Titanikdagi kompas platformasiga nima bo'ldi?

Titanikdagi kompas platformasiga nima bo'ldi?


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Titanikdagi Kompas platformasiga nima bo'ldi? U halokat joyidan topilganmi?

Men nima uchun ishlatilganini bilib oldim, lekin ular qoldiq maydonida hech qanday iz topmaganmi yoki yo'qmi, hech qanday tushuntirish yo'q, chunki bu meni har doim hayratga solgan noyob tuzilish edi.


Yo'q, "Titanik" ning kompas platformasidan hech qanday belgi topilmadi.

Kompas platformasining joylashuvi "Titanik" kemasi kemasining ushbu rejasida va kema profilining ushbu rejasida ko'rsatilgan. Ko'ryapsizmi, u birinchi sinf zalining tepasida joylashgan.

Kompas platformasi kema "standart kompas" ni o'z ichiga olgan bo'lib, unga ko'ra, qolganlar aniqlikni saqlab qolish uchun sayohat paytida hukm qilinadi.


Kompas platformasi yog'och, bronza va tuvaldan qurilgan (kompasga ta'sir qiladigan qora qismlar yo'q). Bu, ehtimol, 1 -darajali dam olish xonasining tomidan yuvilgan, chunki kamon yuzasi ostiga tushib ketgan, yoki voronkalardan biri burilib ketganida ajralib ketgan. Doktor Robert Ballard yoki o'sha vaqtdan beri kemani o'rganganlar tomonidan olingan fotosuratlarda, albatta, hech qanday iz yo'q.

Albatta, yog'och va tuval dengiz tubida omon qolmagan bo'lardi va bronza elementlar saqlanib qolishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, men ularning qoldiqlari maydonida qayd etilgan va aniqlangan yozuvlarni topa olmayapman.


Mening nazariyam shuki, kema Atlantika okeanining tubiga cho'kib ketganda, uni suv bosgich bosib ketgan. Menda yana bir bor, voronkalar yiqilganda, uchinchisi kompas minorasi tepasiga qulab tushgan bo'lishi mumkin.


O'sha kuni tushdan keyin, Keniyadan 4000 mil narida, Elizabet va Filipp ulkan mgumu daraxtining shoxlariga o'rnatilgan Treetops mehmonxonasiga kelishdi. Kech tushganda, ular fillar va karkidonlarni ko'rish maydonchasi ostidagi sug'orish teshigiga yig'ilishlarini tomosha qilib, band bo'ldilar. Qirollik partiyasi kechki payt saharda turib, yovvoyi tabiatni kuzatishni davom ettirish rejasi bilan qaytdi. Bir necha dam olish paytida, 1952 yil 6 -fevral kuni erta tongda, qirol Jorj VI uyqusida vafot etdi.

Uch soatlik vaqt farqi tufayli Elizabet va Filipp hali bezovtalanmagan kunga kelishdi. Ular "Sagana oqimi" alabalığı uchun baliq ovlashdi va "Outspan" mehmonxonasida tushlik qilishdi. Qirolning o'limi haqidagi xabarlar Londondan kodli xabar orqali Nayrobi gubernatorining qarorgohiga yuborilgan, lekin kod daftarchasi seyfga qulflangan va gubernator, kaliti bo'lgan yagona odam qirg'oqqa ketgan. Uzoq joylashgan joyni hisobga olgan holda, tashqi aloqalar deyarli yo'q edi va mahalliy jurnalist qirolning o'limi haqidagi xabarlar haqiqat bo'lsa, malika shaxsiy kotibi Martin Charterisdan so'raguncha, qirollik partiyasi Jorj VI ning vafotidan xabar topdi. Elizabet oxirgi xabardor bo'lganlardan biri edi. Bu xabar tasdiqlangandan so'ng, oldinga safarga tayyorgarlikdan voz kechildi va e'tibor davlat masalalariga qaratildi. Chartetisga muhrlangan qo'shilish hujjatlarini ochish va tayyorlash vazifasi yuklatilgan, ular qirol kasalligining davom etayotganini hisobga olib, ehtiyot chorasi sifatida gastrolga olib ketilgan. Shahzoda Albert, qirol Albertdan farqli o'laroq, qirol Jorj VI bo'lishni tanlagan edi, lekin u qanday familiyani tanlashni so'raganida, Elizabet mashhur javob berdi: "Albatta, mening ismim - yana nima?" Mombasa telegrammalaridan motam kiyimlari olib kelindi. ular Keniya mezbonlariga, shuningdek Avstraliya va Yangi Zelandiyada kutayotganlarga yuborilgan va xatlari onasi va singlisiga yozilgan. Ketish vaqti kelganida, Elizabet hech qanday suratga tushmaslikni so'radi. Uning tarixiy ketishiga guvoh bo'lgan jurnalistlar uning iltimosini qondirishdi.

