Pistols.

"The Beatles" kompaniyasi bosh miya gemorragiyasi va miya hujumlari natijasida Stuart Sutcliffe -ning asosiy vazifasini bajargan bo'lsa, u holda siz "Sobiq" deb nomlanasiz.

Styuart Satklif- Bitlz

  • 22: Buddy Xolli, Darbi Crash de Germs, Jon Emma de Chase, Bobby Fuller va Bobby Fuller 4.

O'n ikki guruhdan tashqari, Buddist Xolli ham tasodifiy havodan qutulgan, shuningdek, ta'sir ko'rsatadigan va ta'sir ko'rsatadigan joylar.

  • 23: Yan Kurtis de Joy bo'limi, Robbi Makintoshning o'rtacha oq guruhi, Yoqub Miller ham, ichki doirasi, Bobbi Ramires de Edgar Qish va "Oq axlat".

Ian Curtis vokalisti "Sevinch" bo'limida supido va sukidio o'yinlarini o'tkazib yuboradi, shuning uchun siz diskotekani juda yaxshi ko'rasiz. Idiot de Iggi Pop. Epilepsiya va shaxsiy epilepsiya kasalliklari, bu plazmabaning eng qiyin bosqichi.

  • 24: Duane Allman de Allman Brothers Band, Luiza Din de Shiva, Nikolas Dingli de Xanoy Roks, Piter Laughner de Pere Ubu, Notorious BIG, Berry Oakley de Allman Brothers Band, Malcolm Ouen de Ruts, Kristen Pfaff de Hole, JP Richardson (Katta Bopper) ), Stefani Sarjent, 7 yillik bitch, Jeyms Sheppard de Shep va Lampalar va Tammi Terrel.

Rok yulduzlari 24 yoshdan katta xonandalarga katta savol -javoblar berishadi, 27 -chi guruhlarning katta guruhlari, shuningdek, el -los -27 -chi guruhlar, shuningdek, Duane Allman -ning gitara chalish qobiliyatini oshiradi. provocadas por un crashe en motocicleta.


Erta hayot va uning ta'siri

Voytilaning bolaligi Polsha 1772 yildan 1989 yilgacha biladigan yagona ozodlik davriga to'g'ri keldi: 1920 yilda Sovet Qizil Armiyasini marshal Yozef Pilsudskiy mag'lubiyati va 1939 yilda Germaniya bosqini o'rtasidagi yigirma yil. uning zaifligi. Taxminan 8000 katolik va 2000 yahudiy yashaydigan Voyadits shahri, kelajakda natsistlarning o'lim lagerlari bo'lgan Osventsimdan atigi 24 mil uzoqlikda joylashgan bo'lsa-da, urushdan oldin shaharda antisemitizm kam bo'lgan. Voytilaning bolalikdagi yaqin do'stlaridan biri Voyaditsiy yahudiylar jamiyati rahbarining o'g'li edi.

Voytilaning otasi, Karol katta, Polsha armiyasida leytenant bo'lgan. Uning onasi Emiliya Kaczorovska sakkiz yoshida vafot etdi, ukasi Edmund, shifokor bo'lib, to'rt yil o'tmay vafot etdi. Voytila ​​yosh edi, lekin har doim jiddiy tomoni bor edi. U akademik va dramaturgiyada a'lo darajada o'ynagan, futbol (futbol) o'ynagan va otasining rahbarligi ostida muntazam diniy marosimlarga rioya qilgan holda intizomli hayot kechirgan. U Voytilis oilasining kichkina kvartirasiga qo'shni bo'lgan Voyaditsaning asosiy cherkovida, uning tan oluvchisi va katoliklikdagi birinchi ustozi Kazimier Figlevichga muntazam yordam berib turardi.

O'rta maktabni valediktor sifatida tugatgandan so'ng, Voytila ​​otasi bilan Krakovga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda Yagellon universitetida o'qidi. 1939 yil 1 sentyabrda fashistlar Germaniyasi Polshaga bostirib kirganida, uning o'qishlari to'satdan tugadi. Keyingi oylarda yahudiylar, shuningdek, yahudiy bo'lmagan madaniyat va siyosiy rahbarlar, shu jumladan professorlar va ruhoniylar natsistlar tomonidan lagerlarga o'ldirildi yoki deportatsiya qilindi. slavyanlarni past irq deb hisoblagan.

Voytila ​​va uning otasi minglab odamlar bilan sharqqa qochib ketishdi, lekin ruslar ham Polshaga bostirib kirganini bilib, tez orada qaytib kelishdi. Voytila ​​Krakovga qaytib, yashirin sinflarda o'qishni davom ettirdi. Keyingi to'rt yil davomida, hibsga olinmaslik va deportatsiya qilinmasligi uchun, u fashistlar urush harakatlari uchun muhim deb hisoblagan Solvay kimyo firmasiga tegishli zavodda ishlagan. Shunday qilib, Voytila ​​hech bo'lmaganda zamonaviy davrda ishchi bo'lgan yagona papa edi.

Bu yillar davomida Voytila ​​millatchilikka bag'ishlangan pyesalar yozishni boshladi va she'r va dramani yashirin o'qish orqali Polsha madaniyati va ma'naviyatini saqlashga qaratilgan "Rapsodik teatr" guruhiga qo'shildi. Mahalliy cherkovga yoshlar xizmatini olib borgan tikuvchi Yan Tyranovskiy orqali Voytilya, azob -uqubatlar va "tashlanish ruhiyati" orqali qutqarish mumkin deb hisoblagan, Karmelit mistikasi, Sankt Jon Xochning ta'limoti bilan tanishdi. Tyranovskiyning misoli Voytilaga cherkov, hatto yangilangan Polsha teatridan ham ko'proq, dunyoni yaxshilashi mumkinligiga ishontirishga yordam berdi. Voytilaning e'tirofchisi, uning bolaligidagi ustozi, Krakovdagi Vavel soboriga ko'chib o'tgan Figlevich bo'lib qolaverdi.


