Frederik Chapman

Frederik Chapman


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Maykl Chapman va Meri Sale ning kenja o'g'li Frederik Chapman Xitkinning Cork ko'chasida tug'ilgan va 1823 yil 17 dekabrda Sent -Meri cherkovida suvga cho'mgan. Hitchin Boys Grammatika Maktabini tugatgandan so'ng, u amakivachchasi Edvard Chepmanga Londonning 1186 Strand shahrida joylashgan "Chapman and Hall" nashriyot firmasining xodimi sifatida ishga kirdi. Chepman va uning hamkori Uilyam Xoll kompaniyani 1830 yilda tashkil etishgan.

Charlz Dikkens kompaniyaning eng muhim aktivi edi. O'sha paytda u Angliyaning eng mashhur yozuvchisi bo'lgan va ular nashriyotchi bo'lgan Pickwick hujjatlari (1836), Nikolas Niklebi (1838), Eski qiziqish do'koni (1840), Barnabi Rudj (1841), Martin Chuzzlewit (1843) va Rojdestvo qo'shig'i (1843). 1844 yilda Dikkens Chapman va Xoll bilan munosabatlarini to'xtatishga qaror qildi. Muallifi Dikkens: Hayot (2011) ta'kidlaganidek: "Agar Dikkensga ishonish kerak bo'lsa, har bir noshir yaxshi boshlagan va keyin yovuz odamga aylangan; lekin haqiqat shundaki, ular biznesmen bo'lganlarida va savdoni qattiq olib borganlarida, Dikkens tez -tez xato qilgan. U mualliflik huquqini sotish xato bo'lganini tushundi: u ter to'kib, qiynalib yurganida, barcha mehnatlari ularni boyitdi, deb o'ylashidan g'azablandi va u nashriyotchilarni o'z daromadlarini topgan odamlar deb o'ylay boshladi. Chapman va Xoll ko'pincha yaxshi to'lovlar bilan kelishib olgan narsalarini to'ldirib, u bilan yaxshi munosabatda bo'lishdi ".

Uilyam Xoll to'satdan kasal bo'lib qoldi va 1847 yil 7-mart, yakshanba kuni qirq olti yoshida, Londonning 186-Strand shahridagi ofisida vafot etdi. Edvard Chepman Frederik Chepmanga endi kompaniyada ko'proq mas'uliyat yuklanishi kerak deb qaror qildi. 1858 yil 24 -dekabr Kitob sotuvchisi "Chapman va Xollning firmasi bir necha yillardan beri boshqaruvda faol qatnashgan janob Frederik Chepmanning qabul qilinishi bilan mustahkamlandi", deb e'lon qildi.

Muallif sifatida Charlz Dikkens va uning nashriyotlari (1978) ta'kidlaganidek: "Frederik Chepman sherik maqomiga ko'tarildi. Kompaniya yaxshi yillarni o'tkazdi. Temir yo'llarning kengayishi, aylanayotgan kutubxonalar va bo'sh vaqtlar kitob savdosi yaxshilandi; Dikkensning Chapman va Xollga to'liq qaytishi. 1859 yil Frederikga yangi Dikkens davriy nashrini chiqarish imkoniyatini berdi. Yil davomidava yangi ketma -ket fantastika va yangi formatlarda eski nomlar va bir nechta to'plangan nashrlarni qayta chiqarish - bularning barchasi oxir -oqibat foyda keltirdi.

1852 yilda, Uilyam Smitga katta kvartira kerak bo'lganda, Chepman va Xoll 186 Stranddagi ofislarini bo'shatib, 193 Pikadilliga ko'chib ketishdi. Charlz Dikkensni yo'qotishiga qaramay, kompaniya gullab -yashnamoqda. Ularning adabiy maslahatchisi Jon Forster ularga Uilyam Makepeas Tekkeray, Tomas Karlayl, Uilyam Xarrison Ainsvort, Edvard Bulver-Litton, Elizabet Gaskell, Charlz Kingsli, Artur Xyu Klou, Robert Brauning va Charlz Lever kabi bir qancha mashhur mualliflarni olishga yordam berdi.

Uning mualliflaridan yana biri, Persi Fitsjerald, keyinchalik shunday izoh berdi: "U juda zo'r odam edi, u bir muncha sodda va befarq edi, lekin sodda va xushmuomala edi. Elkasida, hatto Edvard Chepman tirik bo'lsa ham, yuk ko'tarilgan edi. U baland bo'yli edi. U burgutli, xushchaqchaq odam va ishbilarmonlik instinktiga ega edi. Uning Ovington maydonida kichkina, lekin yoqimli uyi bor edi, unga kimdir billiard xonasini qo'shib qo'ydi, u esa uni oshxonaga aylantirdi.

1859 yilda Dikkens Bredberi va Evansdan ajralib, Chepman va Xollga qaytdi. Frederik Chepman asosan Dikkens bilan muzokaralar olib borishni va uning nashr etilishini nazorat qilgan Ikki shahar haqida ertak (1860), Notijorat sayohatchi (1861) va Katta umidlar (1861). Bu davrda kitoblari yaxshi sotilmaydigan iste'dodli muallif Jorj Meredit kompaniyaning o'quvchisiga aylandi. Aytilishicha, u haftasiga o'nga yaqin qo'lyozmalarni o'qigan va bir qancha muhim yozuvchilarni olib kelgan.

1864 yilda Edvard Chepman nafaqaga chiqqanida Frederik kompaniyaning yangi rahbari bo'ldi. Uning tarjimai holi Robert L. Patten ta'kidlaganidek: "Chepman, bir necha badavlat do'stlari tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanib, ko'p yillik sotib olishni rejalashtirdi va bosh mulkdor bo'ldi. Bu lavozimda u katta distribyutorlarga ommaviy sotish agressiv siyosatini boshladi. temir yo'l va chet el bozorlari uchun. Bunday bitimlar ma'muriy sa'y -harakatlarga nisbatan katta mablag 'sarfladi.

Kompaniyani boshqarganidan so'ng Frederik Chepman Jorj Genri Lyuisni har ikki oyda bir marta nashr etishga ko'ndirdi. O'n haftalik sharh. Birinchi raqam 1865 yil may oyida paydo bo'lgan, ammo bu tijoriy muvaffaqiyat emas edi. Yangi kapitalni jalb qilish maqsadida, Chepman kompaniyaning uchdan bir qismini Entoni Trollopga sotib yubordi va uni o'g'li Genri Merivale Trollopga topshirdi.

