1981 Alabama shtatidagi bankrot bo'lgan Linch

1981 Alabama shtatidagi bankrot bo'lgan Linch


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1981 yil 21 martga o'tar kechasi, Mobile County sud binosining maysazorida xoch yorilib yondi - Ku Kluks Klanning mahalliy qotillik bo'yicha sud jarayonining natijasiga noroziligi. Bu o'sha kechada sodir bo'ladigan terrorning boshlanishi edi.

Xoch yonib ketdi, lekin Klanning g'azabi yoqmadi. O'sha kuni kechqurun ikki kishi Mobile -da yurib, o'ldirish uchun qora tanli odamni qidirishdi. Ular uni topdilar: 19 yoshli Maykl Donald. Kechqurun, Donald o'ldirilgan va jasadi daraxtga osilgan edi.

Bu so'zning eng shafqatsiz ma'nosida 20-asrdagi linchalash edi va Mayklning onasi Beulah Mey Donaldning fuqarolik ishlari bo'yicha sud jarayoni tufayli u oxirgi bo'lib qoladi.

Sotsiologlar Styuart Emori Tolnay va E.M.Bek o'z kitoblarida tushuntirishganidek Zo'ravonlik bayrami, Maykl Donald jinnilikda ayblanmaganligi yoki irqiy odob -axloq qoidalarini buzgan deb o'ylagani bilan, ba'zi linch qurbonlaridan farq qilar edi. U klan a'zolari, oq politsiyachini o'ldirishda ayblangan qora tanli qora tanli Jozefus Andersonning ikkinchi sud jarayoni hakamlar hay'ati qarorga kela olmaganida, aybsiz deb e'lon qilinganidan g'azablangani uchun o'ldirildi.

Klansmenlar uchun, Tolnay va Bek yozishicha, "bu qora tanli odam oq tanli odamni jazosizlar qora tanlilarsiz jazosiz o'ldirishi mumkin edi ... [Donald] qora tanlilarga qarshi qasos sifatida o'ldirilgan va hokimiyatni tasdiqlagan. Alabama shtatining janubidagi Ku Klux Klan.

Hukmdan g'azablangan Klan a'zolari Genri Frensis Xays va Jeyms "Tiger" Knowles Maykl Donaldni tasodifan tanlab olishdi, uni ta'qib qilishdi, shafqatsizlarcha urishdi, so'ng bo'g'ib o'ldirishdi. Ular uni kechasi tanasini daraxtga osib qo'yishdan oldin Klan oqsoqoli Benni Xaysning uyida bo'lib o'tgan ziyofatda ko'rsatdilar.

Mayklning onasi Beula Mae Donald vayron bo'ldi. 20 -asrning eng dahshatli nafrat jinoyatlaridan birida o'g'li Emmet o'ldirilgan Mamie Tillning qaroriga qo'shilib, Beula ochiq tobut dafn marosimida turib oldi. Va Mobil shahri o'g'lining qotillarini javobgarlikka tortmasligi tobora ravshan bo'la boshlagach, u uni qidirib topdi.

Mobil politsiya Klansmen Maykl Donaldni o'ldirganini bilsa ham, ular oyoqlarini sudrab borishdi. Ular, shubhasiz, ishtirok etmagan uch kishini hibsga olishdi, keyin ayblovsiz qo'yib yuborishdi va ishni oldinga surish uchun boshqa hech narsa qilishmadi. Beula Mobile kompaniyasining qora tanli hamjamiyati bilan Jessi Jekson va boshqa fuqarolik huquqlari arboblarining e'tiborini tortgan mahalliy namoyishlar uyushtirdi. FBR aralashdi, lekin tergovni deyarli yopdi. Beula ularni oldinga siljishga majbur qildi.

Sekin -asta adolat g'ildiraklari siljiy boshladi. 1983 yilda politsiya Alabama shtatining ikkinchi yuqori martabali Klan amaldorining o'g'li Genri Frensis Xaysni va jinoyatni tezda FBRga tan olgan Knowlesni hibsga oldi. Knowles Hays sudining yulduz guvohi edi va ikkala erkak ham aybdor deb topildi va hukm qilindi - Knowles Mayklning fuqarolik huquqlarini buzganligi uchun umrbod qamoq jazosiga, Hays qotillik uchun o'limga. Alabamada qora tanlini o'ldirgani uchun 1913 yildan beri birinchi marta oq tanliga o'lim jazosi berildi.

Ammo Donald o'g'lining qotillari Mayklning o'ldirilishi uchun javobgarlikka tortiladigan yagona odamlar bo'lishi kerak deb o'ylamagan. 1984 yilda, o'g'li linzadan uch yil o'tgach, u fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha advokat Morris Dees bilan bog'landi, u 1971 yilda Janubiy qashshoqlik huquqi markaziga asos solgan. Dees KKKni sudga bergan va uning ichki ishini tushungan. Uning fikricha, qotillar KKK tomonidan yurish buyrug'ini olgan va ular institutsional siyosat vazifasini bajargan. Ular mamlakatning eng yirik Klan tashkilotlaridan biri bo'lgan Amerika Birlashgan Klanlariga qarshi federal qonunga zid o'lim to'g'risidagi da'vo qo'zg'atdilar, ular tashkilot va uning a'zolarini qotillik uchun javobgarlikka tortmoqchi bo'lishdi.

O'shanda Klan bir asrdan ko'proq vaqt davomida Alabamada afro -amerikaliklarni qo'rqitgan. Amerika Qo'shma Klanlari, xususan, 20 -asrning eng mashhur Klan jinoyatlari, xususan, 1963 yilda Alminga shtatining Birmingem shahridagi 16 -chi ko'cha baptistlar cherkovining portlashi bilan bog'liq edi. To'rt yosh qizning o'limiga sabab bo'lgan portlash. , shaharda qora tanlilar faolligi uchun qasos sifatida amalga oshirildi. Bu Fuqarolik huquqlari harakatining halokatli va galvanizatsiyali daqiqalaridan biri edi.

Donaldning fuqarolik da'vosi ishladi. 1987 yilda Donald oilasiga Amerika Birlashgan Klanlari va uning bir qancha a'zolariga qarshi 7 million dollarlik hukm chiqarildi. Oq tanli hakamlar hay'ati atigi to'rt soat davom etdi. "Adolat qaror topganidan xursandman", dedi Donald hukm chiqarilgandan keyin Associated Press muxbiriga. "Pul men uchun hech narsani anglatmaydi. Bu bolamni qaytara olmaydi. Ammo men aybdorlarni ushlab, sudga berishganidan xursandman ».

Bu Klanga qarshi tarixiy zarba edi va Donald va uning oilasiga to'lashga qodir bo'lmagan Amerika Birlashgan Klanlari uchun halokatli zarba bo'ldi. Buning o'rniga, tashkilot Donaldsga hujjatni Alabama shtatining Tuskalosa shahridagi bosh qarorgohiga berdi - atigi 225 ming dollar.