USNS Keyn (T-AGS-27)

USNS Keyn (T-AGS-27) a edi Silas Bent 1967 yilda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan va 1967 yilda Harbiy dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligiga topshirilgan. Keyn umrini okeanografik tadqiqotlar o'tkazgan. Kema USNS va#160 okeanografik tadqiqot kemalari kabi Okeanografik ma'lumotlarni yig'ish tizimi (ODAS) bilan jihozlangan.Silas Bent  (T-AGS-26) va USNS  Wilkes  (T-AGS-33). Ώ ]

Ikkinchisi Keyn 1965 yil 20 -noyabrda Viskonsin shtatining Kristi korporatsiyasi tomonidan ishga tushirilgan, harbiy dengiz transporti xizmatiga tayinlangan vitse -admiral Deutermanning rafiqasi Xarold T. Duetermann xonim homiyligida va 1967 yil 26 mayda Atlantika okeani ostidagi ilmiy operatsiyalar uchun xizmatga joylashtirilgan. Sohil bo'yidagi gidrografik va okeanografik tadqiqotlar o'tkazishdan tashqari, Keyn kichik kemalar, vertolyotlar va dengiz korpuslari tadqiqot guruhlarini boshqargan. U flot va qo'nish kuchlari talablariga javob beradigan tayyor jadvallarni joyida yig'ish va chop etishga qodir edi va olimlar uchun turar joylarga ega edi. ΐ ]


AQSh armiyasining portlovchi qurollarini yo'q qilishning kelib chiqishi

Ikkinchi jahon urushi tajribasidan kelib chiqadigan ko'plab voqealar orasida, bomba zararsizlantirish tashkilotining tashkil etilishi ham qiziqroq. Ungacha armiyada bomba yo'q qilish apparati yo'q edi. Armiya bombalarini yo'q qilish urug'lari Ikkinchi jahon urushi zarurati tufayli ekilgan va shu kungacha davom etadigan tashkilotga aylangan.

Evropani urush qamrab olgach, Qo'shma Shtatlar uni qirg'inga tortib yuboradigan muqarrar kunni kuzatdi va rejalashtirdi. O'sha paytda UXB nomi bilan tanilgan portlamagan bomba bilan ishlash eng qiyin muammolardan biri edi. Urushdan oldin UXB bilan shug'ullanadigan usul yoki tashkilot yo'q edi. Bu, odatda, topilgan joyda UXBni portlatgan muhandislar guruhlari tomonidan hal qilinadigan kichik muammo edi. Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan oldingi qurol-yarog 'dizayni sodda edi va portlatib bo'lmaganda odamlarga ozgina xavf tug'dirdi. Qurol -yarog 'dizaynida zamonaviy texnologiyalar qo'llanilganligi sababli, vazifa yuqori darajadagi xavfni oldi. Kechiktirish va buzg'unchilikka qarshi kurash yangi asoratlarni qo'shdi, ularni faqat bomba zararsizlantirish missiyasida maxsus o'qitilgan tashkilot hal qilishi mumkin edi.

Zamonaviy bomba chiqindilarining tug'ilishi 1940 yildagi Britaniya jangiga to'g'ri keladi. Germaniyalik Luftwaffe ingliz shaharlarini parchalab tashlagach, fuqarolar UXB tomonidan ko'payib, o'ldirilgan va yaralangan. UXB-larning ba'zilari ahmoqlar edi, lekin ko'pchilik bir necha soatdan keyin portlatish uchun mo'ljallangan kechiktiruvchi to'xtatishga ega bo'lib, yigirma to'rt soatlik portlash kampaniyasi ta'sirini yaratdi. Dastlab, o'qimagan ingliz muhandislari bombalarni yo'q qilish vazifasini o'z zimmalariga oldilar. Qurbonlar soni yuqori edi va tez orada ixtisoslashtirilgan ta'limga ehtiyoj sezildi. Bomba tashlash bo'yicha birinchi mashg'ulot Melsham qirollik havo kuchlari stantsiyasidagi barcha xizmatlar uchun o'tkazildi, Uiltsxir, Angliya. 1941 yil sentyabr oyida Qirollik muhandislari Donningtonda 1942 yil yanvar oyida Ripon shahridagi Harper kazarmasiga ko'chib o'tadigan rasmiy armiya bombalarini yo'q qilish maktabini tashkil etishdi. Shu bilan birga, Britaniya harbiy xizmatlarining har biri maxsus talablarni bajarish uchun bomba tashlash bo'yicha o'z mustaqil mashg'ulotlarini o'tkazdi. bu xizmat haqida. Dastlabki mashg'ulotlar va jihozlar oddiy edi va qurbonlar soni juda ko'p edi. Biroq, tajriba ortgani sayin, mashg'ulotlar kamol topgani sayin qurbonlar soni kamaygan. Yo'qotish qo'shinlari UXB bilan ishlashning bir necha usullarini ishlab chiqdilar, jumladan, soat taymerlarini to'xtatish, shamlardan va portlovchi moddalarni bomba ichidan olib tashlash.

Amerika hukumati dastlab bomba tashlashni fuqarolik vazifasi sifatida rejalashtirgan. 1941 yil aprel oyida Fuqarolik mudofaasi idorasi Merilend shtatining Edgevud Arsenal shahrida kimyoviy urush maktabini tashkil qildi. Bomba zararsizlantirish maktabda umumiy ta'limning bir qismi sifatida o'qitiladi. Kimyoviy korpus yaqinidagi Aberdin isbot poligonida joylashgan qurol -yarog 'korpusidan yordam so'radi. GEN Julian S. Xetcher, qurol -yarog 'tayyorlash markazi qo'mondoni, MAJ Tomas J. Keynga dasturga qo'lidan kelgan yordamni berish haqida batafsil ma'lumot berdi. MAJ Keyn AQSh armiyasi bombalarini yo'q qilishning otasi hisoblanadi, bugungi kunda portlovchi qurollarni yo'q qilish (EOD) deb nomlanadi.

Ikkita fikr AQSh armiyasini bombardimon qilish rejasini tuzdi. Birinchidan, oddiy odamlardan bomba tashlash vazifalarini bajarishini kutish mumkin emasligini anglash edi. Ikkinchidan, bomba tashlash kimyoviy korpus vazifasi emas edi. Pearl -Harborga hujum qilinganidan besh kun o'tgach, Urush boshqarmasi fuqarolik mudofaasi idorasiga ichki zonadagi bombalarni yo'q qilish uchun javobgarlikni yukladi va Qurolli kuchlar boshqarmasi harbiy ob'ektlar va chet elda shunga o'xshash missiyalarni amalga oshirdi. Qurolli kuchlar boshlig'i general -adyutantga yozgan maktubida haqli ravishda shunday xulosa qilgan: “Fuqarolik ko'ngillilar bu xavfli ish uchun to'g'ri o'qitilishi yoki intizomga ega bo'lishi mumkin emas. Kechiktirilgan bomba zararsizlantirishning har bir tafsiloti o'ta xavfli va yuqori mahorat, ehtiyotkorlik va intizomni talab qiladi. Bunday ish uchun zarur bo'lgan ko'nikma va tajribani faqat professionallar rivojlantirishi mumkin ”. Ko'p o'tmay, Fuqarolik mudofaa idorasi qurol -yarog 'bo'limi foydasiga bombalarni yo'q qilish majburiyatidan ozod qilindi va tinch aholi bombani yo'q qilish bilan shug'ullanishi kerak degan fikrdan voz kechildi.