Chepman va Xoll Dikkensning oxirgi ikkita romanini nashr etishdi. Bizning o'zaro do'stimiz (1865) va Edvin Droud siri (1870). O'limidan uch oy oldin, Dikkens Chepmen va Xoll bilan Dikkensning mualliflik huquqlariga umumiy egalik huquqini tasdiqlovchi shartnoma imzoladi. Chekmen mualliflik huquqlarining qolgan qismini Dikkens vafotidan keyin sotib oldi va bu keyingi bir necha yil davomida kompaniyaning daromadiga katta hissa qo'shdi.

Frederik Chepman 1895 yil 1 martda Londondagi Ovington maydonidagi uyida grippdan vafot etdi.

A'lo odam, u biroz dadil va befarq edi, lekin sodda va xushmuomala edi. Uning Ovington maydonida kichkina, lekin yoqimli uyi bor edi, unga kimdir billiard xonasini qo'shib qo'ydi va uni maftun ovqat xonasiga aylantirdi. U erda Lucullusga o'xshash qanday mazali kechki ovqatlar berildi! U kompaniyani qanday boshqarganini ayta olmayman, lekin Dikkens tirikligida uning xohish -istaklarini har qanday tarzda bajarishga harakat qilgan.


Chepman 1881 yilda Konnektikut shtatining Norvich shahrida tug'ilgan. Norvich Free Akademiyasida o'rta maktabni tugatgandan so'ng, u 1905 yilda Kornel universitetida dengiz arxitekturasi va dengiz muhandisligi bo'yicha o'qigan. Chepman Manxettenga joylashib, Nyu -York motorli qayiq klubiga qo'shilgan. savdogarga aylandi. U 25 yil Amerika qayiq assotsiatsiyasi kotibi va assotsiatsiyaning poyga komissiyasi raisi bo'lib ishlagan. [1]

Chapman qayiqda va poygada faol qatnashgan va 1912 yilda uni tartibga solish uchun yollagan Uilyam Randolf Xerst e'tiboriga havola qilingan. Dvigatelli qayiq U 56 yil davomida nashr etgan jurnal. 1914 yilda Chepman Qo'shma Shtatlar kuch eskadronini tashkil qilgan o'n kishidan biri edi. U nafaqat tashkilotning pravoslavini loyihalashtirdi, balki turli xil xazinachi, qo'mondon o'rinbosari va bosh qo'mondon vazifalarini ham bajardi. [1]

Keyingi yillarda, Long -Aylend shtatining Plandome shahrida yashab, Manxasset ko'rfazidagi yaxtalar klubining qo'mondoni bo'lgan.

1916 yilda dengiz floti kotibining yordamchisi Franklin D. Ruzvelt Chepmandan harbiy-dengiz kuchlari zaxirasi a'zolariga kichik kema kemachiligini o'rgatish uchun qo'llanma yozishni so'radi. Keyingi yili 144 sahifadan iborat Motorli qayiqlarni amaliy boshqarish, dengizchilik va uchuvchilik nashr etildi. Oltita tuzatishdan so'ng, qo'llanma 1922 yilda o'zgartirildi Uchish, dengizchilik va kichik qayiqlarni boshqarish. [2] [3] Kitob o'sha paytdan beri nashr etilgan va 2013 yildan boshlab 67 -nashrda bo'lgan.

Chepman 1976 yil 21 martda Konnektikut shtatining Esseks shahrida 95 yoshida yurak xurujidan vafot etdi. [3]


Ko'pchilik uchun kitoblar

Gutenberg kitoblarni tez va arzon narxda ishlab chiqarish-daromadli istiqbol ekanini tan oldi. U Sharqiy Osiyoda qo'llaniladigan harakatlanuvchi turini va Evropadagi dehqonlar tomonidan ishlatiladigan vintli presslarni, birinchi bosma mashinani yaratish g'oyasini ishlab chiqdi.

Gutenberg zargar bo'lgani uchun, u qayta -qayta ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan bardoshli harf bloklarini yaratishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Har bir sahifa uchun harflarni tartibga solish butun kun davom etishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, sahifani o'sha bir kunlik ishdan kerak qadar ko'p marta bosib chiqarish mumkin edi.

Gutenbergning maktublari qo'lyozmalarni yozish uchun ishlatilgan Blackletter xattotligiga asoslangan. Salbiy tomoni shundaki, u bitta sahifaga sig'adigan matn hajmini cheklab qo'ydi, bu esa sozlash uchun ko'proq vaqt talab qiladigan uzun kitoblarni yaratdi.

Gutenberg bibliyasidagi sahifalar, original Blackletter shrift va dekorativ rasmlar bilan.


Milliy biografiya lug'ati, 1901 yil qo'shimcha/Chapman, Frederik

CHEPMAN, FREDERIC (1823-1895), noshir, Xittsinli Hertsdan Maykl va Meri Chapmanning kenja o'g'li edi. U 1823 yilda Xitchin, Cork ko'chasida, garovga olingan bobosi, shoir Jorj Chepmanga tegishli bo'lgan uyda tug'ilgan [q. v.], va Xitkin gimnaziyasida tahsil olgan. O'n sakkiz yoshida u 1834 yilda asos solingan, amakivachchasi Edvard Chepman bo'lgan Chapman & amp Hall nashriyot kompaniyasiga ishga kirdi. Nashriyot 186 Strandda joylashgan edi. 1850 yilda u 193 Pikadilliga ko'chirildi va nihoyat, 1881 yil mart oyida, Henrietta ko'chasida, Kovent bog'ida o'z kvartiralarini egalladi. 1847 yil mart oyida Uilyam Xoll (Chapman va Xoll) vafotidan keyin uning sherigi Frederik Chepman bo'lib, 1864 yilda Edvard Chepman nafaqaga chiqqanida Frederik Chepman firma boshlig'i bo'ldi. Bu lavozimda u kuchli va muvaffaqiyatli siyosatni boshladi. Bir muncha vaqt u Brauninglar asarlarini nashr etdi, Lord Litton, Entoni Trollop va Jorj Meredit esa Trollopaning to'ng'ich o'g'li uch yarim yil davomida Chepman bilan sherik bo'lgan. Dikkens bilan uning munosabatlari uzoq vaqtdan beri juda yaqin edi. Dikkensning Chapman va Xol Xoll bilan aloqasi 1836 yilda, Uilyam Xoll Dikkensga taklif qilib, natijada "Pickwick Papers" (Forster, 67 kv. Kv.) Nashr etilishiga olib kelganidan keyin boshlandi. Xamfri soati, "Barnabi Rudj", "Eski qiziqish do'koni", "Martin Chuzzlewit" va "Rojdestvo karoli", lekin 1844 yilda Dikkens firma bilan janjallashib, Bredberi va Evans xonimlar bilan munosabatlarga kirishdi. Biroq, 1859 yilda Dikkens o'z kitoblarining qolgan qismini chiqargan Chapman va amp Xoll bilan aloqani tikladi va Frederik Chepman 1870 yilda muallif vafotidan keyin Dikkens asarlarining mualliflik huquqini sotib oldi. 1845 yilda Chapman & amp Hall ikkinchi nashrini nashr etdi. Karlaylning "Shiller hayoti" va 1880 yildan ko'p o'tmay, biznes kompaniyaga aylangach, u Karlayl asarlarining mualliflik huquqini sotib oldi.