Klanning alohida a'zolari ham to'lashlari kerak edi New York Times jurnali Jessi Kornblyut hukm chiqarilayotganda, ba'zi a'zolarining ish haqi garovga qo'yilgani va ularning mol-mulki musodara qilinganligi va Benni Xays va uning kuyoviga ayblov qo'yish uchun fuqarolik sudining dalillari ishlatilgani haqida xabar bergan. (Benni Xaysning birinchi jinoiy ishi sud zalida yiqilib tushganidan keyin nohaqlik bilan yakunlandi; u ikkinchi sud jarayonida vafot etdi.)

Oxir -oqibat, Donaldning orqaga qaytishdan bosh tortishi nafrat jinoyati qurbonlari va ularning oilalari uchun imkoniyatlarni o'zgartirdi. Klanning a'zolarining xatti -harakatlariga vakolat borligi to'g'risida muvaffaqiyatli bahslashib, Dees bugungi sudda boshqa nafratlangan guruhlarning xatti -harakatlariga qarshi kurashish uchun ishlatiladigan qonuniy pretsedentni o'rnatdi. Va da'vo, shuningdek, Klanning boshqa nafratli jinoyatlarini to'xtatdi.

Beulah Mey Donald 1988 yilda, tarixiy hukm chiqarilganidan atigi bir yil o'tib vafot etdi. "U [Klan uchun barcha qiyinchiliklar] qurilgan tosh edi", dedi uning advokati Maykl Figures. Ebony Merilin Marshall. "U hech qachon orqaga chekinmagan; u u erda qoldi "

Amerikaning 4400 linch qurbonlari haqidagi birinchi memorialini ko'ring









Jeff Seshns Alabama shtatidagi KKKni bankrot qilmadi, lekin baribir bunga ishonadi

Ikki yil oldin, birinchi muddat senatori Ted Kruz (R-TX) doktor Seuss va rsquoni o'qish uchun millionlab amerikaliklarning sog'liqni saqlash sohasini qamrab olishga qaratilgan marafon nutqida besh daqiqa vaqt ajratdi. Yashil tuxum va jambon Senat qavatida. Ammo seshanba va rsquos bosh prokurorining nomzodi va hozirgi senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL) uchun tasdiqlov eshituvida, Kruz sakkiz daqiqa davomida Amerika xalqiga ancha chalg'ituvchi ertak aytib berishga harakat qildi.

Fuqarolarning noroziligi, senator Al Franken (D-MN) tomonidan qattiq gril qilish va ommaviy axborot vositalarida o'nlab yillar davomida o'tkazilgan irqchilik so'zlari va fuqarolik huquqlariga qarama-qarshiliklarning ommaviy axborot vositalarida yoritilishidan g'azablangan Kruz 1981 yilda "Mobile" da linzalar haqida hikoya qildi. , Alabama, Ku Klux Klan a'zolari tomonidan, va Sessions & rsquo, bu Klansman   & mdash   ni ta'qib qilishda, Sessions ishning tugashini xohlagan asosiy tafsilotlarga qo'shilish.

& LdquoMen har safar namoyishchi sakrab tushganda, barcha fotosuratchilar namoyishchilarni suratga olishlarini payqadim. Men shubhalanamanki, biz ularni hamma gazetalarda ko'ramiz, & rdquo Kruz tanbeh berdi. & ldquoMen ommaviy axborot vositalarini rag'batlantirardim, bu voqeani yoritib bering. 6:00 da Jeff Sessions afsonaviy afroamerikalikni o'ldirgan va o'lim jazosiga hukm qilgan klansmanni jinoiy javobgarlikka tortishga yordam bergani va Alabamadagi Klanni bankrot qilishga yordam bergani haqidagi voqeani aytib bering. & Rdquo

Texas respublikachilarida va tarixni aytib berishda, qotillikdan so'ng, Sessions   & mdash  , keyin AQShning Alabama shtatining janubiy okrugi prokurori   & mdash   qotillik uchun javobgar bo'lgan ikkita Klansmanni jinoiy javobgarlikka tortish uchun FTB va mahalliy tuman prokurori bilan birlashdilar. tajovuzkorlardan biri uchun o'lim jazosi uchun va 1913 yildan beri qora tanli odamni o'ldirgani uchun Alabamada qatl etilgan birinchi oq tanli odam. & rdquo Janubiy qashshoqlik huquqi markazi Klanga qarshi fuqarolik da'vosi bilan murojaat qilganida, Kruz qo'shib qo'ydi, Sessions & rsquo ofisi hamkorlik qildi va yordam berdi. ular Alabamadagi KKKga qarshi 7 million dollarlik fuqarolik sud qarorini qabul qilishadi

Cruz & rsquos bahsining mohiyati oddiy. Sessions irqchi bo'la olmaydi, chunki u 1980 -yillarda KKK a'zolarini qotillikda ayblagan. Bu irqchilik tushunchasi qora tanlilarni linch qilish va o'ldirish mumkinmi yoki ular jinoiy javobgarlikka tortilishi kerakmi? Odam o'ldirish ishlarini tergov qilishda o'z vazifangizni bajarish qahramonlik deb hisoblanmasligi kerak.

Ammo muammo   & mdash   hatto bu dalil ham noto'g'ri. Klanga qarshi salibchi bo'lishdan yiroq, Sessions 1986 yilda federal sudyalikni tasdiqlash eshituvida, bir marta, ular marixuana chekishlarini bilguncha, KKKni "ldquookay va rdquo" deb o'ylaganini aytgan. U buni hazil deb da'vo qilib, buni "ahmoqona izoh" deb atadi, menimcha, siz aytgan bo'lishingiz mumkin.

Va Sessions seshanba kuni Kruz bilan suhbatda & ldquowe bu jinoyatga aloqador bo'lgan klan a'zolarini yo'q qilish, mag'lub etish va jinoiy javobgarlikka tortish uchun hamma narsani qildi, deb da'vo qildi. Bu yaxshi birgalikdagi harakat edi. Men buni har qadamda qo'llab -quvvatladim va ba'zi buyuk huquqshunoslar bu borada juda ko'p harakat qilishdi. & Rdquo U AQSh Adliya vazirligining Fuqarolik huquqlari bo'limining advokatlari mening idoramda Tomas figuralari bilan ishlayotganini tan oldi va bu ishni "buzdi", & rdquo u da'vo qildi, & ldquoMen ular bilan edim, men ular bilan katta hakamlar hay'atida edim. & rdquo

Ammo "Daily Beast" xabar berishicha, Figures 1986 yilda Senatda Sessions & rsquo o'tmishdoshi, marhum senator Xouell Xeflin (D-AL) ga aytganidek, uning xo'jayini oxir-oqibat prokuraturaga to'sqinlik qilmagan va ishning dastlabki bosqichlarida. "Sessions meni ishni davom ettirishni to'xtatishga ko'ndirishga urinib ko'rdi. & Rdquo Raqamlar guvohlik berishicha, Sessions bu ishni" vaqtni behuda sarflash "deb atagan va" boshqa joyga ko'proq vaqt o'tkazishga "undagan." Rdquo "

& ldquoBu bayonotlarning hammasi meni ishni to'xtatishga undash uchun yaxshi hisoblab chiqilgan, & rdquo Raqamlar aytdi, va faqat ish katta sudyaga topshirilgandan so'ng, biz ishni buzmoqchi ekanligimiz tobora oshkor bo'lgach, janob Sessions va rsquo munosabati o'zgardi & rdquo va u ayblovni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun kelgan.