1942 yil yanvar oyida qurol -yarog 'bo'limi Aberdin shahrida bomba tashlash tashkilotini tuzdi, hozirda LTC Keyn bomba tashlash maktabining birinchi komendanti sifatida. LTC Keyn va boshqa ofitser zudlik bilan inglizlardan bomba tashlash mahoratini o'rganish uchun ikkita askar bilan birga Angliyaga yo'l olishdi. Ikki hafta o'tgach, ikkita ofitser va askarlardan iborat ikkinchi guruh ularning ortidan ergashdi. Shu bilan birga, COL Jeffri Yates boshchiligidagi Britaniya jamoasi AQSh askarlariga ko'rsatma berish uchun Aberdinga yo'l oldi. COL Yates Angliyada ishlab chiqilgan asboblar va uskunalarning to'liq qatorini olib keldi, shuning uchun birinchi AQSh askarlariga ingliz usullari o'rgatildi. Birinchi sinflar ingliz modeliga muvofiq faqat ofitserlardan iborat bo'lib, bomba zararsizlantirish bo'yicha nozik va xavfli ishni faqat ofitserlar bajarishi mumkin edi. Birinchi askarlar 1942 yil aprelda Aberdinda bombalarni yo'q qilish bo'yicha mashg'ulotlarni boshladilar. Treningda bombalarni tanib olish, bombalarni yo'q qilish uskunalarini ishlatish, bomba qazish va soxtalashtirish bor edi.

Tayyorlangan kadrlar etishmasligidan tashqari, Qo'shma Shtatlarda o'quv qo'llanmalari yo'q edi. Bu tanqislik ingliz o'quv nashrlarini ko'paytirish bilan tezda bartaraf etildi. 1942 yil mart oyida Signal Corps AQShda foydalanish uchun Britaniyaning UXB filmini takrorladi. Ko'p o'tmay, filmni minglab askarlar va tinch aholi ko'rdi. Keyinchalik qo'llanmalar nashr etildi, jumladan, tinch aholi uchun bomba qidirish qo'llanmasi, 75 -sonli o'q -dorilar, barcha qurollar uchun bomba razvedkasi va havodan tushgan narsalar nomli qo'llanma. Bu hujjatlarning nashr etilishi va ko'rsatma topshirig'ining bajarilishi bugungi kunda ham amal qilib kelayotgan namunadir.

Bomba tashlashning ko'p jihatlari 1942 yil davomida bir vaqtning o'zida davom etdi. Mashg'ulotlar davom etar ekan, bomba zararsizlantirish bo'linmalarini tashkil etish davom etdi. 1942 yil 9 -mayda 231 -bomba tashlash kompaniyasi armiya tarixida bomba zararsizlantirish kompaniyasi uchun 9 -sonli asosiy ruxsatnoma ostida tashkil etilgan birinchi bo'linma bo'ldi. 231 -chi Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining geografik teatrlaridan biri bo'lgan G'arbiy mudofaa qo'mondonligiga yuborildi. Keyingi oy xorijiy kompaniyalar uchun qayta ko'rib chiqilgan tashkilot jadvali tasdiqlandi.

Shu bilan birga, Aberdin shahridagi bomba tashlash maktabining qurilishi iyun oyida yakunlandi. Maktab AQSh ittifoqchilari, shu jumladan Angliya va Avstraliyadan tashrif buyurgan ofitserlar va bombalarni yo'q qilish bo'yicha mutaxassislar uchun tez -tez to'xtash joyiga aylandi. Dengiz bombalarini yo'q qilish bo'yicha mutaxassislar, shuningdek, Vashingtondagi Amerika universitetida yaqinda tashkil etilgan maktabdan Aberdin shahriga tashrif buyurishdi.

Askarlar maktabni tugatganlarida, ular Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari bo'ylab yuboriladigan kompaniyalarga va barcha jangovar teatrlarga tayinlangan. Ba'zi ofitserlar AQSh va Ittifoqning turli buyruqlariga bomba tashlash bo'yicha maslahatchi sifatida batafsil ma'lumot berishdi. Fuqarolik hokimiyatini qo'llab -quvvatlashning muntazam dasturi tuzildi va u shu kungacha davom etmoqda. Bir necha oy ichida bomba zararsizlantirish bo'yicha ofitserlar AQSh bo'ylab jamoat xavfsizligi va sanoat rahbarlariga bomba tanib olish va xavfsizlik kabi mavzular bo'yicha ko'rsatma berish uchun yuborildi va harbiy ob'ektlar va ularning atrofidagi jamoalarda bomba zararsizlantirish guruhlari ish olib bordi. Portlamagan bombaning birinchi tiklanishi aynan shu vaqtda Merilend shtatidagi Elk daryosi bo'yida sodir bo'lgan.

Chet elda bomba tashlash kompaniyalari 1942 yil noyabrda "Mash'al" operatsiyasi, Shimoliy Afrikaga bostirib kirish uchun mavjud emas edi. 1943 yil iyul oyida Sitsiliya bostirib kirganida, bombalarni yo'q qilish askarlari Ittifoqdoshlar va Axis UXB bilan shug'ullanish va qo'shinlarga bomba razvedkasi tafsilotlarini o'rgatish bilan band edilar. Qo'shinlarni o'qitish masalasi shu qadar muhim ediki, Angliyaning Bristol shahrida shu maqsadda maktab tashkil etildi. Maktabda miniatyura qishlog'i va UXB muzeyi bor edi. Dastlab, Ripondagi Qirollik muhandislar maktabi o'qituvchilari ko'rsatma bilan shug'ullanishgan, lekin 1943 yilning kuzida kelganlarida, 234 -bomba tashlash kompaniyasi maktab uchun javobgarlikni o'z zimmasiga olgan.

1944 yil mart oyida COL Keyn Angliyaga havo kuchlarining bomba zararsizlantirish bo'yicha sakkizinchi xodimi bo'lish uchun keldi. U va uning odamlari bombalarni yo'q qilish bo'limini tashkil qilishdi, bomba yo'q qilish masalalarini hal qilish uchun mo'ljallangan xodimlar bo'limi. UXBni yo'q qilish vazifalaridan tashqari, ular bombalarni yo'q qilish bo'yicha bilimlarni oshirish uchun turli harbiy qismlar o'rtasida faol aloqani saqlab turishdi. Ular "Fuze News" nomli muntazam axborot byulletenini chiqardilar va shu sohada shunday yutuqlarga erishdilarki, inglizlar besh yil ishlaganiga qaramay, Amerikaning bir qancha protseduralari va uskunalarini qabul qilishdi. Amerika uskunasining asosiy afzalligi shundaki, u ingliz bombalarini yo'q qilish bo'linmalariga qaraganda ancha engilroq edi. Britaniya uskunasining og'irligi qariyb ikki tonnani, bomba zararsizlantirish uchun ishlatiladigan Amerika uskunasining og'irligi esa ikki yuz funtni tashkil etdi.