Frederik Chapman 1860 yilda Jorj Genri Lyuis tomonidan tahrir qilingan "O'n haftalik sharh" ni loyihalashtirdi [q. v.] va oyiga ikki marta chiqariladi. 1867 yilda janob Jon Morli muharrir etib tayinlanganda, u har oylik davriy nashrga aylandi. 1883 yilda janob Morli tahririyatdan nafaqaga chiqdi va uning o'rnini janob T. S. Escott, janob Frank Xarris va janob V. L. Kortni egalladi. 1880 yilda Chepman o'z biznesini mas'uliyati cheklangan jamiyatga aylantirdi va uning boshida vafotigacha qoldi. U 1895 yil 1 martda Londonning Ovington maydonidagi 10 -uyida vafot etdi. U ikki marta uylangan. Uning birinchi rafiqasi Kresla, Petershamlik Jozef Vudinning katta qizi, Surrey edi. Undan u Kornuoll gersogining engil piyoda askari ofitser Frederik Xamilton Chepman ismli o'g'il qoldirdi. Uning ikkinchi xotini, tirik qolgan, bankrotlik bo'yicha bosh komissar Ser Robert Xardingning qizi Enni Marion edi. Undan u qizi Reynni qoldirdi, u Xarold Bruk Alderga uylandi.

Chapman o'z davrining ko'plab yozuvchilari bilan yaqin munosabatda bo'lgan. U juda sportchi edi - birinchi kunlarida ovchi bo'lgan va oxirgi marta o'q otgan.

[Xususiy ma'lumotlar Forsterning Dikkens hayoti, tahr. 1876, passiv Entoni Trollopning tarjimai holi.]


Frederik Chopen

Frederik Chopen G'arbiy kontsert musiqasi tarixida polshalik eng mashhur bastakor edi. U pianino cholg'usining harmonik mazmuni, tuzilishi va hissiy sifatini inqilob qilib, yengil raqs shakllari, tungi va janrlarni dadil va chuqur ichki asarlarga aylantirgan ilg'or odam edi.

Fridrix Frantsisk Chopen frantsuz otasi va polyak onasida tug'ilgan, ehtimol 1810 yil 1 -martda Varshava g'arbidagi Zelazova Vola qishlog'ida tug'ilgan. Bu rustik muhitda u klaviatura musiqasining klassikasini (shu jumladan, Baxning musiqasini ham), uni dahshatli deb tan olgan o'qituvchilar tomonidan va kashshof musiqiy millatchilikda aks etadigan Polsha xalq musiqasiga duch keldi. . U Varshavaning eng yaxshi pianino va kompozitsiya o'qituvchilarining iste'dodlaridan tezda ustun keldi va 1829 yilda Bosh musiqa maktabini tugatgach, professor Yozef Elsner uni daho deb e'lon qildi. O'sha yili Shopen Avstriya, Germaniya va Frantsiyaga gastrol safariga chiqdi. Bu davrda u o'zining ikkita pianino kontsertini yozdi, ular o'sha davrning virtuoz pianino musiqasining o'ziga xos ajoyib uslubini o'z ichiga oladi, lekin o'ziga xos ohang uchun sovg'aning rivojlanishini ko'rsatadi, ham bezakli, ham hissiy jihatdan chuqur. Shopen Varshavaga qaytdi, lekin yana Vena shahriga jo'nab ketdi, u erda Polshaning rus, pruss va avstriyalik hukmdorlariga qarshi qo'zg'oloni muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. Polshaning milliy ruhi uning ba'zi yirik asarlarida, shu jumladan "inqilobiy" etude (C minordagi etyud, 10-son, 12-son) ni qamrab oladi. U bastakor Robert Shumann tomonidan rag'batlantirildi, u "Variatsiyalari" ni ko'rib chiqdi. 2, "Bosh kiyimlar, janoblar, daho!"

1832 yilda Shopen ko'p jihatdan Evropaning madaniy hayotining markazi bo'lgan Parijga yo'l oldi va Salle Pleyeldagi kontsertda shaharning musiqiy elitasini, shu jumladan Frans Lisni ham hayratga soldi. U darhol pianino o'qituvchisi sifatida talabga ega bo'ldi va tez orada u har doim Polshaga qaytishga umid qilsa -da, Parijga joylashishga qaror qildi. U aristokratik salonlarda ijro etib, o'sha paytdagi etude (bu so'z "o'rganish" degan ma'noni anglatadi, lekin Shopen qo'lida), nocturne, vals va Polsha tomirida mazurka va polonez. Polsha qizi Mariya Vodzinska bilan rejalashtirilgan nikohdan so'ng, Shopen Jorj Sand taxallusini ishlatgan yozuvchi Avror Dudevant bilan uchrashdi. Er -xotin dahshatli ishni boshladilar (Qum turmushga chiqdi) va 1838 yilda birgalikda Ispaniyaning Mayorka shahriga sayohat qilishdi, u erda mahalliy fuqarolar o'zlarining noan'anaviy munosabatlariga norozi bo'lishdi va foydalanilmayotgan monastirda yashashga majbur bo'lishdi. Shopen ijodkorligini yo'qotdi va u keyingi yillarda pianino musiqasining ajoyib innovatsion to'plamlarini yozadi. Biroq, 1838-1839 yil qishda havo sovuqlashdi va Shopenning sog'lig'i yomonlashdi, chunki u Sand bilan isitilmaydigan binoda yashagan, ehtimol u sil kasalligi bilan og'rigan edi. Frantsiyaga qaytib kelganida, Shopen va Sand Parijda va yozda Nohantdagi uyida istiqomat qilishdi, u erda Shopen ijod qildi va er -xotin rassom Evgen Delakroy va frantsuz badiiy jamiyatining boshqa a'zolarini qabul qilishdi. Romantika sovuqlashdi va nihoyat 1847 yilda tugadi. Ajralishga turtki bo'lgan omillardan biri Sandning 1846 yildagi "Lucrezia Floriani" romanida Shopenning salbiy obrazi edi.