7 -fevral kuni kechqurun Elizabet uyiga motam tutgan xalqqa keldi. Ko'plab britaniyaliklar uchun uning otasi monarxiyaga bo'lgan ishonchini tiklagan va uning o'limidan dahshat keng tarqalgan edi. Ertasi kuni ertalab qora libos kiygan Yelizaveta Sent -Jeyms saroyida yig'ilish ishtirokchilari kengashi oldida o'zining suverenitet deklaratsiyasini o'qidi. Yelizaveta va Filipp Sandringemga tantanali safar qilganida, qirolichaning e'lonlari butun London bo'ylab tarqaldi.

Qabul qilingan Qirolicha Yelizaveta II: cho'ntak gigantlari Viktoriya Arbiter tomonidan

Qirolicha Yelizaveta II ning e'lon qilinishi, 1952 yil fevral

QAChON Qudratli Xudo rahm -shafqatli, marhum hukmdorimiz qirol Jorjning oltinchi muborak va ulug'vor xotirasini chaqirishni ma'qul ko'rdi.
Shunday qilib, biz bu olamning ruhiy va vaqtinchalik xo'jayinlari bo'ldik, bu erda uning marhum qirolicha Shaxsiy Kengashi, Hamdo'stlikning boshqa a'zolari, boshqa sifat bosh janoblari, lord -meri, Aldermen va fuqarolar bilan yordam berdik. London, hozir shu erda bir ovoz bilan va "Til va qalb roziligi" bilan e'lon qiling va e'lon qiling va e'lon qiling: Oliy va qudratli malika Yelizaveta Aleksandra Meri, bizning marhum baxtli xotira hukmdori vafotidan so'ng, ikkinchi qirolicha Yelizaveta bo'ldi, Xudo bu dunyoning va uning boshqa barcha olamlari va hududlarining malikasi, Hamdo'stlikning boshlig'i, imon himoyachisi, uning yolg'onchilari barcha imonni va doimiy itoatkorlikni samimiy va kamtarin muhabbat bilan tan oladilar, shohlar va malikalar hukmronlik qilayotgan Xudoga iltijo qiladilar. , Qirolicha malika Yelizavetani bizni hukmronlik qilgan uzoq va baxtli yillar bilan tabriklash.
Sent-Jeyms saroyida, Rabbimiz bir ming to'qqiz yuz ellik ikki yili, fevral oyining oltinchi kuni berilgan.


Titanik ichida: 1911 va 1912 yillarga qaytish

White Star Line & rsquos-da yangi uch vintli bug 'qozonlari Olimpiya va Titanik Bug 'navigatsiyasining bir asrlik bilimlari va mahoratining timsoli.

Raqamlar eng aniq va ravshan so'zlar ustunligi haqida gapiradi Olimpiya va Titanik. Bu ajoyib kemalarni qurishda hech narsa tasodifan qoldirilmagan va ular hech qachon qurilgan eng katta va eng og'ir kemalardan tashqari, shubhasiz, eng kuchli hisoblanadi.

Ularning baland korpuslari ettita dengizga qarshi kurashish uchun yaratilgan va har bir kemada po'latdan yasalgan plastinkalarni bir -biriga bog'lab qo'ygan uch million perchin (og'irligi 1200 tonna) borligi bilan faxrlanadi.

Ikki taglik taglik har bir idishning uzunligi 5 fut 3 dyuymgacha o'zgaradi. 6 fut 3 dyuymgacha. chuqurlikda va korpusga qo'shimcha kuch beradi. Korpuslarning bo'linishi Olimpiya va Titanik Po'latdan suv o'tkazmaydigan qismlar bilan ajratilgan o'n beshta bo'linma kemalarning xavfsizligini ta'minlaydi.


Jeep Fiat ostida yo'lga qaytdi

Ikkinchi jahon urushi jang maydonlarida tug'ilgan Jeep brendi so'nggi o'n yil ichida yangi turdagi urushni boshdan kechirdi. Avvaliga u nemis o'gay ota -onasi tomonidan hurmat qilinmagan, keyin esa Uoll -stritdagi yirtqichlar tomonidan o'lib ketgan. Ammo hozirda brend Chrysler -ning Italiyaga yangi egalik qilishi ostida qaytish qilayotgandek.