Urush davomida bomba tashlagan askarlar o'zlarining xavfli ishlarini mardlik va professionallik bilan bajarishdi. Ularni o'nlablari askarni ham, tinch aholini ham portlamagan bomba halokatidan himoya qilish uchun eng yuqori narxni to'lashdi. COL Keyn boshchiligida ular Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan to shu kungacha davom etgan merosni boshladilar. Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyingi har bir to'qnashuvimizda, ular militsiya, tinchlikparvarlik yoki tinchlik missiyasi, qutqaruv missiyasi yoki urush deb nomlangan bo'lsin, bombani yo'q qilish, hozir portlovchi o'q -dorilarni yo'q qilish, askar o'sha erda bo'lgan.

COL Keynning merosi armiya, dengiz floti, havo kuchlari va dengiz korpusidan tashkil topgan zamonaviy EOD hamjamiyatining birgalikdagi sa'y -harakatlarida aks etadi. Ikkinchi jahon urushida Aberdin isbotlash poligonida o'qigan askarlar, dengizchilar va keyinroq, 1943 yildan boshlab, Vashingtonda o'qigan dengiz piyodalari, oxir -oqibat, o'z maktabini 1946 yilda Hindistonning Merilend shtatidagi Dengiz chang zavodiga ko'chirishdi. portlovchi moddalarni yo'q qilish kursi, bugungi kunda ishlatilgan atamani tug'dirdi.

1947 yil BD/EOD tarixida ikkita muhim o'zgarish bo'ldi. Birinchidan, AQSh Harbiy havo kuchlari mustaqil xizmat sifatida tashkil etildi va shu bilan havo kuchlari EOD mashg'ulotlarini boshladi. Keyin armiya Hindiston boshidagi EOD maktabiga ofitserlar va katta ofitserlarni yuborishni boshladi. Yosh askarlar Aberdinda o'qishni davom ettirdilar. 1951 yilda Harbiy -dengiz kuchlariga barcha EOD mashg'ulotlari uchun umumiy mas'uliyat yuklandi va 1955 yilda Aberdin shahridagi Armiya EOD maktabi yopildi. 1955 yildan 1993 yilgacha askarlar hind boshida o'qish uchun boshqa xizmatlarning ko'ngillilariga qo'shilishdi. 1993 yilda EOD maktabi hozirgi manziliga o'tishni boshladi. Bu o'tish 1999 yilga qadar davom etdi, Florinaning Eglin havo kuchlari bazasidagi portlovchi qurollarni yo'q qilish dengiz maktabi to'liq ishga tushdi. Bu erda o'qituvchilar har bir xizmatdan ko'ngillilarga ko'nikmalarini qo'llash uchun maydonga va flotga kirishdan oldin zamonaviy EOD texnikasini o'rgatishadi.

Bugungi kunda EOD askarlarini formadagi maxsus nishon bilan osongina tanib olish mumkin. Erta bombalarni yo'q qilish askarlarida bu mukammallik ramzi yo'q edi. Asosiy EOD nishoni 1956 yilda ishlab chiqilgan. Asosiy va katta EOD nishonlari keyingi yili armiya bo'limi tomonidan tasdiqlangan. Asosiy EOD nishoni Armiya tomonidan 1969 yil iyun oyida tasdiqlangan. Hozirgi vaqtda bu nishonlar barcha xizmatlar tomonidan taqilgan va bir nechta fuqaro bombali guruhlari va xorijiy harbiy xizmatlar tomonidan ko'chirilgan bomba yo'q qilishning universal ramzidir.

Hozirgi vaqtda operatsion armiyaning EOD askarlarining ko'pchiligi 52 -o'q -dorilar guruhiga kiradi (portlovchi qurollarni yo'q qilish). 52d - armiyadagi yagona faol o'q -dorilar guruhi. Milliy gvardiyada, Alabama shtati Milliy gvardiyasi, 111 -chi qurol -yarog 'guruhi (Milliy gvardiya) bilan tashkil etilgan Milliy gvardiyada safarbarlik paytida buyruq olishga tayyor bo'lgan oz sonli askarlar bor.

52d Ordnance Group (EOD) shtab -kvartirasi Jorjiya shtatining Fort Gillem shahrida joylashgan. U Qo'shma Shtatlar kontinental bo'ylab joylashgan to'rtta EOD batalonlari va o'ttiz to'qqizta EOD kompaniyalarini boshqaradi. Bu tashkilot har yili harbiy inshootlarda ham, fuqarolik jamiyati ichida ham EOH yordamiga chaqiruvga ming marta javob beradi. Bundan tashqari, 52d qurol-yarog 'guruhidan EOD kompaniyasi olti oylik almashinuvlarda Bosniya, Kosovo va Janubi-G'arbiy Osiyoga joylashtirilgan. Istalgan vaqtda uchta kompaniya joylashtiriladi, uchtasi ishga tayyorlanmoqda va yana uchtasi joylashuvdan tiklanmoqda. EOD askarlarini Germaniya, Janubiy Koreya, Sinay yarimoroli, Gavayi va Alyaskadagi topshiriqlarda ham topish mumkin. Tanlangan EOD askarlari, Nyu -Jersi, Alabama va Pikatinni Arsenal, Redstone Arsenal, Eglin havo kuchlari bazasida o'qish va tadqiqot ishlarida xizmat qilishadi. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari armiyasida 1200 dan kam EOD askarlari va ofitserlari bor.


Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari harbiy -dengiz kuchlari Harbiy yuk ko'tarish qo'mondonligi (MSC) - Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining kemalarini to'ldirish va harbiy transportini nazorat qiluvchi tashkilot. Harbiy yuk ko'tarish qo'mondonligi AQShning barcha harbiy xizmatlari hamda boshqa davlat idoralari uchun muhr va okean transportini ta'minlash uchun javobgardir. U birinchi marta 1949 yil 9 -iyulda paydo bo'lgan Harbiy dengiz transporti xizmati (MSTS) Mudofaa vazirligining okean transporti ehtiyojlari uchun faqat javobgar bo'ldi. MSTS 1970 yilda Harbiy Sealift qo'mondonligi deb o'zgartirildi.

USNS Stalwart (T-AGOS-1) O'zgartirilgan taktik yordamchi umumiy okean nazorati kemasi va o'z sinfining etakchi kemasi edi.

USNS Yengilmas (T-AGM-24), shuningdek, sobiq nomi bilan ham tanilganAGOS 10, Harbiy Sealift qo'mondonligi tomonidan boshqariladigan ikkita kuzatuv kemasidan biridir. U olib boradigan radarlardan biri bu Cobra Gemini dual band, X band va S band, radar.