Shopenning sog'lig'i ham yomonlashdi, chunki u ijro etishni qiyinlashtirdi va endi olomonni virtuoz sifatida jalb qila olmadi. 1848 yildagi Parijdagi siyosiy tartibsizliklar paytida, Shopen Britaniya orollariga qochib ketdi. U Londonda (bir vaqtlar qirolicha Viktoriya va shahzoda Albert uchun) va Glazgoda konsert berdi, u erda Shotlandiya zodagon ayollari Jeyn Sterling romantik qiziqish uyg'otdi. Biroq, Shopen "qabrga nikoh to'shagidan ko'ra yaqinroq" ekanligini aytdi va haqiqatan ham 1848 yil noyabr oyida u polshalik qochqinlar uchun oxirgi konsertini berdi. Tarixchilar Kornel Michałowski va Jim Samsonning so'zlariga ko'ra, u Parijga qaytib keldi va muxlislar oqimini davom ettirdi. . " 1849 yil 17 oktyabrda Shopen Parijda vafot etdi.


Frederik Chopen

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

Frederik Chopen, To'liq frantsuz Frederik Fransua Shopen, Polyak Frayder Frantsisk Szopen, (1810 yil 1 martda tug'ilgan)qarang Tadqiqotchining izohi: Shopenning tug'ilgan sanasi], Selazova Vola, Varshava yaqinida, Varshova gersogligi [hozir Polshada] - 1849 yil 17 oktyabrda tug'ilgan, Parij, Frantsiya), polshalik frantsuz bastakori va romantik davr pianisti, eng yakkaxon asarlari bilan mashhur pianino va uning pianino konsertlari uchun. Garchi u ozgina pianino asarlarini yozgan bo'lsa -da, ularning ko'pchiligi qisqacha, o'zining ajoyib tasavvurlari va mahoratiga ko'ra, Shopen musiqaning eng buyuk shoirlaridan biri hisoblanadi.

Frederik Chopen nima bilan mashhur?

Frederik Chopen pianino chalishi va ushbu asbob uchun yaratgan innovatsion asarlari bilan mashhur.

Frederik Shopen nimadan vafot etdi?

Frederik Chopen 1849 yil 17 oktyabrda sil kasalligidan vafot etdi. U umrining so'nggi 11 yilida shu kasallikdan aziyat chekdi.

Frederik Chopen qayerda dafn etilgan?

Frederik Chopen Parijdagi Per Lachaise qabristoniga dafn etilgan. Uning yuragi Varshavadagi Muqaddas Xoch cherkovida, ona vatani Polshada dafn etilgan.

Qanday qilib Frederik Shopen mashhur bo'ldi?

Frederik Chopen bolaligida pianinochi va bastakor sifatida Polshada mashhur bo'ldi. Uning shon -shuhrati 1829 yilda Vena konsertlari bilan tarqaldi. 1831 yilda Parijga ko'chib o'tgach, uning shuhrati pianino o'qituvchisi va bastakor sifatida o'sdi.

Shopenning otasi, Polshadagi frantsuz muhojiri Nikolas, Selazova -Volada turli aristokrat oilalarga, shu jumladan Skarbeklar oilasiga tarbiyachi sifatida ishga joylashdi, u kambag'al munosabatlaridan biriga uylandi. Frederik sakkiz oylik bo'lganida, Nikolas Varshava litseyida frantsuz tili o'qituvchisi bo'ldi. 1823 yildan 1826 yilgacha Chopinning o'zi litseyda o'qigan.

Butun oilaning badiiy moyilligi bor edi, hatto bolaligida ham onasi yoki katta opasi pianino chalayotganini eshitganida, Shopen har doim g'alati taassurot qoldirardi. Olti yoshida u allaqachon eshitganlarini takrorlashga yoki yangi kuylar yaratishga harakat qilardi. Keyingi yili u pianino darslarini 61 yoshli Voytsex Zywny bilan boshladi, u har tomonlama musiqachi, qadriyatlarni sezadi. Zivnining pianino chalish bo'yicha oddiy ko'rsatmasini tez orada shogirdi ortda qoldirdi, u pianinoga o'ziga xos yondashuvni kashf etdi va unga akademik qoidalar va rasmiy intizom bilan to'siqsiz rivojlanishiga ruxsat berildi.

Shopen o'zini erta yoshida shaxsiy sahnalarda o'ynashga taklif qildi va sakkiz yoshida u birinchi marta xayriya kontsertida omma oldida chiqish qildi. Uch yil o'tgach, u Varshavada parlament ochish uchun kelgan rus podshosi Aleksandr I huzurida chiqish qildi. O'yin -kulgi uning bolaligidagi obro'sining o'sishiga sababchi emas edi. Etti yoshida u A. Minoradagi polonezu bosilgan va ko'p o'tmay, uning yurishi rus gersogi Konstantinga murojaat qilib, u o'zining harbiy orkestri paradda o'ynashini so'radi. Boshqa polonayzlar, mazurkalar, xilma -xilliklar, ekossaislar va rondo ortidan ergashdi, natijada 16 yoshida oilasi uni yangi tashkil etilgan Varshava musiqa konservatoriyasiga qabul qilishdi. Bu maktabni polyak bastakori Jozef Elsner boshqargan, u bilan Shopen musiqa nazariyasini o'rgangan edi.