Senator sifatida, Sessions "nafratga qarshi jinoyatlar to'g'risidagi qonun" va "rdquo" ga qarshi chiqdi, bu bir tomonlama jinoyatlarni ta'qib qilish uchun federal yordamni oshirdi va u ovoz berish huquqlari va jinoiy adolatda irqiy tafovutlarni keltirib chiqaradigan siyosatni qattiq qo'llab-quvvatladi.

Franken, shuningdek, seshanba va rsquos eshituvida Sessions fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha bir nechta ishlarni ro'yxatga olganini ta'kidladi, ular sud muhokamasi o'tkazilgan o'nta muhim masalalar ro'yxatiga kiritilgan va u shaxsan o'zi ko'rib chiqqan va rdquo o'tgan oyda Adliya qo'mitasiga bergan anketasida. Bu ishlarda ishtirok etayotgan advokatlar, bu masalalarda Sessions va rsquo roli minimal bo'lganligini aytishdi. Sessions o'z rolini aniqlaydigan qo'shimchani taqdim etdi va so'roq paytida u hatto bu ishlardan birini ko'rib chiqqan advokatni ham tanimasligini tan oldi.

KKK Alabamada faoliyatini davom ettirmoqda. Klan & rsquos rasmiy milliy gazetasi va Sessions ikkalasi ham 2016 yilgi saylovda Donald Trampni qo'llab -quvvatladilar. Va sobiq KKK katta sehrgar Devid Dyuk, Sessionsni bosh prokuror sifatida tasdiqlagan taniqli oq millatchilardan biri edi.


2. Beulah Mae Donald o'lim haqida takrorlanuvchi dahshatli tushlar ko'rdi.

Mayklning o'ldirilishidan bir necha kun oldin, Beula May o'z oilasini o'limga olib kelishi haqida dahshatli tushlar ko'rishni boshladi. Qayta takrorlanadigan tasvirga po'lat kulrang quti kirgizilgan, uning yuzini tanib bo'lmaydigan yigitning jasadi bor edi. Bu tush uni 1981 yil 21 mart kuni erta tongda uyg'otdi, o'shanda u Maykl yotoqxonasida emasligini tushundi. Beula Mayklning qaytishini kutib soatlab band edi. Taxminan ertalab soat 7 larda unga telefon qilishdi va o'g'lining fojiali o'ldirilishi haqida uning eng dahshatli tushi haqiqatga aylanganini bilishdi.


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2011 yil 10 -iyun, juma

1981 yil tasodifiy linchalash Amerika Birlashgan Klanlarini bankrot qildi

19 yoshli Maykl Donald ota -onasi ajrashganiga qaramay, mehribon oiladan chiqqan. U etti singil va aka -ukalarning eng kichigi edi, ularning hammasi Beulah Mey va Devid Donald tug'ilgan. Do'stlari bilan basketbol o'ynashni yoqtirgan o'smir, ko'k jinsi, ochiq ko'ylak va ko'k jinsi ko'ylagi kiygan, kechasi uyiga ketayotib, uni qorong'uda nima kutayotganini bilmas edi. Donald bir quti sigaret sotib olish uchun mahalladagi qulay do'konga borgan edi. Onasining aytishicha, chekish uning yagona yomonligi. U sigaret chekishni yoqtirmasdi, lekin u o'zini savdo maktabiga o'qishga kirganidan chekish uchun etarlicha katta bo'lganini his qildi.

O'sha kechada Maykl Donaldning har bir qadami uni bevaqt o'limga yaqinlashtirdi. Oilasi va do'stlari uni boshqa tirik ko'rmasdilar.

Alabama shtatining Mobile shahrida tug'ilgan, 1961 yil 14 -iyul, Donald texnik kollejga o'qishga kirgan. U mason bo'lishni xohlardi. U o'rta maktabni tugatdi va pochta bo'limida yarim vaqtda ishladi Mobil matbuot Ro'yxatdan o'tish u bema'ni o'ldirilishidan oldin. Uning "tasodifiy" o'limi keyinchalik nafrat jinoyati deb topildi. Afro -amerikalik o'spirin, Alabama shtatining begunoh fuqarosi, Amerikaning chuqur janubidagi shtatlardan birida tug'ilgan AQSh terrorchilari tomonidan o'ldirilishi uchun tasodifan tanlangan nafrat va qasosning ramziy nishoniga aylanishini bilishning iloji yo'q edi.

10:30 dan 11:30 gacha. 1981 yil 20 -martda, KKK a'zosi 25 yoshli Genri Frensis Xays va 17 yoshli Jeyms Lvelveln, "Tiger" va#8221 Knowles, qora tanli odamni qidirib, qora tanlilar atrofida aylanib yurishdi. Ular g'azablanishdi va ular duch kelgan har qanday potentsial qurbon o'z shahvatini o'ldirish istagini qondirar edi.

Amerika Birlashgan Klanlari (UKA) Maykl Donaldning linzasidan ancha oldin janubda qora tanlilarni qo'rqitgani bilan mashhur edi. Fuqarolik huquqlari harakati paytida, guruh 1961 yilda Freedom Riders -ni mag'lubiyatga uchratib, fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha ishchi Viol Liuzzoni urib o'ldirgan, 1965 yil, katta yo'lda ketayotganida va Birmingemning 16 -baptist cherkovini portlatib, 1963 yilda to'rtta kichkina qizni o'ldirgan.

KKKers yolg'iz o'spirinni aldab, mashinasiga yaqinlashdi va undan tungi klubning joyini so'radi. U mashinaga yaqin bo'lganida, ulardan biri qurolni Donaldga qaratib, unga mashinaga kirishni buyurdi. O'g'li vafot etishidan oldin Beula Donald o'z yashash xonasida tobutni orzu qilgan. Tabutda yotgan erkak kulrang kostyum kiygan edi. Onaning ogohlantirishi? Balki.