Ustunlik (IX-537) o'zgartirilgan Stalwart-Qo'shma Shtatlar Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining umumiy yordamchi okean nazorati kemasi (AGOS), ilgari AQSh harbiy-dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligi tomonidan T-AGOS 8 sifatida ishlatilgan. Ustunlik 2003 yil oktyabr oyida tasniflanmagan har xil (IX) deb qayta tasniflangan va norasmiy ravishda TSV-1 deb nomlangan. Shu nuqtai nazardan, TSV o'qitishni qo'llab -quvvatlash kemasi degan ma'noni anglatadi va uni AQSh armiyasining USAV   bilan aralashtirib yubormaslik kerak.Nayza boshi Teatrni qo'llab -quvvatlash kemasi tashabbusi.

USNS Titan (T-AGOS-15) a edi Stalwart-1989 yildan 1993 yilgacha AQSh dengiz flotida xizmat ko'rsatgan taktik yordamchi umumiy umumiy okean kuzatuv kemasi. 1996 yildan 2014 yilgacha u okeanografik tadqiqot kemasi sifatida Milliy okean va atmosfera ma'muriyati (NOAA) flotida ishlagan. NOAAS Ka 'imimoana.

USNS Qobiliyatli (T-AGOS-16) a edi Stalwart1989 yildan 2004 yilgacha AQSh dengiz flotining taktik yordamchi umumiy okean kuzatuv kemasi, 1989 yildan 2004 yilgacha xizmatda bo'lgan. 2008 yilda u okeanografik tadqiqotlar kemasi sifatida Milliy okean va atmosfera ma'muriyatiga topshirilgan. NOAAS Okeanos Explorer .

USNS Qodir (T-AGOS-20) a hisoblanadi G'olib-Qo'shma Shtatlar Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligi xizmatida okeanografik tadqiqot kema.

USNS GySgt Fred W. Stokxem (T-AK-3017) a hisoblanadi Shugart-Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligida (MSC) sinfli konteyner va o'ralib ketuvchi qo'llab-quvvatlash kemasi. Bu kema Birinchi Jahon urushi paytida vafotidan keyin "Shon -sharaf" medali bilan taqdirlangan dengiz floti serjanti Fred U.Stokhem (1881 va#82111918) nomidagi ikkinchi dengiz floti kemasidir.

USNS Hayes (T-AGOR-16/T-AG-195) a edi Hayes1971 yilda AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan sinfli okeanografik tadqiqot kemasi. 1992 yilda u akustika tadqiqot kemasi sifatida qayta konfiguratsiya qilindi va dengiz flotining suv osti kemalari uchun akustik shovqinlarni kamaytirish dasturiga tayinlandi.

USNS G'olib (T-AGOS-19) a hisoblanadi G'olib-1991 yilda AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan va okean nazorati bo'yicha maxsus kema.

USNS Samarali (T-AGOS-21) a hisoblanadi G'olib-1993 yilda AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan va dengiz flotining maxsus topshiriq dasturiga tayinlangan okeanni kuzatuvchi kema.

USNS Kusursuz (T-AGOS-23) bu Kusursuz-2001 yilda AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan va okean nazorati bo'yicha maxsus kema, Harbiy yuk ko'tarish qo'mondonligining maxsus topshiriqlari dasturiga tayinlangan.

USNS Silas Bent (T-AGS-26) a edi Silas Bent 1964 yilda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan va 1965 yilda Harbiy zaxiralar qo'mondonligiga topshirilgan. Silas Bent U o'z faoliyatini Tinch okeanida o'tkazdi va okeanografik tadqiqotlar o'tkazdi. Kema Okeanografik ma'lumotlarni yig'ish tizimi (ODAS) bilan jihozlangan edi, keyinchalik USNS   okeanografik tadqiqot kemalari.Keyn  (T-AGS-27) va USNS  Uilkes  (T-AGS-33).

USNS Serjant Endryu Miller (T-AK-242) G'alaba kemasi sifatida qurilgan SS Radklifning g'alabasi, a Boulder g'alabasi-Ikkinchi jahon urushi oxirida qurilgan yuk tashuvchi yuk kemasi. U urush paytida va uni qurolsizlantirish uchun tijorat yuk kemasi sifatida xizmat qilgan. 1946 yildan 1950 yilgacha u AQSh armiyasida transport sifatida xizmat qilgan USAT Serjant Endryu Miller. 1950 yilda u AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olindi va harbiy dengiz transporti xizmatiga (MSTS) tayinlandi. 1981 yilda u karerasini tugatdi va zaxiraga olindi.

USNS Pollux (T-AK-290), keyinroq T-AKR-290, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari nomidagi to'rtinchi kema - bu Algol-hozirda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Dengiz ma'muriyati tomonidan tayyor zaxira kuchlari (RRF) tarkibida xizmat ko'rsatadigan yuk mashinasi. SS Pollux (T-AKR-290).

USNS Sio (T-ATF-171) Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari Powhatan-1981 yildan buyon okean kemasi floti xizmat ko'rsatmoqda.

USNS Benavidez (T-AKR-306) a hisoblanadi Bob Umid-Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining yuk tashuvchi kemasi. U Nyu -Orlean shtatining Northrop Grumman Ship Systems kompaniyasi tomonidan qurilgan va 2003 yil 10 sentyabrda Harbiy -dengiz kuchlariga topshirilgan. Ular uni AQSh Mudofaa vazirligining Harbiy yuk ko'tarish qo'mondonligiga tayinlashgan. Benavidez "Shon -sharaf" medali sovrindori usta serjant Roy P. Benavidez nomi bilan atalgan va Harbiy Sealift qo'mondonligi bilan shartnoma asosida xususiy kompaniya tomonidan boshqariladigan 11 Surge LMSRlardan biridir. U MSC Atlantik to'lqin kuchiga tayinlangan va Tayyor Operatsion 4 -holatida saqlanadi.

USNS Zevs (T-ARC-7) Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari uchun maxsus qurilgan birinchi kabel kemasi edi va u o'z sinfidagi ikkita kemadan birinchisi bo'lishi rejalashtirilgan edi, lekin ikkinchi kema tark etilmadi. Zevs o'z sinfidagi yagona kema sifatida. U 9000 fut (2700 va 160 m) chuqurliklarda 1000 mil (1600 va 160 mil) kabel yotqizishga qodir.

USNS Keyn (T-AGS-27) a edi Silas Bent 1967 yilda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan va 1967 yilda Harbiy dengiz kuchlari qo'mondonligiga topshirilgan. Keyn umrini okeanografik tadqiqotlar o'tkazgan. Kema USNS va#160 okeanografik tadqiqot kemalari kabi Okeanografik ma'lumotlarni yig'ish tizimi (ODAS) bilan jihozlangan.Silas Bent  (T-AGS-26) va USNS  Wilkes  (T-AGS-33).