Bundan yaxshiroq o'qituvchi topilmasdi, chunki Elsner an'anaviy treningda turib, romantizmga moyil bastakor sifatida Shopinning shaxsiy tasavvurini hech qachon faqat ilmiy talablar bilan tekshirib bo'lmasligini tushundi. Hatto Elsnerning ko'ziga tushmasidan oldin, Shopen Polsha qishloq xalq musiqasiga qiziqish bildirgan va keyinchalik uning ijodiga shubhasiz milliy rang bergan taassurotlarni olgan edi. Konservatoriyada unga pianino chalish bo'yicha uyg'unlik va kompozitsion qat'iy kurslar o'tdi, unga yuqori darajadagi individuallikni rivojlantirishga ruxsat berildi.

Varshavaning jonli musiqiy hayotiga qaramay, Chopen zudlik bilan kengroq musiqiy tajribaga muhtoj edi, shuning uchun ota -onasi uni Vena shahriga jo'natish uchun pul topdilar. 1828 yilda Berlindagi dastlabki ekspeditsiyadan so'ng, Shopen Vena shahriga tashrif buyurdi va 1829 yilda u erda birinchi debyutini o'tkazdi. Ikkinchi konsert uning muvaffaqiyatini tasdiqladi va vataniga qaytganida, u o'z asarini yozib, chet eldagi boshqa yutuqlarga tayyorlandi. Minoradagi 2 -sonli pianino kontserti (1829) va uning Minoradagi 1 -sonli pianino kontserti (1830), shuningdek, pianino va orkestr uchun boshqa asarlar, uning ajoyib pianino uslubidan foydalanish uchun mo'ljallangan. Uning birinchi etudlari ham shu vaqtda (1829–32) yozilgan bo'lib, unga va boshqalarga pianino chalishning yangi uslubidagi texnik qiyinchiliklarni o'zlashtirishga imkon beradi.

1830 yil mart va oktyabr oylarida u o'zining yangi asarlarini Varshava jamoatchiligiga taqdim etdi va keyinchalik o'qish uchun Germaniya va Italiyaga tashrif buyurish niyatida Polshani tark etdi. Evropaning bezovtalanadigan holatiga qo'shilgan bu voqea Polshaning rus hukmronligiga qarshi qo'zg'oloni haqida xabar kelgach, u Vena shahridan uzoqqa bormadi, u keyingi iyulda, Parijga ketishga qaror qilgunga qadar, Venada foydasiz qoldi. . U o'sha paytdagi Evropa madaniyatining markazi bo'lgan va o'zining kech gullab-yashnayotgan romantik harakatiga kelganidan ko'p o'tmay, Shopen o'zining dahosi gullab-yashnashi mumkin bo'lgan muhitni topganini tushundi. U tezda ko'plab polshalik muhojirlar va yosh bastakorlar, jumladan Frans Lisz va Ektor Berlioz, qisqasi, Vinchenzo Bellini va Feliks Mendelson bilan aloqa o'rnatdi. Shopenning iste'dodlari va farqlari uni tan olgan doiralar, tezda kerakli rassomni topganliklarini tan olishdi va qisqa vaqt davomida noaniqlikdan so'ng, Shopen o'z hayotining asosiy ishi - o'qitish va bastakorlik bilan shug'ullanishdi. Bu manbalardan olinadigan yuqori daromad uni kontsert berishdan ozod qildi.

Dastlab, professional va moliyaviy muammolar bor edi. 1832 yil fevral oyida Parijdagi kontsert debyutidan so'ng, Shopen klaviaturadagi o'ta nozikligi katta konsert maydonlarida hamma uchun yoqmasligini tushundi. Ammo o'sha yilning oxirida boy Rotshild banklari oilasi bilan tanishish birdaniga yangi ufqlarni ochdi. O'zining oqlangan odob -axloqi, bejirim kiyinishi va tug'ma sezgirligi bilan Shopen o'zini Parijning buyuk uylarida, ham resitalist, ham o'qituvchi sifatida sevib topdi. Uning yangi pianino asarlari o'sha paytda ikkita hayratlanarli darajada she'riy etud kitoblarini (1829-36) o'z ichiga olgan. G Minorda ballada (1831-35), Fantaisie-Impromptu (1835) va boshqa ko'plab mayda -chuydalar, ular orasida Shopurning kuchli millatchilik tuyg'usidan ilhomlangan mazurkalar va polonayzalar.

Shopenning Varshavadagi Konstantiya Gladkovskiy (1830) va Drezdendagi Mariya Vodzenska (1835–36) bilan bo'lgan yoshlik muhabbatlari barbod bo'ldi, garchi u aslida ikkinchisi bilan unashgan bo'lsa. 1836 yilda u birinchi marta Jorj Sand nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan erkin yozuvchi Avror Dudevant bilan uchrashdi. Ularning aloqasi 1838 yilning yozida boshlangan. O'sha kuzda u bolalari Moris va Solanj bilan orolda qishlash uchun yo'lga chiqqan. Mayorkadan. Ular oddiy villani ijaraga olishdi va quyoshli ob -havo buzilmaguncha va Shopen kasal bo'lib qolmaguncha juda xursand bo'lishdi. Sil kasalligi haqidagi mish -mishlar villa xo'jayiniga etib kelganida, ularga buyurtma berildi va turar joyni faqat olis Valldemosa qishlog'idagi monastirdan topa olishdi.

Sovuq va nam, to'yib ovqatlanmaslik, dehqonlarning g'alati o'yinlariga shubha bilan qarashlari va mos pianino yo'qligi Chopinning badiiy ijodiga to'sqinlik qildi va uning jismoniy sog'lig'ini yanada zaiflashtirdi. Darhaqiqat, Shopen boshidan kechirgan sog'lig'i uning sog'lig'ining sekin pasayishiga olib keldi va 10 yildan keyin sil kasalligidan vafot etdi. Qum faqat darhol ketish uning hayotini qutqarishini tushundi. Ular 1839 yil mart oyining boshida Marselga yetib kelishdi va malakali shifokor tufayli, uch oydan keyin Parijga qaytishni rejalashtirishni boshlashlari uchun, Shopen etarlicha sog'ayib ketdi.