"Donald xonim ikki chashka qahva ichdi va divaniga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda yangi kunni kutdi. Tong otganda, Maykl hali ham uyda emas edi. Ish bilan band bo'lish uchun u kichkina hovlisini tırmash uchun tashqariga chiqdi. U ishlayotganda, Sug'urta polisini etkazib berayotgan ayol keldi. "Ular jasadni topdilar", dedi u va davom etdi. Ertalab soat 7 ga yaqin, Donald xonimning telefoni jiringladi. Bir ayol Mayklning hamyonini axlat qutisidan topib oldi. Donald xonim yoritilgan - Maykl U tirik edi, deb o'yladi u. "Yo'q, bolam, ular bu erda ziyofat uyushtirishdi va o'g'lingni o'ldirishdi", - deb xabar berdi qo'ng'iroqchi.

"Bir necha blok narida, ko'chma politsiya bo'limidan bir chaqirim narida, irqlar aralashgan mahallada, Maykl Donaldning jasadi hali ham daraxtga osilib turardi. Uning bo'ynida 13 ta ilmoqli, juda yaxshi bog'langan ilmoq bor edi. Ko'cha oldidagi ayvonda, politsiya dalil yig'ayotganini kuzatib, Amerika Qo'shma Klanlari a'zolari bo'lgan, bir paytlar eng katta va fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha advokatlarga ko'ra, Ku Kluks Klanlarining eng zo'ravonlari.

"Maykl Donaldning jasadini topganidan ikki soat o'tmay, mobil politsiya bu klansmenlardan intervyu olardi. Huquqshunoslar faqat" United Klans "dan 64 yoshli Titan Benni Jek Xeys nima deganini keyinroq bilib olishdi. Klansmanning so'zlariga ko'ra, "go'zal manzara", - izoh berdi Xays. "Bu yangiliklar yaxshi ko'rinishga ega bo'ladi. Klan uchun yaxshi ko'rinadi". (Nyu -York Tayms, 1987 yil 1 -noyabr)

Alabama shtati politsiya bo'limi linch bilan bog'liq tergov o'tkazdi. Tergovchilar tez orada o'smirning giyohvandlik bilan shug'ullanganligi to'g'risida xulosa chiqarishdi. U o'limga aylangan giyohvand moddalar savdosida o'ldirilgan. Beula May Donald politsiyaga o'g'lining giyohvand moddalar bilan aloqasi yo'qligini aytdi. U hatto ularga Mayklning xonasida tintuv o'tkazishga ham ruxsat bergan. U vafot etgan o'g'li giyohvand moddalar bilan shug'ullangani haqida bema'nilik gapirmasdi.

O'g'li o'ldirilgani uchun adolat topmasligiga ishongan Beula, fuqarolik huquqlari faoli Jessi Jeksonni yordamga kelishga chaqirdi. U qotillikka milliy e'tiborni qaratib, yurishlarni olib borish uchun Mobilga yo'l oldi. Jekson va ishtirokchilar Mobil politsiya bo'limidan olmagan savollarga javob berishni talab qilishdi.

Vaqt o'tishi bilan hibsga olinmagan. Sovuq fayl o'z yo'lida edi

O'smir linchalash qurboni Maykl Donald
cemet ery. Ammo, amerikalik afrikalik amerikalik advokat Tomas Figurz, "Just ice Departme" ni ikkinchi tergovga ruxsat berishga ko'ndirdi.

"Meni xotirjam qilish uchun-yoki ikkinchi tergov xuddi shunday xulosaga kelishiga ishontirish uchun-menga FBIning ikkinchi agenti J ames Bodman bilan ishlashga ruxsat berildi", deb eslaydi Figures.

"Men Bodman aytgan birinchi so'zlarni hech qachon unutmayman. U mendan:" Nega u qutisini qurtlarni qayta ochishni xohlaysan? " - deb so'radi. Lekin keyin u buni bilib oldi. Biz har kuni u bilan uchrashardik, kechasi gaplashardik-odamlar bizni "o quvchilar" deb chaqirishardi.

Qaysidir ma'noda, ular ikkalasi ham janubning tubidan edi, lekin raqamlar qora, Bodman oq rangda. U Maykl Donaldning fuqarolik huquqlarini buzishda ishtirok etganini tan oldi.

1981 yil 18 -martda Benni Jek Xays chaqirgan KKK yig'ilishida, Genri Xaysning yog'i va yog'i. Muhokama afro -amerikalikni tasodifiy o'ldirish bilan bog'liq edi, agar qora tanli jinoyatchi Jozefus Anderson oq politsiyachini o'ldirishda aybdor deb topilmasa. "Zaxira o'lik bo'lguncha bo'yniga osib qo'yilishi kerak", dedi Xays.

Klanlar a'zosi Frenk A. Ginokkio fikriga qo'shildi va: "Biz zanjirni o'ldiramiz!" Aybdor bo'lmagan hukm e'lon qilingach, Klan harakatga o'tdi. Ular sudning qayta ko'rib chiqilishini kutishmadi, natijada aybdor hukm chiqarildi. Ginokkio keyinchalik Donaldning o'ldirilishida ayblanuvchi bo'ldi.

11 qora tanli va bitta oq tanli irqlararo hakamlar hay'ati yakdil qarorga kela olmadi. Jozefus Anderson ustidan sud jarayoni nohaqlik bilan yakunlandi. Dunyo qiziqishi va oshkoralik shamoli tufayli uning sud jarayoni Jefferson okrugiga ko'chirildi. Anderson, afroamerikalik va kichik jinoyatchi, Alabamada oq politsiyachini otib o'ldirgan. Prokuror yangi sud jarayoni bo'lishini aytdi. 1985 yilda Anderson nihoyat, yana ikkita ayblovdan keyin politsiyani o'ldirgani uchun hukm qilindi.

1983 yil 22 -iyunda maxsus mobil jyuri Genri Xaysni Donald o'ldirishda aybladi. Haysni va qotillikka aloqador bo'lgan barcha shaxslarni hibsga olish va ayblash uchun ikki yarim yil kerak bo'ldi. Hays sud jarayoni 6 dan 10 dekabrgacha davom etdi. Uning sud majlisida KKK a'zosi guvohlik berishicha, ular qora tanli qurbonni qidirishganida, Donald yaxshi qurbonga o'xshardi va boshqa hech kim yo'q edi. Men undan tungi klub qayerda ekanligini bilasizmi, deb so'radim va u meni yo'naltira boshladi. Men undan yaqinroq kelishini so'radim va men qurol olib chiqdim. Donald mashinaning orqasida baqirdi, o'zini aqldan ozgan jinni kabi tutdi ".