Istehzo qalinroq bo'lishi mumkin emas edi. Mercedes-Benz kompaniyasining ota-onasi bo'lgan Daimler nemis avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchisi tarixiy to'qnashuv paytida Ittifoq kuchlariga qarshi ishlatilgan ko'plab nemis jangovar mashinalarini ishlab chiqardi. Ammo o'n yil mobaynida u Chrysler va Jeep-ga tegishli bo'lib, u tarixiy maqom tarixidagi eng yomon Jeep markali avtomobillar uchligini yaratdi: Qo'mondon, Kompas va Patriot. Chrysler kompaniyasida o'tkazilgan ichki tadqiqotlarga ko'ra, Jeep dilerlik franchayzalarining qiymati aslida Daimlerga tegishli bo'lgan. Ehtimol, Italiyadan kelgan avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchi, Germaniyaning Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi istaksiz sherigi, yangi amerikalik hamkasblari bilan AQShda ham, jahon miqyosida ham Jeep -ni tiklashda yaqindan hamkorlik qilayotgani, kompaniya umid qilgandek, etakchi mavqega ega. sport kommunal bozori.

To'g'risi, shu yilning boshida Jeep yangi Grand Cherokee-ni ishga tushirdi, bu, ehtimol, Jeep flagmanli avtomobilining eng yaxshi iteratsiyasi. Bu versiya Daimler tomonidan boshlangan Mercedes M Class bilan birgalikda mahsulot ishlab chiqish dasturidan kelib chiqqan. Chrysler rahbarlari Grand Cherokee qurilishini moliyalashtirish uchun 2007-2009 yillarda Chrysler-ga tegishli bo'lgan istalmagan Cerberus Capital kompaniyasini ishontirishlari kerak edi, lekin bu pul yaxshi sarflangan.

Grand Cherokee-da cho'chqalarni qo'llab-quvvatlash-bu Jeep Compass va Patriot-ning yangilangan versiyalari va Ozodlik va Wrangler-ning yaxshilangan versiyalari. Bu yangilanishlar asosan Fiat nazorati ostida moliyalashtirildi va amalga oshirildi, bu esa italiyaliklar nemislar yoki Cerberuslarga qaraganda Jeep -ni ancha yaxshi tushunishini, qadrlashini va unga sodiqligini ko'rsatadi.

Nufuziga qaramay, kuchli brend

Va nima uchun? An'anaviy donolik uzoq vaqtdan beri Chrysler -ning eng qimmatbaho qismi Jeep ekanligini aytgan. Qachonki, xaridorlar Nissan, GM yoki xitoylik bo'lsin, ko'p yillik muammolarga duch keladigan Chrysler -ni hidlab olishdi - bu qiziqish - bu Jeep, Dodge pikaplari va minivenlari. Darhaqiqat, 2009 yilda General Motors va Chrysler bankrot bo'lganida, Oq uyning ishchi guruhi, ehtimol, Chrysler -ning uch qismini GMning eng kuchli uchta brendi bilan birlashtirib, bitta raqobatbardosh avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchini yaratishni taklif qilgan.

"[Chrysler -da] tejashga arziydigan aktivlar ro'yxatining yuqori qismida" Jeep "brendi bor edi, u butun dunyoda tanilgan va xaridorlari sodiq bo'lib qolishgan, lekin mahsulotlar innovatsion darajadan past va ko'pincha xalqaro va mahalliy mahsulotlardan orqada qolishgan. Raqobatchilar yonilg'i tejash va yoqilg'i tejashda ", deb yozadi avtoulovlar guruhi direktori Stiven Rattner," Kapital ta'mirlash: Obama ma'muriyatining avtosanoatni favqulodda qutqarish haqidagi Insider hisobi "kitobida.

Fiat ostidagi o'zgarish yaxshi ko'rinadi va Chrysler muhandislari va dizaynerlarining ishtiyoqini yana eshitishga undaydi. "Daimler ajoyib transport vositalarini ishlatishdan ko'ra, jarayon bilan ovora edi", - deydi Jeep Grand Cherokee, Compass va Patriot mahsulotlarini sotish bo'limi boshlig'i Jim Morrison. "Biz mahsulotni takomillashtirish yoki yangi avtomobil g'oyasini o'rganishni tugatganimizda, biz o'rganmoqchi bo'lgan tendentsiya tugadi", deydi Morrison.