1839 yilning yozida ular Parijdan janubda 180 mil (290 km) uzoqlikda, Qumning Nohant dala hovlisida o'tkazdilar. Mayorkadan qaytganidan keyingi bu davr Shopen hayotining eng baxtli va eng samarali davri edi va Nohantda o'tkazilgan uzoq yoz asarlar ketma -ket o'z mevasini berdi. Doimiy daromad manbai bo'lish uchun u yana xususiy o'qitishga murojaat qildi. Uning uslubi bilak va qo'lning katta egiluvchanligi va g'ayritabiiy barmog'ini chaqqonlik uchun ishlatishga imkon berdi, bunda chiroyli, qo'shiq ohangini ishlab chiqarish deyarli har doim asosiy talab edi. Uning yangi asarlariga talab ham oshdi va u noshirlar bilan muomalada tobora zukko bo'lgani uchun, u nafis yashashga qodir edi.

Sog'lik takrorlanmas tashvish edi va har yoz Sand uni toza havo va dam olish uchun Noxantga olib borardi. Polina Viardot va rassom Evgen Delakroy kabi yaqin do'stlar ham tez -tez taklif qilinar edi. Shopen Nohantda eng ko'p izlanayotgan musiqasini yaratdi, nafaqat miniatyuralar, balki kengaytirilgan asarlar, masalan. Kichik Fantaisie (tuzilgan 1840–41), Barcarolle (1845-46), Polonez-Fantaziya (1845–46), A-tekis mayor (1840–41) va F minor (1842) balladalari va Minora kichik sonatasi (1844). Bu erda, u mamlakatda mukammallikka intilish uchun tinchlik va vaqt topdi. U o'z g'oyalarini uzoqroq va murakkabroq dalillarga aylantirishdan juda xavotirli bo'lib tuyuldi va hatto o'z nuqtai nazarini mustahkamlash uchun musiqashunoslarning risolalari uchun Parijga yubordi. Bu davrda uning harmonik so'z boyligi ancha jasur bo'lib o'sdi, lekin hech qachon sezgir go'zallik evaziga. U bu sifatni butun umri davomida ta'riflovchi unvonlardan yoki asosiy "dastur" dan nafratlangani kabi qadrlagan.

Sandning qizi Solanjning uylanishidan kelib chiqqan oilaviy kelishmovchilik, Shopinning Sand bilan bo'lgan munosabatlarining keskinlashishiga olib keldi va u tobora kayfiyatli va yoqimsiz bo'lib ketdi. Ba'zilar, shaxsiy mojarolardan tashqari, uning merkuriy xatti -harakati ma'lum bir epilepsiya turiga bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin deb taxmin qilishgan. Qanday bo'lmasin, 1848 yilga kelib, u bilan Sand o'rtasidagi tafovut tugadi va mag'rurlik ular xohlagan murosaga kelishiga to'sqinlik qildi. Shundan so'ng, Shopen sog'lig'i bilan kurashdan voz kechdi.

1848 yil fevral oyida Parijda boshlangan inqilob ruhiy tushkunlikka tushdi va ruhiy tushkunlikka tushdi, Shopen Angliya va Shotlandiyaga tashrif buyurish taklifini qabul qildi. Uning Londondagi ziyofati g'ayratli edi va u mashg'ulotlar va moda kechalarida chiqishlarning zo'r bosqichini o'tkazdi. Shu bilan birga, Shopenga bu sotsializatsiyani davom ettirish uchun kuch etishmadi va u ham bastalay olmadi. Hozirgi vaqtda uning sog'lig'i tez yomonlashdi va u oxirgi marta 1848 yil 16 -noyabrda Londondagi Gildhall kontsert maydonida omma oldida chiqish qildi, u oxirgi vatanparvarlik harakati bilan polshalik qochqinlar manfaati uchun o'ynadi. U Parijga qaytdi, u erda keyingi yili vafot etdi, uning jasadi yuraksiz, Per-Lachaise qabristoniga dafn qilindi (uning yuragi Varshavadagi Muqaddas Xoch cherkovida dafn qilindi).


MLB tarixidagi eng fojiali maydon, 100 yildan keyin

Polo maydonida dushanba kuni tushdan keyin soat 3 larda yomg'ir yog'di, 88 daraja va nam, lekin bulutlar xavf tug'dirmadi. Tribunalarda 21000 kishi bor edi va bir -birlari bilan to'qnash kelishga intilgan ikkita vimpelendant bor edi. Uy plastinkasi hakami Tommi Konnoli "to'p o'ynang!" Degan ovozdan boshqa hech narsa qilishni hech qachon o'ylamagan.

Va shunday qilishdi. Mehmon hindular Chikagodan atigi .004 foizga ortda qolganda, White Sox bilan virtual galstukda maydonga tushishdi. Yankilar yarim o'yinda ortda qolishdi, lekin bir haftada to'rtta o'yinni tashkil qilishdi va 19-g'alabasini qo'lga kiritgan o'ng qanot himoyachisi Karl Maysni tashladilar.

Qabila uning ustiga sakrab tushdi va o'z tayog'i Sten Koveleskining 3: 0 hisobida to'rtta o'yinda ustunlik qildi, u 13 ta tayoqchadan 12 tasini, shu jumladan Babe Rutni ikki marta nafaqaga chiqardi. Beshinchi o'rinni beysbolning eng yaxshi ko'riladigan futbolchilaridan biri, butun Klivlendning eng mashhur fuqarolaridan biri, qisqa metrajli Rey Chepman egalladi.

O'sha kuni ertalab, bir nechta hindular Broadway va 74 -ko'chadagi Ansonia mehmonxonasidan Cooggan Bluffgacha bo'lgan yuqori poezdda 155 -chi pog'onaga ko'tarilishdi. To'satdan, Chepman qo'shiq aytishni boshladi - "Hurmatli Old Pal O 'Mine" - va tez orada uning jamoadoshlari Chepmenning o'ziga xos tenoriga qo'shilishdi. U o'z faoliyatida Meysga qarshi unchalik muvaffaqiyat qozonmaganligini aytib, kuldi.

"Men bugun maydonga tushaman, bolalar", dedi u. "Siz hamkasblar, zarba berasiz."