Donaldni qurol -yarog 'bilan o'g'irlab ketishganidan so'ng, er -xotin uni vahshiyona qasos jinoyatini amalga oshirgan, kimsasiz joyga olib kelishdi. Hays sud jarayoni davomida ma'lum bo'lishicha, Maykl Donald ularni o'ldirmaslikni so'ragan. U qochishga harakat qildi, lekin natijasi bo'lmadi. Xaysning aytishicha, Knowles qo'rqib ketgan qurbonning orqasidan quvgan, uni daraxt shoxi bilan urib, hayratga solgan va erga yiqitgan. Ular uni daraxt shoxi bilan urib, ustidan g'alaba qozonishdi. Xays pichoqni tortib, Donaldning tomog'ini kesib tashladi. Yuzi kaltaklangan va qonli edi, lablari odatdagidan kattaroq darajada shishib ketdi. Uning kiyimlari tuproq yoki quruq loy bilan qoplangan edi.

Ikki soat davomida Xeys va Noules mashinasining bagajida Donaldning jasadi bilan yurishdi. Ular erta tongda Mobilga yashirincha kirib kelishdi va u erda Donaldning jasadini Xerndon prospektidagi trotuar yaqinidagi kofur daraxtiga osib qo'yishdi. Ular Frank Koksning onasining uyidan sotib olgan neylon arqondan foydalanishgan. Knowles arqonning uchida osilgan odamning tugunini bog'ladi. Ular qurolni Klan a'zosi Jonni M. Jonsdan qarz olishgan, lekin ular Donaldni otishmagan.

Janubiy qashshoqlik huquq markazidan Morris Dining o'limi to'g'risidagi noto'g'ri da'vosiga ko'ra, "Xays va Nouls Maykl Donaldning hushidan ketgan jasadini Xerndon ko'chasidagi Genri Xaysning uyiga olib borib, uni ayblanuvchi Frank Koksga yarim tundan 5gacha ko'rsatdi. AM ".

Birgalikda muhokama paytida (18 mart) sudlanuvchi Benni Xays Jeyms Nouz va Genri Xaysga aytdi
Maykl Donaldning jasadi, halqa hali ham bo'ynida

juma kunigacha hech narsa qilmaslik, chunki u o'sha ko'chada joylashgan kvartiralarini sotar edi. Xays o'z kvartiralarini sotishni to'xtatadigan chalg'itishni xohlamadi.

O'lim jazosidan qochish uchun Knowles Xays va uning hamkasbi Klansmenni ayblab, prokuratura bilan kelishuv shartnomasini uzdi. U jinoyat sheriklariga qarshi D.A ’s yulduz guvohi edi. Garchi Knowles “Yolli Onam ” dan qochgan bo'lsa -da, u "Mobil" elektr stulining laqabi edi, lekin u umrbod qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi. Biroq, uning xavfsizligi uchun u AQSh Adliya vazirligi hibsxonasiga joylashtirilgan. U kelgusi holatlarda Klanga qarshi guvohlik berishga rozi bo'ldi. U Xaysga qarshi prokurorning asosiy ishi edi.

Knowles sud majlisida hakamlar hay'atiga murojaat qilish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lganida, u shunday dedi: "Men oilamdan ayrildim. Hozir menda odamlar bor. Men aytganlarning hammasi rost. Men buni qilganimda Klansman rolini o'ynaganman. Umid qilamanki, odamlar mening xatomdan saboq olishadi. Umid qilamanki, siz menga va unga aloqador bo'lganlarga nisbatan hukm chiqarasiz ".

Beulah Mae Donaldga o'girilib, Knowles shunday dedi: "Men sizning o'g'lingizni qaytarib berolmayman. Xudo biladi, agar men u bilan savdo qila olsam, bo'lardim. Men qila olmayman. Nima bo'lishidan qat'iy nazar - menda hech narsa yo'q. Lekin menda bo'ladi. Agar buni to'lashimga butun umrim kerak bo'lsa, u har qanday tasalli berishi mumkin, deb umid qilaman ".

Beulah Mae Donald Knowlesga: "Men seni kechiraman. Hammangiz kimligingizni bilgan kundan boshlab, men Xudodan hammangizga g'amxo'rlik qilishini so'radim, u ham bor", dedi. Hakamlar hay'ati Donaldga Amerika Birlashgan Klaniga qarshi 7 million dollarlik qaror, shu jumladan tashkilotga tegishli bo'lgan barcha mulkni berish uchun 30 daqiqa vaqt ketdi.

1981 yil 28 -mart, Beula Donald o'ldirilgan o'g'li Mayklning dafn marosimida qatnashdi .
Mobil oqsoqollar hay'ati 11 oq tanli va bitta afroamerikalik Genri Frensis Xaysni qotillikda aybladi. U aybsiz deb tan oldi, dedi Knowles uni ramkaga solib qo'ydi. ” O'g'lining sudida, Guardian, deb xabar berdi, bir beni Hays e'lon qildi, “Meni olish uchun ular o'g'limni oldilar. Menda zanjir bor edi. . . Aytmoqchimanki, qora tanli odam oldimga kelib, nima uchun qopqoq kiyganimni so'raydi. U mening Klanda ekanligimni bilardi. Zalda hamma mening Klan ekanimni bilishardi. Men buni yashirmayman. Menda uyaladigan hech narsa yo'q. ”

1983 yil 10 -dekabrda Benni Xaysdan bo'lgan Genri Xays umrbod qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi. Sudya Braxton Kittrell, 1984 yilda jazoni bekor qildi. U Haysni qatl qilish to'g'risida qaror chiqardi. 1986 yilda Alabama shtatining Jinoyat ishlari bo'yicha apellyatsiya sudi o'lim jazosini bekor qildi. Biroq, Alabama Oliy sudi sudya Kittrellning qarorini o'z kuchida qoldirdi. Hays 16 yil o'lim jazosida o'tirdi, hukmga shikoyat qilib, afv etishni so'radi. U 1997 yil 6 iyunda Alabama shtatidagi elektr stulda qatl qilindi. 1913 yildan buyon birinchi marta oq tanli qora tanlini o'ldirgani uchun o'lim jazosiga hukm qilindi, va qora tanli odamni o'ldirgani uchun qatl qilingan birinchi Klansman. asr.

Frens Koleman 1997 yil "Mobil reestr" da shunday yozgan edi: "Alabamiyaliklar uchun terisi oq, qora yoki jigarrang bo'lsin, 6 iyun qayg'uli kun bo'ladi. O'sha kuni - avvalgi tunda, 12:01 da - Alabama shtati Genri Frensis Xaysni qora tanlini 16 yil oldin kaltaklab o'ldirgani va keyin tanasini daraxtga osib qo'ygani uchun elektr toki bilan uradi.

"Qatl 20-asr janubida navbat bilan davolovchi va kurashadigan irqchilikning eski, chuqur, yomon yarasidan qoraqo'tirni olib tashlaydi. Bu hafta yana yiqiladi, chunki Diksining yuragi aholisi shafqatsiz o'limni qayta tiriltiradi. 19 yoshli Maykl Donald.

"Bu qarama -qarshiliklar hikoyasi: qotil, oq tanli, nafrat va zo'ravonlikka to'la uyda o'sgan. Qurbonni mehribon ona va katta opa -singillari tarbiyalagan.