Jeep transport vositalarini tadqiq qilish

U ko'rsatgan misol - Grand Cherokee Overland Summit, uning barcha xususiyatlari 47 ming dollarni tashkil qiladi. "Biz buni Serxioga taklif qilganimizda [Chrysler bosh direktori Machionne], u:" Boring, yil oxirigacha bajaring. Siz bilasizmi, u sotadimi yoki yo'qmi, men buni tez va to'g'ri bajarilishini xohlayman ", - dedi. - dedi Morrison.

Fiat va Chrysler o'rtasidagi nikoh notinch boshlanganidan so'ng, shu jumladan, Markion Chysler va Dodge brendlarining rahbarlarini tayinlaganidan bir necha hafta o'tgach, ishdan bo'shatilgandan so'ng, bu kombinatsiya Daimler kompaniyasining o'n yillik mulkchilik huquqidan voz kechish uchun kuchli imkoniyatga ega bo'lganga o'xshaydi. "Menimcha, bu Fiat bir xil turdagi xaridorlarga biz sotadigan transport vositalarini sotishidan kelib chiqadi", - deydi Jeep dizayn boshlig'i Mark Allen.

Yaxshilashlar allaqachon

18 oy davomida Fiat egalik qilgan Chrysler, aksariyat avtomobillarining ichki qismini o'zgartirdi. Jeep -da, ehtimol, Compass va Patriot -ga qadar hech qanday transport vositasi kelmagan, ularning yangilangan versiyalari 2011 yilning birinchi choragida sotuvga chiqariladi. 2006 yilda 2007 yilda chiqarilgan, qisman Daimler 40 -ga buyurtma bergan. % avtomobilning ichki qismiga, shuningdek, uning ikkita linemat yig'ish zavodiga - Dodge Caliber va Jeep Patriot narxlarining pasayishi. Ichki makon 21 -asr me'yorlariga toqat qilib bo'lmaydigan darajada arzonligi va yo'l shovqini bilan masxara qilingan.

2012 yilgi kompas A ustunidan oldinga siljigan, panjara, faralarni tozalash, old va orqa faskaslari bilan. Chiroqlar aslida Grand Cherokee kompaniyasidan olingan, boshqa jihatlari esa brend flagmanining hashamatli uslubiga bog'liq. Ichki plastmassalar qayta ishlangan, yangi rulda va takomillashtirilgan qurilmalarda. Xulosa qilib aytganda, Kompas deyarli hech kim tavsiya qilmaydigan mashina bo'lib, raqobatbardosh bo'lgan, ayniqsa, g'ildirakli haydashni taklif qiladigan segmentda kam bo'lgan. Yuqori ikkita trim darajasini endi Subaru Outback va Forester bilan taqqoslash mumkin. Allen: "Salfetkaning eskizidan tortib olti oylik dasturga qadar, besh hafta ichida" o'tdi.

Haqiqatan ham, Kompas va Patriot ikkalasi ham g'ildirakli haydash qobiliyatiga qoyil qolishdi, Vayoming shtatining Jekson-Xol shahrida haydash paytida, chunki ikkita mashina chuqur qorli yo'llar va toshli erlarda, odatda, Jipning an'anaviy rok-emakchi Wrangler provinsiyasi. "Bu ikkita transport vositasining imkoniyatlari har doim e'tibordan chetda qolgandi, chunki ular Daimler ostida yaratilgan interyerlari haqidagi salbiy suhbatlar tufayli", - dedi Allen.

Jeep kompasni ixcham krossover segmentida biroz yuqori sifatli avtomobil sifatida o'zgartirishga harakat qilmoqda. U, shuningdek, xuddi shu platforma, dvigatel va variantlarga ega bo'lgan va shunga o'xshash narxga ega bo'lgan Patriotdan ajralib turadi. Yangilangan Patriot 15,995 dollarlik boshlang'ich narxini saqlab qolsa-da, kompasning boshlang'ich narxi 4000 dollarga qimmatroq va yuqori darajali Limited uchun 26000 dollarga tushadi.

Patriot, shuningdek, old va orqa tomondan yangi fasiyalarni oldi, shuningdek, takomillashtirilgan interyer materiallari, kommutatorlar va rulda g'ildiraklar balandligini oshirish uchun to'xtatib turuvchi tuzilmalarni oldi. Wrangler yo'lda shovqinni engillashtiradigan, rulni boshqarishning yangi boshqaruv elementlari, standart elektron barqarorligi va tepalikdan boshlashga yordam beruvchi, orqa oynalari kattaroq bo'lgan yangi interyerga ega.