27 -piyoda diviziyasi, Ikkinchi jahon urushi

1912 yilda Nyu -York shtati Milliy gvardiyasi bo'linma formatida tashkil etildi, bu uning polklari guruhlari muntazam armiyaga o'xshab katta uyushgan birlik ostida joylashishini anglatardi. Bu yangi bo'linma oxir -oqibat 27 -piyodalar diviziyasiga aylanadi. 1916 yil 16 -iyunda Nyu -York shtati Milliy gvardiyasi bo'linmasi safarbar qilindi va Meksika chegarasida brigada generali Jon Persxing va rsquos guruhida qatnashish uchun Meksika chegarasiga ko'chirildi. Dastlab Nyu -York bo'limi, so'ngra 6 -bo'linma deb nomlanuvchi bo'linma Meksikada 1917 yil martigacha qoldi, keyinchalik Evropada xizmat qilish uchun Nyu -Yorkka chaqirildi. 1918 yil aprel oyining oxirida diviziya Evropaga etkazildi, u erda Birinchi Jahon Urushining qolgan qismi uchun jasorat bilan kurashdi.

27 -piyodalar diviziyasi 1940 yil 15 oktyabrda xizmat qilish uchun federallashtirildi va dastlab general -mayor Uilyam Xaskell tomonidan boshqarildi. O'sha paytda u Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida ikkita brigada va to'rtta polkni saqlab qoldi. 53 -brigada 105 va 106 -chi polklardan, 54 -brigada esa 108 va 165 -piyoda polklarini o'z ichiga olgan. Uzoq vaqt manevr va mashg'ulotlardan so'ng, 27 -chi dekabr oyida Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harbor portlashidan keyin Kaliforniyaga buyurtma berildi. Kaliforniyada bo'lganida, 27 -chi jo'natish to'g'risida buyruqni kutdi va o'z kuchini 1,012 ofitser va 21 314 harbiy xizmatchining vakolatli kuchiga etkazishga e'tibor qaratdi. Bo'linma va rsquosning kuchi 14000 ga yaqin odamni bo'shatilishi bilan kamaytirildi. Diviziyaning birinchi elementlari 1942 yil 27 -fevralda Gavayiga jo'nagan kemalarga o'tirishdi, Pearl -Harbordan keyin shtatlarni tark etgan birinchi piyoda diviziyasi.

Diviziya bir necha oy Gavayida qoldi, shu vaqt ichida u uchburchakka aylantirildi, 108 -piyoda polki 40 -diviziyaga tayinlandi. Uchburchak shaklidagi diviziyaga to'rtburchaklar bo'linmasining o'rniga uchta piyoda polki berildi. Bu yakuniy qayta tashkil etish brigada tuzilmasini demontaj qildi va yana 14000 kishidan iborat bo'linma kuchini yo'qotdi. Qayta tashkil etilgandan so'ng, 27 -bo'linma Oaxuga ko'chirildi, u erda Gvadalkanalda jang qilayotgan AQSh kuchlariga qo'shilishi kerak bo'lgan 25 -chi piyodalar diviziyasi ozod qilindi. Ko'pincha Gavayida 27 -chi brigada generali Ralf Pennel qo'mondonligi ostida edi.

1943 yil 20 -noyabrda 27 -piyodalar diviziyasi o'zining birinchi jangovar topshirig'ini - Makalin mercan atolini qo'lga olishni boshladi. 27 -da yangi divizion qo'mondoni general -mayor Ralf Smit bor edi. 27 -diviziya bo'linmalari 1944 yil 1 -fevralda Majuro atollini egallab olishdi va o'sha yilning 19 -fevralida Enivetok oroliga muvaffaqiyatli hujum qilishdi. 1944 yil iyun oyida bo'linma Saypanga qo'ndi, u erda uning polklari birinchi marta to'liq diviziya sifatida birgalikda jang qilishdi. Saypandan so'ng bo'linma boshqa operatsiyalardan oldin etti oy davomida Espirto Santoda dam oldi va kuchaytirildi. Shu vaqt ichida 27 -chi bo'linma oxirgi qo'mondoni general -mayor Jorj Griner Jr * ni qabul qildi. 1945 yil 9 aprelda bo'linma Okinavaga qo'ndi va u sentyabrgacha Yaponiyada garnizon vazifasini bajarish uchun yuborildi. Diviziya o'sha yilning dekabr oyi oxirida yig'ilgan. Tinch okeaniga kelganidan buyon 27 -chi piyoda diviziyasi 1,512 jangda halok bo'lgan, 4,980 kishi yarador bo'lgan va 332 kishi jarohatlarida vafot etgan.

General Smit, Saipan bosqinining umumiy qo'mondoni bo'lgan, tajovuzkor va eksantrik dengiz piyodalari qo'mondoni, general Gollandiya va Xolding Mad va rdquo Smit bilan bahsdan so'ng, qo'mondonlikdan chetlatildi. Golland Smit, Ralf Smit buyurtmalarni e'tiborsiz qoldirganini va 27 -divizionga noto'g'ri munosabatda bo'lganini da'vo qilib, yordam tartibini berdi. Keyinchalik tergov sudi ayblovlarning aksariyati asossiz ekanligini ko'rsatdi va general Ralf Smitga tezda yangi buyruq berildi.

NYSMM onlayn manbalari

Milliy gvardiya urushda: Ikkinchi Jahon urushidagi 27 -chi piyodalar bo'linmasining (Nyu -York milliy gvardiyasi) tarixiy tahlili, Charlz S. Kaun, MAJ, AQSh.
AQSh armiyasi qo'mondonligi va Bosh shtab kolleji fakultetiga taqdim etilgan tezis

27-divizion yilnomasi, 1940-41
Armiya-dengiz floti nashriyotlaridan. Tasviriy tarix, Yigirma ettinchi diviziya, AQSh armiyasi, 1940-1941 yillar. Atlanta, Ga. Armiya-Navy Publishers, Inc, 1941 yil.
Ismlar indeksi bu erda.

"Aysberg" operatsiyasi - Okinavaga bostirib kirish rejalari, (27 -divizion), 1945 yil aprel.
Polkovnik Xovard R. Gmelch to'plamining bir qismi, 2003.0211 *Men hali ham pdf havolasini kiritishim kerak *

27 -bo'lim yangiliklari
Bo'lim tomonidan vaqti -vaqti bilan Alabama shtatining Fort Makkellan shahrida, 1940-1941 yillarda nashr etilgan.
E'tibor bering: bizda bir nechta muammolar yo'q va biz, albatta, yo'qolgan muammolarning xayr -ehsonlarini (jismoniy yoki raqamli) qadrlaymiz.


Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida g'oliblarning safsar g'oliblari ro'yxati bormi?

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida g'olib bo'lgan binafsha yurak nomlari ro'yxati bormi? Mening buyuk amakimning ismini topishga harakat qilyapman, lekin hech qaerda binafsha yurak g'oliblari ro'yxatini topa olmayapman. Bu qahramonlar ro'yxatini topganlar bormi?

Re: Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining binafsha yurak g'oliblari ro'yxati bormi?
Milliy arxivda tadqiqot xizmatlari 01.06.2017 9:13 (v otvet na Karen Valletta)

We do not know of any comprehensive list of Purple Heart recipients for World War II.