U o'zi bilan ikkita ko'rshapalakni tarelkaga olib bordi, Konnoliga bosh irg'adi, qopqog'ini mahkamroq tortdi va biroz egildi. Maysning g'ayritabiiy etkazib berilishi uning chiqish joyiga etib borganida, bo'g'imlari amalda qirib tashlanganini anglatar edi, lekin u Chepmenning bir oz qimirlayotganini ko'rmasidan bir oz oldin. Chapman o'yindagi eng yaxshi bunter edi. O'sha paytda, Mays o'z strategiyasini pastdan yuqoriga va yuqoriga o'zgartirishga qaror qildi.

Bu erda maydon bordi: baland va qattiq. Aloqa bor edi. Mays zarba berdi, to'pni oldi, birinchi tayanchchi Uolli Pippni maydonga tashladi va tezda e'tiborini hindlarning yulduzi va menejeri Tris Spikerga qaratdi.

Getty Images orqali Rey Chepman sport yangiliklari

Ammo keyin Konnoli baqirdi: "Vaqt!"

Mays o'girilib, dahshatli narsani ko'rdi: Rey Chepman yerda. Sovuqdan. Va keyin Konnelining yana baqirgani eshitildi.

"Bizga shifokor kerak!" - iltimos qildi u. "Uyda shifokor bormi? ”

2019 yilgi mavsum oxirigacha oliy liga tarixida 220 855 o'yin o'tkazildi. Xitterlar plastinkaga 15,106,184 marta kelgan va 111,521 zarbali to'p bilan urilgan - ularning ba'zilari soatiga 95 mil yoki undan yuqori tezlikda. Minglab chiziqli haydovchilar urildi, ba'zilari bosh suyagi va ma'bad va tomoqqa soatiga 110 mil tezlikda urildi.

Faqat bitta o'lim bor edi. Qaysidir ma'noda, bu beysbolning eng katta mo''jizasi.

"Bu haqiqatan ham ajoyib", deydi Maykl Sowell - Oklaxoma shtatida uzoq vaqt jurnalistika professori, eski Tulsa Tribunida uzoq vaqt sport yozuvchisi va "O'ldirilgan maydon" kitobining muallifi, dahshatli va taqdirli tushdan keyin tasvirlangan. 1920 yil 16 -avgust - 100 yil oldin yakshanba. "Va bu sizga ko'zalarni soatiga yuz chaqirim tashlaganida, xitterlar nima uchun bunday munosabatda bo'lishini tushunishingizga yordam beradi."

Ko'p yillar davomida qo'rqinchli voqealar bo'lgan. Bostonlik Toni Konigliaro beysbolning eng yorqin yulduzlaridan biri edi, u 1967 yil avgustda farishtalar Jek Xemilton tomonidan parvarish qilinmaguncha. Dickie Thon Astros uchun All-Star shortstop edi, uning boshi Mets tomonidan urilganidan keyin hech qachon bir xil bo'lmagan. Mayk Torrez 1984 yil aprel oyida.

Va kostryulkalar fizikaning injiqliklariga yanada zaifroqdir. Yankislarning yozgi lagerining birinchi kunida Masahiro Tanakaning boshidan ayyorlik bilan chiqib ketayotganiga guvoh bo'lganlarning hammasi nafaqat xirillagan ovozdan, balki zarbadan keyin to'pning balandligini silkitdi.

Iyul oyida chiziq haydovchisiga urilganidan keyin tepada Masahiro Tanaka. Charles Wenzelberg/New York Post

“That,” Sowell says, “is what the players on the field at the Polo Grounds talked about for years to come. The sound. They never forgot the sound. Even people in the stands, and it was crowded that day, remembered the sound.”

There were so many fateful twists and fatal turns that brought Mays and Chapman together in that awful moment. Consider, as beloved as Chapman was, Mays was equally disliked, even by teammates. He was a loner, not one to crush postgame beers with the boys. If an error was committed behind him, he wasn’t shy about showing his displeasure. He was known to scuff the ball, his favorite ploy scraping it against the rubber every time he picked it up to start an inning.

And he was known to pitch inside. Sometimes that resulted in hard feelings. Ty Cobb once asked him point blank if he threw at him on purpose, and Mays, being Mays, replied, “If you think so, that’s all that matters.” In 1917 — when he led baseball in HBPs, with 17 — Mays beaned Speaker on the very top of his head, and Speaker didn’t think that was an accident, either.

But back in the spring, Mays had been shaken when one of his few friends in the game, Yankees infielder Chick Fewster, had been beaned by Brooklyn’s Jeff Pfeiffer and knocked unconscious. He didn’t play again until July. Mays said, “When he was hurt by a pitched ball, it affected me so that I was afraid to pitch in close to a batter.”

And there was something else: Baseball’s owners had started to complain that the umpires were using too many balls, which cost $2.50 apiece in 1920. It was still common practice for teams to demand fans to return foul balls and home runs, and it irked them when umps would throw out balls that had been hardly dirtied.

So Ban Johnson, American League president, earlier that summer directed that umpires keep balls in play until they were on the brink of tatters.

Keep all of these things in mind as we return to the Polo Grounds 100 years ago, as we see Chapman slowly regaining his wits, rising to his feet, helped to the center field clubhouse by an army of mates. Harry Lunte replaced Chapman at first. Mays forged on. The Yankees staged a ninth-inning comeback, lost 4-3.

Afterward, at his locker, Mays was approached by a sportswriter named F.C. Lane of Baseball Magazine. Mays blamed his ineffectiveness on manager Miller Huggins moving him up a few days in the rotation. He mentioned that the ball was damp. Then he asked about Chapman.

“He was taken away in an ambulance,” Lane said. “That’s all I know.”

Mays placed his head in his hands, lost in thought.

In the clubhouse, Chapman had again begun to lapse. As he was hurried onto a stretcher, he asked the Indians’ secretary to retrieve his wedding ring from a safe. A team of doctors at St. Lawrence Hospital operated, removing a portion of his skull, relieving pressure on his brain. For a few hours, it seemed hopeful. Lekin uzoq emas.

At 4:40 a.m. on Aug. 17, Ray Chapman died. He was 29 years old, a lifetime .278 hitter but one of the best second basemen of his time. His wife, Kathy, pregnant with their daughter, arrived a few hours later and fainted upon hearing the news from his stricken teammates.

Mays was questioned by the district attorney but never charged. He expressed immediate remorse — “It was the most regrettable incident of my career, and I would give anything if I could undo what happened” — but he was also defiant in his conviction that this had been an accident, that his conscience was clear. If anything, he blamed Connolly for making him throw a wet, beaten-up ball he was roundly vilified for that.