Bu yaxshilanishlarning barchasi Jeep -ning pozitsiyasini mustahkamlash uchun juda zarur. Chrysler rahbarlarining fikricha, Toyota AQShda sotiladigan RAV4 -ning katta hajmi tufayli SUV -larning eng ko'p sotuvchisi bo'lgan. Toyota shuningdek, boshqa bir qancha SUV -larni sotadi: 4Runner, Sequoia va Highlander. Biroq, jip savdosi o'sib bormoqda va noyabr oyigacha AQShda 260 mingdan oshdi, bu o'tgan yilga nisbatan 23 foizga ko'p.

Qayerdan Bu erdan?

2013 yilda Chrysler Compass va Patriot-ni to'liq almashtirishni boshlaydi-ikkalasini ham almashtiradigan bitta yangi avtomobil, Ozodlikning o'rnini bosuvchi va kompasni almashtirishdan pastroq bo'lgan kichik jip, lekin baribir to'liq g'ildirakli haydovchini taklif qiladi. va off-road qobiliyati. Uchalasi ham Fiat muhandislik platformalariga asoslangan bo'ladi, bu Allenning aytishicha, "vazifaga to'liq javob beradi".

Fiat, shuningdek, Detroytda Jeep Grand Cherokee platformasiga asoslangan Maserati-ga asoslangan SUV quradi. Italiyaliklar jipning global ishlab chiqarish hajmiga 500 ming dona qo'shishni xohlaydilar, qisman Rossiya avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchi OAO Sollers bilan birgalikda Rossiya va Sharqiy Evropada Grand Cherokees, Compass, Patriot va Wranglers avtomobillarini quradilar. Fiat Italiyada ham jip ishlab chiqarishni rejalashtirgan.

Jeep -ning muvaffaqiyati va tezligining belgilari - Chrysler kelgusi yilga rejalashtirgan birinchi ommaviy taklifining kalitidir. Fiat hozirda Chrysler -ning atigi 20 foiziga egalik qiladi, qolgan qismi AQSh hukumati, United Auto Works sog'liqni saqlash trasti, Kanada hukumati va eski Chrysler obligatsiyalari egalariga tegishli. Ammo Fiat kelgusi yilda IPOdan oldin hukumat kreditlarini qayta moliyalashtirishi mumkinligi haqida xabarlar bor, bu esa Fiatga ikkinchi chorakda katta ulushni sotib olishga imkon beradi.

"Chrysler boshqaruvini o'z qo'liga olish Fiat kompaniyasining birlashuvi bo'yicha o'tkazilgan uchrashuvlar chog'ida aniq ustuvor vazifa bo'ldi",-deydi UBS mijozlarga hisobotida Londondagi bosh tahlilchi Filipp Xouchois. Fiat yuk mashinalari va traktorlar bo'linmalarini avtomobil ishlab chiqarishga yo'naltirish uchun tahlilchilarga ma'lumot berdi.

Chrysler birinchi chorakda AQSh G'aznachiligini qaytarish uchun pul qarz olishi mumkin, ikkinchi chorakda Fiat bilan birlashishi va uchinchi chorakda dastlabki ommaviy taklifini o'tkazishi mumkin, dedi Xouchois, buni "agressiv, lekin bizning fikrimizcha, real vaqt" deb atadi.

Stiv Rattnerning "Ta'mirlash" asarida u Fiat Markionnini qattiq muzokarachi va "zo'r" deb maqtashda davom etadi. Jip Allen shunday deydi: "U g'alaba qozonishga intiladi va men Jeep bunda muhim rol o'ynayotganidan xursandman".


Re: POW kompas platformasini bosing

Muallif: kvilli & raquo Mon, 05 -iyun, 2017 -yil 14:35

Re: POW kompas platformasini bosing

Muallif: Antonio Bonomi & raquo Seshanba, 2017 yil 05 -dekabr, 22:40

Men endigina oxirgi postni o'qidim.

Sizga Keyt Uilliga katta rahmat, sizning PoW kompas platformasida yarador bo'lmaganlar soni haqida bizga muhim tasdiqni beradigan qimmatli hissangiz uchun.

Re: POW kompas platformasini bosing

Muallif: wadinga & raquo Chorshanba, 13 -dekabr, 2017 -yil 12:28

Afsuski, Kennedi Keytning otasining jarohati haqida batafsil ma'lumot bermagan, lekin Ashning PoW va Repulse haqida yozgan kitobidan farqli o'laroq, muallif PoWdan omon qolganlar bilan juda ko'p aloqada bo'lgan va shu tariqa tafsilotlarga ega bo'lgan, Pursuit ko'proq Bismark Chase haqida. Shubhasiz, Kompas platformasida o'ldirilmaganlarning ahvoli darhol yomon ahvolda edi.