Information regarding his award might be found in his personnel file. If you have not already done so, we suggest you request his Official Military Personnel File (OMPF) from the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis. You may submit a request online on our Military Service Records website. Please specify in the request that you are searching for a Purple Heart award, and if an award card is located, they will include a copy.

If his personnel file lists the unit, the general order number and date for the award, you can e-mail the Textual Reference Archives II Branch at [email protected] and request a search for the general order. 


Without that information, locating a Purple Heart can be difficult to impossible. We do not have a name index to our World War II unit records, and a Purple Heart may have been awarded by the soldier’s unit, a higher echelon unit, or even a medical unit that treated the soldier.

Thank you for sharing your question and best of luck with your research.

This post was written by Megan Dwyre with contributions from Cara Moore Lebonick.

Re: Is there a list of purple heart winners from WWII?

Do you have any additional information such as division, unit, or company that he served with. If you have that information you maybe able to request the General Orders, usually they listed the General Order number for the purple heart within your relatives discharge paperwork. This was usually either at the Division, or sometimes regimental level.

Re: Is there a list of purple heart winners from WWII?

I continue to find be astonished at the lack of a concerted effort to document those awarded the Purple Heart.


How Much Power Does Queen Elizabeth Really Have?

Queen Elizabeth II, who is in her 90s, has ruled longer than any other monarch in British history. But at this point, is the British monarch's role purely ceremonial, or does she or he hold any real political power?

That turns out to be a complicated question. Even though the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, it doesn't have a single codified constitution like the United States. Instead, the power balance between the Crown (the monarchy) and Parliament (the elected officials) is mediated by a set of rules known as constitutional "conventions," some of which are written down and others that are based on custom and tradition.

According to some of the oldest traditions, the queen is the ultimate source of power in the British government the British legislature is formally known as "The Queen in Parliament." But as we'll see, in modern practice the queen wields no real political power to act independently of the wishes of Parliament or the prime minister.

The Queen's Reserve Powers

Technically, the queen still retains certain political powers, known as her "personal prerogatives" or the "queen's reserve powers" (makes her sound like a superhero). Among those reserve powers are the power to appoint the prime minister, to open and close sessions of Parliament, and to approve legislation.

But those powers, says Philip Murphy, have been heavily restricted by constitutional conventions. Murphy is director of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies at University College London and author of "The Empire's New Clothes: The Myth of the Commonwealth."

"The Queen has powers, but the question is how much discretion does she have within those powers," says Murphy.

According to Robert Hazell, co-author of a report on the changing role of the monarchy, the queen has been effectively stripped of all personal discretion when it comes to the use of her reserve powers. She has no real choice when it comes to who is appointed prime minister, for example, or which bills are made into law. The voters and elected officials make those decisions, and her only real job is give a royal stamp of approval.

But that lack of true political power doesn't mean that the queen isn't powerful. The 19th-century British constitutional scholar Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch has three essential rights: to be consulted, to encourage and to warn.

"What you're talking about there is not so much power as influence," says Murphy. And no one would argue that Queen Elizabeth isn't influential.

Appointing the Prime Minister

One of the queen's most important reserve powers is to appoint a new prime minister. Queen Elizabeth has appointed 14 prime ministers starting with Winston Churchill in 1951 through Boris Johnson in 2019. The ceremony is called "kissing hands," but there's no actual kissing anymore.

According to convention, the day after a general election, the queen invites the leader of the party that won the most seats in Parliament to Buckingham Palace. The queen asks the leader whether he or she will form a government. The queen's question is fully ceremonial at this point, but Murphy says it underscores one of the monarch's main responsibilities — to ensure the continuity of the British government.

Once the prime minister is chosen, the official royal register will say that "the prime minister Kissed Hands on Appointment," but that's not really true. The hand-kissing used to happen later in a private council meeting, but even that has gone away a royal spokesperson told The New York Times back in 2007.

What if the election results in a hung Parliament, in which no party wins a clear majority of the seats? It's still not up to the queen to pick a winner. Not that Elizabeth, who takes great pains to remain politically neutral, would ever want to.

In 2015, when pundits widely predicted a hung Parliament, "the queen very pointedly left London for the weekend," says Murphy. "She was clearly saying, 'Look guys, I don't want to be involved in this. You make your decision and then you come to me.'"

The last time a monarch replaced a prime minister was 1834, when King William IV fired the Whig reformer Lord Melbourne and appointed Sir Robert Peel.

The queen may remain stoically neutral in her public comments, but no one knows what goes on behind closed doors. The queen has a standing weekly meeting with the prime minister in which they presumably discuss the kingdom's most pressing political issues. We say "presumably" because the meetings are completely confidential.

"No one is taking minutes," says Murphy. "Even the queen's private secretary isn't there."

Opening and Closing Parliament

Another of the queen's official powers is to open and close sessions of Parliament. She officially opens each new session of Parliament with the "Queen's Speech." For a telling example of the queen's lack of real political power, the speech is written by the incoming government, not her.

Sessions of Parliament can be ended in two ways: They can be dissolved, which only happens before a general election, or they can be "prorogued," which means that the Parliament goes into recess for a set time and can't pass any more bills.

The queen no longer has any power to dissolve Parliament. That was repealed with the 2011 Fixed-term Parliaments Act that automatically dissolves Parliament every five years, or earlier if two-thirds of Parliament votes for a new election, or if there's a no confidence vote.

She can still technically prorogue a session of Parliament, but even that is dictated by the will of the prime minister. In 2019, Boris Johnson asked the queen to prorogue Parliament so he could avoid opposition to his Brexit plans. The queen went along with it, because convention dictates that she follow the prime minister's advice. But the U.K. Supreme Court later ruled that Johnson's move was unconstitutional.

Other Ceremonial Powers

As part of Britain's constitutional monarchy, the queen is obliged to give "Royal Assent" to all bills passed by Parliament before they can become law. The queen's approval is purely a formality at this point since the last time Royal Assent was refused was 1707, when Queen Anne blocked a bill to send a militia to Scotland.

As the sovereign head of state, the queen is also the head of the Armed Forces, which gives her the power to declare war and sign treaties. But like her other reserve powers, she exclusively acts under the advice of government ministers, including the prime minister.

She also gives out knighthoods and other awards for exceptional achievement and service twice a year, at New Year and in June on her official birthday (The monarch's birthday is always celebrated officially in June, regardless of when he or she was really born – it's a month guaranteed to have good weather.) But these honors are not hers to decide committees of experts, along with government reps, present the list of people to be honored to her via the prime minister.

The Perfect Constitutional Monarch?

Murphy points out that our conception of the role and powers of the monarch are wrapped up with the persona of the person sitting on the throne.