For a time there was talk of a league-wide boycott of Mays, of players refusing to play against him, but that dissipated. Mays wound up winning 26 games that year and 27 in 1921, and finished his career with a lifetime 207-126 record and a 2.92 ERA, and that compares awfully favorably to many of his contemporaries who made the Hall of Fame.

To his dying day in 1971 at age 79, he believed he knew why he was excluded.

“People blame me,” he told sportswriter Jack Murphy not long before he died. “But I know the truth. I sleep well at night.”


Mark David Chapman

Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

Mark David Chapman, (born May 10, 1955, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.), American criminal who fatally shot John Lennon on December 8, 1980. He received a sentence of 20 years to life and was repeatedly denied parole.

Chapman grew up in Decatur, Georgia, and as a teenager he developed an obsession with the Beatles, especially Lennon. While in high school, he became a born-again Christian, and after graduation, he worked for the YMCA and was a counselor for Vietnamese refugees in Fort Chaffee, Arkansas. In 1977 Chapman moved to Hawaii, where he attempted suicide and was taken to a hospital. Later that year he began working at the facility, first in maintenance and then in its print shop.

In 1979 Chapman married and became a security guard. Over the ensuing year, he grew increasingly unstable and homicidal. He became fixated on J.D. Salinger’s novel The Catcher in the Rye and began identifying with the disillusioned main character, Holden Caulfield. Chapman also created a list of people he wanted to kill, and it included Johnny Carson, Elizabeth Taylor, and Lennon. He eventually decided on the former Beatle, whom he had come to think of as a “phony.” In addition, Chapman believed that the murder would make him famous, transforming him into “something other than a nobody.”

In October 1980 Chapman quit his job and shortly thereafter purchased a gun. Later that month he flew to New York City but changed his mind about killing Lennon and returned to Hawaii in November. However, he went back to New York on December 6. Two days later he waited outside Lennon’s residence at the Dakota apartment building. In the early evening, he met Lennon, who autographed a copy of the album Double Fantasy. That night Lennon and his wife, Yoko Ono, returned home, and Chapman fatally shot him in the back. Chapman remained at the crime scene, reading The Catcher in the Rye until he was arrested.

Chapman was charged with second-degree murder and underwent psychiatric testing. Although it appeared that he would pursue an insanity defense—one doctor diagnosed him as schizophrenic—he pled guilty in June 1981, claiming it was what the Lord wanted. Chapman received a sentence of 20 years to life. He became eligible for parole in 2000 but was repeatedly denied release.


Genealogy Resources for the Surname CHAPMAN

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Chapman Family Association
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Ashford Electricity Works Lindum House and Victoria Park

Ronald Peter worked at the Electricity Plant and the new family home, Lindum House, was rented to him by the Electricity Generating Board.

Lindum House was situated on land within the boundaries of the Ashford Electricity Works. It was a strange place to grow up in, idyllic in some ways but set within a large industrial site. The house was basic by today's standards but rather nice. It was semi detached with a large garden and tall privet hedge boundary. The garden to the south side had two lawns, roses were planted in central beds and borders. On the North side the garden was less formal, vegetables were grown here, poultry were kept for their eggs and, briefly, rabbits for meat. To the North East corner of the garden were some larger trees (see map below) that attracted rooks and all along the lane there were flowering cherry trees.

If you look at the image below the two houses are just to the right of centre. To the north was the main London to Dover railway line and just beyond that was Ashford livestock market and its railway sidings. There were two very large power generation plants the older one was built (I think) in 1926 and is to the right with its cooling water ponds to the south, the newer mid 1950's power station was yet to be built to the left of scene. Immediately adjacent to the house were the enormous heavy oil fuel tanks used by the old power station and to the foreground were the 'dig for victory' allotment gardens. In its early years the 'old' power station, which was operated for the local Urban District council, used several of the largest heavy fuel oil generators in the country (for information refer to the Paxman company history web site). At the end of the lane on the left was the local gasworks. The locale made for an interesting mix of fumes, noises and exciting but, I suppose, risky places in which to play as a child.

To the south of the house were open views across the allotments (which Ronald Peter abandoned attempts to cultivate), a water meadow with cattle and then the River Stour and Victoria Park with its splendid Hubert fountain.

As Ronald Peter's son my childhood memories are of the surrounds to the house. When no-one was looking I'd play on the gantries of the enormous deisel generators, it was always warm, noisy and everything smelt of the fuel. The picture at the top of this page gives a small sense of the scale of the engines with Dad at the base of one, the start of a gantry ladder is behind him. There was a blacksmith employed by the works and I'd 'help' in his forge operating the bellows. The blacksmith seemed a nice man, always busy with his work but always welcoming, he made me the swing that stood in our garden. The ponds were a great place to play, teeming with great crested newts and good for launching large pieces of wood as if they were boats (I fell in more than once). The passing steam railway locomotives were an atraction, I'd look out for the Golden Arrow on its way to France or just stand on the open footbridge as the steam was pumped up from the passing trains. Occasionally Victoria Park to the south hosted an old travelling fair wth attractions in tents such as boxing and 'naked' mermaid displays, I can remember being chased away from the perimeter of one of those events.

I hope to have more to add regarding the Electricity Works and will update as soon as I can.

Ronald Peter (Dad) lived and worked here through to retirement. Subsequently the power generation site was closed and, faced with the prospect of having his home demolished, he and Bridget took the late in life and very brave decision to buy their very first home.

When I visited in 2012 the entire site has been cleared, all that remained were the concrete bases of buildings, the ponds were empty and overgrown, some of the taller trees were still there. Part of the land is used by the Channel Tunnel railway, the bulk was scheduled for redevelopment with supermarkets, housing and car parks.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Micheal Chapman, Worlds greatest guitarist last moments before death and biography. RIP Chapman


Izohlar:

  1. Sproul

    Men hozir gaplasholmasligim uchun achinarli - men ketishga majburman. Ammo men ozod bo'laman - menimcha, albatta yozaman.

  2. Dojar

    Yaxshi natijaga erishiladi

  3. Dietz

    Bravo, menimcha, bu boshqa jumla

  4. Zulkilkree

    Unda biror narsa. Many thanks for the help in this matter.

  5. Reaghan

    Biz qoziqni kutmoqdamiz :)



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