"Genri Xays o'sha kecha nima bo'lganini bilar edi, u do'sti bilan qora tanli odamni o'ldirmoqchi bo'lgan edi. Maykl Donald esa, bahorda, kechqurun ko'chada, sigaret sotib olish uchun, begunoh ko'chada ketayotgan edi. taqdir uni oq tanlilar qo'liga topshirdi.

"Ammo eng yorqin narsa - bu fantastika va haqiqat o'rtasidagi qarama -qarshilik. Maykl Donald o'ldirildi - daraxtning uchi bilan kaltaklandi - 1930 yoki 40 -yillarda emas, balki 1960 -yillarda, lekin 1981 -yilda. Bunday narsalar taxmin qilinmagan. Oliy sud "alohida, lekin teng" konstitutsiyaga zid deb e'lon qilinganidan deyarli 30 yil o'tgach va 1964 yildagi Fuqarolik huquqlari to'g'risidagi qonundan 20 yil o'tgach sodir bo'ladi.

"Ular 60 -yillarda Selma va Birmingemda paydo bo'lgan irqiy zo'ravonliklardan qochishga muvaffaq bo'lgan" Mobile "da ham sodir bo'lmasligi kerak edi.

"Qora tanlilar o'g'irlab ketishdi va kaltaklanishdi, jasadlari daraxtga mixlanganmi? Bu Alabama shtatining ikkinchi yirik shahrida emas, Dallas okrugining qorong'i orqa yo'llarida yoki Missisipi deltasida sodir bo'lgan voqea.

"Lekin nafrat jinoyatlari vaqt, joy yoki taxminlar bilan chegaralanib qolmaydi. Haqiqat shundaki, Maykl Donald bundan atigi 16 yil oldin ikkita Ku Klux Klansmen qo'lida vafot etgan. Xo'sh, agar uning o'limi linchinglar to'xtatilganidan bir necha yil o'tib sodir bo'lganida nima bo'ladi? va bunday narsalar bilan mashhur bo'lmagan joyda? "


KKKning irqchi eshagini tepgan qora ona

11 aprelda CNN telekanalida namoyish etilgan "Odamlar Klanga qarshi" to'rt qismli yangi dokserlari Belaah Mae Donald haqida hikoya qiladi.

Nik Shager

Bu erda ikkita fojia bor Odamlar Klanga qarshi, CNNning to'rt qismli dokserlari 11-aprel, yakshanba kuni namoyish etiladi. Birinchisi, 1981-yil 21-martda 19 yoshli qora tanli o'smir Maykl Donaldning shafqatsiz linchligi, Alabama shtatining Mobile shahridagi oilasini buzib tashladi. 18 oy, oxir -oqibat Ku Klux Klanning orqasida ekanligi aniqlangunga qadar. Ikkinchidan, bu jinoyat vakuumda sodir bo'lmagan, aksincha, irqiy terrorning uzoq merosining bir qismi bo'lgan, ayniqsa, Amerika janubida, bugungi kunda metastazlangan shaklda davom etmoqda, buni yaqinda sodir etilgan qotilliklar guvohlik beradi. boshqalar qatorida, Trayvon Martin, Erik Garner, Breonna Teylor va Jorj Floyd.

Dahshatli maestro Jeyson Blum prodyuseri va rejissyori Donni Eyxar, Odamlar Klanga qarshi bu g'alaba qozongan adolat uchun kurash haqidagi hikoya va uning markazida Mayklning jasur onasi Beulah Mae Donald.

1981 yil 20 -mart kuni kechqurun Maykl yaqinidagi yoqilg'i quyish shoxobchasida bir quti sigaret sotib olish uchun oilaviy uyini tark etdi. U uyga qaytmaganida, uning onasi va aka -ukalari, shu jumladan, ochiq va uzoq suhbatlarda gapiradigan singlisi Seleka Perri xavotirga tushishdi. Ularning eng dahshatli qo'rquvlari ertasi kuni ertalab, Maykl Herndon shoh ko'chasida daraxtga osilgan holda topilgani, jasadi qattiq kaltaklangani va tomog'i yorilgani haqida xabar kelganida amalga oshdi. Hamyonining topilishi politsiyaga uning shaxsini aniqlashga yordam berdi va gumonlanayotgan uchta odam tezda qo'lga olindi. Biroq, ular noto'g'ri ayblangani ma'lum bo'lganda, tergov Beula Mey va kompaniyaning g'azabiga sabab bo'ldi.

Ularning umidsizliklari, g'azablari va iztiroblari Mayklning o'ldirilishi sodir bo'lgan kontekst bilan yanada og'irlashdi. Politsiya Klan bilan chuqur va mustahkam aloqalarga ega edi va mas'ul detektiv Uilbur Uilyams 1976 yilda Glenn Diamondni kaltaklash va uni ilmoqqa osib qo'yish uchun hibsga olgan bir qancha politsiyachilar bilan bog'liq voqeaga periferik aloqada bo'lgan. halokatli emas, chunki ular buni "hazil" deb da'vo qilishgan. Bundan tashqari, Mobile yaqinda Birmingemda oq tanli politsiyachini o'ldirishda ayblangan qora tanli Jozefus Andersonning sud muhokamasiga mezbonlik qildi va bu noaniqlik bilan yakunlandi. Va, albatta, janub bo'ylab irqchilik qotilliklarining uzoq tarixi bor edi, eng mashhuri 1955 yilda Missisipida linzalangan 14 yoshli Emmett Till, shuningdek 1963 yilda Birmingem portlashida halok bo'lgan to'rt yosh qiz. 16 -chi ko'cha Baptist cherkovi.

Bomba hujumining beshinchi qurboni, omon qolgan Sara Kollinz Rudolf ishtirok etmoqda Odamlar Klanga qarshishuningdek, ko'plab suhbatdoshlar, jumladan, sobiq mobil meri Sem Jons, tuman prokurori Kris Galanos, NAACPning sobiq prezidenti va hozirgi Garvard Kennedi maktabining professori Kornel Uilyam Bruks va AQSh. Alabama shtatining janubiy okrugining advokati Jeff Seshns ishonch bilan aytadi: "Men afro -amerikaliklar hamjamiyati AQShning Alabama shtatining Mobile shtatidagi prokuraturasi fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha qiyin ishlardan qaytmasligini bilishini xohlardim". Aytaylik, ko'pchilik Sessionsning bag'ishlanishiga unchalik ishonishmagan, ayniqsa advokatlar Maykl va Tomas Fiqur, ular keyinchalik Kongress oldida guvohlik berishgan (1980 -yillarda Sessions federal sudyalik lavozimiga nomzod bo'lgan). uni Maykl Donaldning ishini olishdan qaytaradi.