"In that sense, you can't distinguish between the functioning of monarchy in modern Britain and Queen Elizabeth II," says Murphy. "She's been there so damn long. She's of a particular kind of character. She's very discreet. She isn't given to expressions of emotions. She isn't keen to tell everyone her views."

Still, she has received much praise for her encouraging address to the U.K. and the Commonwealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was only the fifth time in her 68-year reign that she had addressed her nation apart from her annual Christmas message.

One could argue, says Murphy, that Queen Elizabeth II has been the perfect constitutional monarch, an apolitical and beloved figure always careful not to cross the line of convention.

That may not be the case with future monarchs.

"Prince Charles has his pet issues which he's been quite active in preaching about," says Murphy. "He's notorious for writing long, rather hectoring letters to ministers."

Even though she doesn't write the text of the Queen's Speech, Elizabeth II is free to pen her own Christmas Day addresses. True to her discreet and non-boat-rocking nature, however, the Christmas broadcasts are "incredibly dull," says Murphy.


Charles Finney

The 29-year-old lawyer Charles Grandison Finney had decided he must settle the question of his soul's salvation. So on October 10, 1821, he headed out into the woods near his Adams, New York, home to find God. "I will give my heart to God, or I never will come down from there," he said. After several hours, he returned to his office, where he experienced such forceful emotion that he questioned those who could not testify to a similar encounter.

"The Holy Spirit &hellip seemed to go through me, body and soul," he later wrote. "I could feel the impression, like a wave of electricity, going through and through me. Indeed it seemed to come in waves of liquid love, for I could not express it in any other way."

The next morning, Finney returned to his law office to meet with a client whose case he was about to argue. "I have a retainer from the Lord Jesus Christ to plead his cause," he told the man, "and cannot plead yours."

Vaqt chizig'i

Francis Asbury sent to America

John Newton and William Cowper publish Olney Hymns

William & Catherine Booth found Salvation Army

And so began the new career of the man who would become the leading revivalist in the nineteenth century.

Inside the burned-over district

Born in Connecticut, Finney was raised in Oneida County, New York. After a couple years teaching in New Jersey, he returned to New York to help his mother, who had become seriously ill. Meanwhile, he began studying law and became an apprentice to a judge in Adams.

After his conversion, Finney prepared for ministry in the Presbyterian church and was ordained in 1824. Hired by the Female Missionary Society of the Western District, he began his missionary labors in the frontier communities of upper New York. A rigid Calvinism dominated the theological landscape, but Finney urged his listeners to accept Christ openly and publicly. His style differed too his messages were more like a lawyer's argument than a pastor's sermon.

At Evans Mills, he was troubled that the congregations continuously said they were "pleased" with his sermons. He set about to make his message less pleasing and more productive. At the end of his sermon, which stressed the need for conversion, he took a bold step: "You who have made up your minds to become Christians, and will give your pledge to make your peace with God immediately, should rise up."

The entire congregation, having never heard such a challenge, remained in their seats.

"You have taken your stand," he said. "You have rejected Christ and his gospel." The congregation was dismissed, and many left angry.

The next evening, Finney preached on wickedness, his voice like "a fire &hellip a hammer &hellip [and] a sword." But he offered no chance to respond. The next night, the entire town turned out, including a man so angry with Finney that he brought a gun and intending to kill the evangelist. But that night, Finney again offered congregants a chance to publicly declare their faith. The church erupted&mdashdozens stood up to give their pledge, while others fell down, groaned, and bellowed. The evangelist continued to speak for several nights, visiting the new converts at their homes and on the streets.

He rode from town to town over what was known as the "burned-over district," a reference to the fact that the area had experienced so much religious enthusiasm that it was thought to have burned out. Newspapers, revivalists, and clergy took notice of the increasingly rowdy meetings&mdashmeetings unlike those of reserved Calvinists.

Identifying Finney's revivals with those a few decades earlier in places like Cane Ridge, Kentucky, many were ecstatic about prospects for "awakening" in the northeast. But others were opposed to the "plain and pointed preacher." The Old School Presbyterians resented Finney's modifications to Calvinist theology. Traditional Calvinists taught that a person would only come to believe the gospel if God had elected them to salvation. Finney stated that unbelief was a "will not," instead of a "cannot," and could be remedied if a person willed to become a Christian.

Such rigid Calvinism, he said, "had not been born again, was insufficient, and altogether an abomination to God."

The revivalistic Congregationalists, led by Lyman Beecher, feared that Finney was opening the door to fanaticism by allowing too much expression of human emotion. Unitarians opposed Finney for using scare tactics to gain converts. Across the board, many thought that his habitual use of the words siz va hell "let down the dignity of the pulpit."

"New Measures"

During this time, Finney developed what came to be known as "New Measures." He allowed women to pray in mixed public meetings. He adopted the Methodists' "anxious bench": he put a pew at the front of the church, where those who felt a special urgency about their salvation could sit. He prayed in colloquial, common, and "vulgar" language. Most of these New Measures were actually many decades old, but Finney popularized them and was attacked for doing so.

In July 1827, the New Lebanon Convention was held to examine these practices, as well as some false reports of excesses. Vote after vote ended in stalemate. When a last attempt was made at a resolution condemning questionable revivalistic practices, Finney countered by proposing a condemnation to "lukewarmness in religion." Neither proposal passed.

The zenith of Finney's evangelistic career was reached at Rochester, New York, where he preached 98 sermons between September 10, 1830, and March 6, 1831. Shopkeepers closed their businesses, posting notices urging people to attend Finney's meetings. Reportedly, the population of the town increased by two-thirds during the revival, but crime dropped by two-thirds over the same period.

From Rochester, he began an almost continuous revival in New York City as minister of the Second Free Presbyterian Church. He soon became disenchanted with Presbyterianism, however (due largely to his growing belief that people could, with God, perfect themselves). In 1834, he moved into the huge Broadway Tabernacle his followers had built for him.

He stayed there for only a year, leaving to pastor Oberlin Congregation Church and teach theology at Oberlin College. In 1851, he was appointed president, which gave him a new forum to advocate social reforms he championed, especially abolition of slavery.

Finney produced a variety of books and articles. His Lectures on Revivals of Religion (1835), a manual on how to lead revivals, inspired thousands of preachers to more consciously manage (critics said "manipulate") their revival meetings. His Lectures on Systematic Theology (1846) teach his special brand of "arminianized Calvinism."

Finney is called the "father of modern revivalism" by some historians, and he paved the way for later mass-evangelists like Dwight L. Moody, Billy Sunday, and Billy Graham.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Lineage 2 Revolution Клановое 20 х 20. Групповой этап. Европа


Izohlar:

  1. Roslyn

    I liked the post, write more. I would love to read it.

  2. Tedman

    Will there be a sequel?

  3. Alfrid

    Well done, this is the simply beautiful idea

  4. Brychan

    Shirin!

  5. Barthelemy

    Men uzr so'rayman, boshqa qarorni taklif qilmoqchiman.



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