Sessions bunday ayblovlarni rad etadi va "men haqiqatni aytaman, boshqa birov esa tarixni yozishi mumkin", deb ochiqchasiga xushchaqchaqlik bilan rad etadi. Haqiqiy diqqat markazida Odamlar Klanga qarshiBiroq, Mayklning qotillarining qochishiga yo'l qo'ymaydigan ko'plab erkaklar va ayollar. Maykl va Tomas Figurz, Galanos, FTB maxsus agenti Jeyms Bodman, tergovchi Bob Eddi, advokat Dag Jons va boshqalarning sa'y-harakatlari tufayli politsiyachilarning Mayklning o'limi giyohvandlik bilan bog'liq degan asl nazariyasi qalbaki bo'lib chiqdi. Buning o'rniga Bodman, Maykl osilgan ko'chada KKKning ko'p a'zolari yashayotganini bilib oldi. Ulardan biri-Benni Jek Xays, Alabama shtatidagi ikkinchi eng yuqori martabali Klansman va mayklning osilgan jasadi bilan hayratlanarli arxiv klipida yurganini ko'rish mumkin. sud binosi.

As with many television docs, The People v. the Klan likely could have handled this material in three episodes. And the greater saga of American racial hostility and unrest is a topic that requires more time and care than Eichar can grant it. Nonetheless, his series lucidly lays out the means by which Michael’s crusaders uncovered the plot to kill Michael, which was ordered by Hays and carried out by both his son Henry (who always sought his domineering father’s approval) and 17-year-old James “Tiger” Knowles. A new interview with Knowles, who flipped on his compatriots, is shot in darkness, as is one with his Klan buddy Frank Cox. Their input, as well as commentary from their picked-on Klan cohort Teddy Kyzar, helps provide a comprehensive overview of this heinous nightmare, revealing that Michael was selected at random during a hunt for a Black person to kill as payback for Anderson evading conviction.

For refusing to simply accept Michael’s execution as par for the Alabama course, for demanding an open casket at her son’s funeral (as was done for Till), and for eventually going after the United Klans of America organization in a civil trial (aided by Morris Dees’ Southern Poverty Law Center) that saddled the hate group with a crippling $7 million penalty, Beulah Mae Donald is venerated in The People v. the Klan as a member of a long line of Black mothers forced to seek justice for their slain sons. In doing so, the series highlights the sad familiarity of this story, both then and now, given that tales of woe like Michael’s have been far too common in America, including in this present moment. In his closing argument at the civil trial, future senator Michael Figures said that the judge had to send a message, or we’d never escape the question, “Who will it be tomorrow?” As Eichar’s history lesson elucidates, it’s something we’re unfortunately still asking today.


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'The Lynching:' A powerful look at 1981 Klan murder in Mobile

On the morning of March 21, 1981, the first people to spot the body of a young black man hanging from a tree in midtown Mobile weren't sure what they were looking at. One elderly man even called police to say heɽ seen a black man breaking into a house.

That cruel and bitterly ironic detail, drawn from an old Mobile police report, appears in the brief prologue to "The Lynching," where it illustrates the sharp eye for tragedy that bestselling author Laurence Leamer brings to his new book on the Michael Donald murder and its ramifications. The observations are just as sharp and just as tragic some 300 pages later, when Stanley Donald watches the death in the electric chair of one of the men who beat and strangled his brother and then strung up his lifeless body.

But "The Lynching" is not simply another visit to a crime that already has been the subject of other nonfiction books and at least one novel, Ravi Howard's "Like Trees, Walking." Even its full title - "The Lynching: The Epic Courtroom Battle that Brought Down the Klan" - doesn't really tell the whole story.

"The Lynching" is a book of three parts. The first 100 pages essentially comprise a taut true-crime procedural, remarkable for the way it maintains its tension in a case that stretches more than two and a half years from crime to sentencing. The second section drops back into the past, to tell the stories of future civil rights attorney Morris Dees and Klansman Robert Shelton, who eventually becomes Imperial Wizard of the United Klans of America. The third is a courtroom drama, as Leamer finally gets down to Dees' long-shot attempt to hold Shelton and the UKA accountable for Donald's murder and win a civil-suit award that will bankrupt the group.

This isn't a suspense story: One of Donald's killers is electrocuted, the other spends most of his life in prison and an accomplice serves a substantial sentence. Dees wins a $7 million verdict that ruins the UKA. And the crime of Donald's death endures as a turning point marked in blood, sometimes described as the last recorded lynching in the United States.

Objectively, this book is much more about Dees than it is about Donald, or about Mobile. Anyone with a polarized view of the founder of the Southern Poverty Law Center will value it accordingly, given that he is the hero of this story.

Even so, Leamer does a truly remarkable job of humanizing Donald and his family, and of depicting the Mobile of the era. The reporting is thorough, drawing on police records, court transcripts, previous books, newspaper accounts and original interviews, and the author welds it all into lean, clear storytelling.

Leamer cuts straight to the heart of Mobile's unique racial history, writing that "Mobile's white establishment saw their city as a precious enclave apart from the rest of the South. They were proud that Mobile had avoided the racial violence that had plagued its sister cities, Birmingham and Montgomery, and made them pariahs in the national media. There was, however, another Mobile that for the most part the elite studiously ignored, and another history as well."

Leamer describes the collaboration between local NAACP official John L. Leflore and white commissioner Joseph N. Langan that helped give Mobile a reputation as a progressive city less prone to racial violence than some in the ❐s and ❠s. But he also describes the tradeoff, a postwar era in which "Mobile's black population advanced in a glacially slow manner." He describes the seething dissatisfaction that emerged in the mid to late ❠s among a younger generation of black activists, and the fretting of Klansmen at the dawn of the ➀s as they began to sense that their organization was no longer feared by blacks or respected by many whites.

It added up to a powder keg, and Leamer conveys the sense that Donald's murder could easily have led to riots. Men such Alabama Sen. Michael Figures, District Attorney Chris Galanos, state investigator Bob Eddy, Assistant U.S. Attorney Michael Figures and others are given credit for pushing things forward, particularly in the face of a police department that seemed inclined to consider any culprit except the Klan.

Herndon Avenue, where Donald's body was hung, has since been renamed Michael Donald Ave. Leamer leaves one with the impression Donald's legacy goes well beyond that, and well beyond simply being a victim.

Some doubtless would be inclined to argue that Donald's murder was an anomaly, others to counter that it was inevitable. Either point would be facile. The lesson of "The Lynching" is neither. It is that justice in the case was not an anomaly and it was never inevitable: It required specific people to step up and commit themselves to specific action, even when the challenges were daunting and success uncertain.


Beulah Mae Donald Took on the Klan — and Won

The long list of America's civil rights icons includes a string of instantly recognizable names presidents and preachers a 14-year-old boy in the wrong place at the very worst of times and a determined bus rider who refused to yield.

Beulah Mae Donald may not be among those heroes who immediately come to mind. She may not come to mind at all. But through the most unthinkable of tragedies, with a courage drawn from her faith and an unwavering search for the truth, Beulah Mae Donald has earned her place. Few have endured so much pain, few have given so much, to further the cause.

"She never rested until her mission was accomplished," says John Giggie, a history professor at the University of Alabama and the director of the school's Summersell Center for the Study of the South, "which was to make Mobile, to make the Deep South, to make America see her son, see his assailants and not forget."

A Mother's Pain, A Nation's Stain

Early in the morning of a late-March day in 1981, Beulah Mae Donald was in her Mobile home, waiting for Michael, the youngest of her seven children, to return home. By dawn, after suffering through a nightmare that shook her awake, he still hadn't arrived.

A little before 7 that morning, the phone rang into the early morning silence. A woman told Beulah Mae that her son's wallet had been found it was a sign that Beulah Mae, in the strain of the moment after a worry-filled night, took to mean that Michael was alive and well somewhere.

''No, baby, they had a party here, and they killed your son,'' the caller reported, according to a 1987 account in The New York Times Magazine. ''You'd better send somebody over.''

Michael Donald, 19, was brutally murdered that evening, beaten badly with a tree limb, his throat slit and a noose with 13 loops pulled tightly around his neck. If all of that wasn't terrible enough, his body was hung from a tree on a neighborhood street just a few blocks from his house for all the world to see.

For the better part of a shameful century, lynchings were a constant fear for Blacks living in the Deep South. The Equal Justice Initiative, in "Lynching In America: Confronting The Legacy Of Racial Terror," has documented more than 4,000 racial terror lynchings of African Americans in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia between the years of 1877 and 1950.

But this was 1981. No one had been lynched in America in more than 20 years. The killing of Michael Donald, brutal in both its execution and its brazenness, was stunning. It was sobering. It made news across the country.

"This [lynching] stands out as a reminder that, even despite the victories of the Civil Rights movement, white supremacy was far from being banished from America," Giggie says now. "It was perhaps the most visible and painful reminder that acts of racial terror were still part of the fabric of everyday life in the South and in America."

Convicting the Killers

Police in Mobile immediately suspected the Ku Klux Klan, which at that time had waning influence around the South but was still active. In fact, some members of the United Klans of America, once one of the biggest Klan groups in the country, watched from a porch across the street as police took down Michael Donald's body. A cross was set afire on the Mobile County courthouse lawn that night.

It took prosecutors some two years to finally bring Michael's killers to trial, and then only after a vocal Beulah Mae — upset further by a pseudo-investigation by local police that smeared the name of her son by suggesting his death was due to a drug deal gone bad — rallied local organizers and national activists like the Rev. Jesse Jackson.

The FBI joined in and, after a stalled initial investigation, finally arrested two men for Michael's killing. Klan members Henry Hays and James "Tiger" Knowles, apparently angered by a jury's inability to convict a Black man for killing a white police officer in another high-profile case and spurred on by the local Klan to seek revenge, were convicted of killing Michael in 1983.

Hays was sentenced to death for the murder, Knowles to life in prison.

But Beulah Mae, still looking to clear her son's name, was not finished. With the urging and the help of the founder of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Beulah Mae brought a civil suit in 1984.

Taking Down the Klan

The civil trial, which began in 1985, demanded that the Klan be held responsible for the actions of its members. The complaint, in which Beulah Mae was joined by several other plaintiffs, was sought on behalf of all Black citizens of Alabama who "seek the right to life free from harassment, intimidation, physical harm and death at the hands of members of the defendant United Klans of America solely because of the race of said black citizens."

The idea behind it was straightforward: Not only did Beulah Mae want to clear the name of her son, she wanted all who were part of it to be held accountable. "I wanted to know who all really killed my child," she said in 1988. "I wanted to be assured . I wasn't even thinking about the money. If I hadn't gotten a cent, it wouldn't have mattered. I wanted to know how and why they did it."

In the suit, Beulah Mae and others alleged that the Klan killed Michael for two reasons: One was to "intimidate present and future jurors in Mobile County and Alabama from ruling in favor of black defendants charged with crimes against whites or in favor of black plaintiffs seeking to recover damages from whites, thereby denying black citizens the right to a fair and impartial trial."

Second, the defendants — the Klan — wanted to intimidate Blacks. From the allegations in the complaint:

Among those charged individually along with Hays, Knowles and the Klan: Hays' father, Bennie Jack Hays, a high-ranking official in the Klan and Frank Cox, another Klan member and the man accused of supplying the rope around Michael's neck.

On Feb. 12, 1987, an all-white jury in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Alabama found for Beulah Mae Donald and the plaintiffs and ordered the Klan and six individuals to pay damages in the amount of $7 million. That's $16 million in today's dollars.

The younger Henry Hays died in Alabama's electric chair in 1997 — against the wishes of the devoutly faithful Beulah Mae — at the age of 42, the first execution of a white person for crimes against a Black person in the state in more than 80 years. His father Jack Hays, because of evidence presented at the civil trial, was indicted for inciting the murder of Michael Donald. The elder Hays died before his trial was completed. Cox was later tried, found guilty and sentenced to 99 years in prison.

Knowles, who tearfully apologized to Beulah Mae during the civil trial and testified against Hays and others, was released from prison in 2010.

The case essentially bankrupted the KKK. The Klan had to turn over its headquarters in Tuscaloosa to Beulah Mae after the verdict. Beulah Mae sold it and used the proceeds to buy a new home in a better neighborhood.

Beulah Mae Donald died in Mobile some 18 months after the verdict at the age of 67. But she is remembered now — when, indeed, she is remembered — as the article in The New York Times Magazine trumpeted her: "The Woman Who Beat the Klan." Her fight is now the topic of a four-part CNN Original Series "The People v. The Klan: The Untold Story of Beulah Mae Donald."

The most important part of her story, in these days of racial unrest, is the remembering.

"I remember after George Floyd's murder, some people were asking, 'Where did this come from, how could this happen?' Whereas other people, particularly Black Americans, were saying, 'This has been happening for a long, long time. This is just the most public setting, or capturing, of a tradition of injustice,'" says Giggie. "That disconnect between those who couldn't understand where it came from, and those that did, is in that gulf that I think modern America sometimes teeters."

After Michael Donald was murdered, Beulah Mae Donald insisted that her son's casket be open during the funeral. She wanted the whole world to see the crime that had been committed. Her decision was reminiscent of the 1955 funeral in Chicago of 14-year-old Emmett Till, whose open-casket photos landed in Jet Magazine and other outlets and prompted a worldwide outrage.


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Izohlar:

  1. Dylen

    yes ... such a thing would not hurt me)))

  2. Bradburn

    Ha, hamma narsa mantiqiy

  3. Remi

    Va hamma narsa va variantlar?

  4. Rushkin

    Thanks, good article!

  5. Got

    Great, useful information



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