Shikastlanishlari nohaqlik bilan kamaytiriladigan yana bir kishi - navigator Rowell. Garchi ko'p hisoblarda bir ofitser, ya'ni Esmond Nayt jarohat olgani haqida gap ketsa -da, Rowellning jarohati shunchalik og'ir ediki, u ham Hvalfyordda kema vaqtincha ta'mirlash uchun to'xtab qoldi, garchi u Buyuk Britaniyaga davom etsa ham.

Ko'rinib turibdiki, bu davr mobaynida Rowell hamma narsani qilmagan.

Re: POW kompas platformasini bosing

Muallif: Antonio Bonomi & raquo Chorshanba, 13 -dekabr, 2017 13:55

ertalab otangiz sizga nima deganini bilish juda qiziq bo'ladi.

Iltimos, men bilan bog'laning. Rahmat.

HMS Shahzoda Uels Kompas Platformasida o'sha paytda kamida 6 kishi bo'lganga o'xshaydi:

A) Kapitan - Jon Ketterall Lich

B) Bosh signal signallari - Alfred Edvin Gilbert

C) Navigatsiya xodimi - leytenant komandir Jorj Uilyam Rowell

D) Etakchi signalchi - Jeyms X Uilli

E) Midiya xodimi - Piter Tutill Dreyer

F) Midiya xodimi - Jon Bret Ince

Ulardan qaysi biri, albatta, vafot etdi, Ince va Dreyer, Rowell jarohat oldi va Uilli kar bo'lib qoldi (vaqtincha yoki doimiymi?).


Ogohlantirishlari e'tiborga olinmagan 10 kishi

Yunon mifologiyasida Kassandra Troya qirolining qizi edi. U shunchalik go'zal ediki, Apollon xudosi unga kelajakni, bashoratni ko'rish in'omini berdi. Kassandra Apollon sevgisidan voz kechganida, u unga hech qanday bashoratiga ishonmaydigan la'nat qo'ydi. Shunday qilib, Kassandra epik va fojiali shaxs edi va ndash kuchli qobiliyatga ega edi, lekin undan foydalanishga ojiz edi. Tarix davomida dahshatli fojia va falokatlar kelishini bashorat qilgan, ammo ogohlantirishlariga e'tibor bermagan Kassandra tipidagi ko'plab shaxslar bo'lgan. Bu odamlar xudolar bo'lmagan va maxsus bashorat kuchlaridan foydalanmaganlar. Ular vaziyatning haqiqatini chuqur anglagan va boshqalarni ogohlantirishga harakat qilgan odamlar edi. Har bir holatda, boshqalar ularning ogohlantirishlariga quloq solmadilar va oldini olish mumkin bo'lgan fojiali hodisalar oldini olmadi. Mana, boshqalarni ogohlantirmoqchi bo'lgan, lekin ogohlantirishlariga e'tibor bermagan odamlarning o'nta misoli.

1963 yil 24 oktyabrda, Prezident Jon Kennedi Texasning muhim saylov shtatida o'tkaziladigan kampaniya doirasida Dallasga borishi rejalashtirilganidan bir oy oldin, Kennedi va rsquos BMT elchisi Adlay Stivenson Dallasga Dallas memorial auditoriyasida chiqish uchun bordi. BMT kunini nishonlash. Dallasda ko'p odamlar Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti, Oliy sud raisi Erl Uorren va Kennedilarni ochiq va zo'ravonlik bilan yomon ko'rishardi. Ularning nafratlari shu qadar kuchli ediki, ular gubernator Jon Konnallini Stivenson va rsquosning tashrifidan bir kun oldin va AQSh kuni va rdquoga norozilik e'lon qilishga ko'ndirdilar. Stivenson auditoriyaga kelganida, unga va Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga (va Kennedi ma'muriyatiga) norozilik bildirish uchun tashqarida minglab piketchilar va ko'p odamlar bor edi. Stivenson gapirmoqchi bo'lganida, namoyishchilar oyoqlarini qoqib, baqirishdi, xirillashdi va shovqin -suron qiluvchilarni buzishdi. Ammo Stivenson harakat qildi. Bir kishi qichqirib yubordi va ldquoKennedi mukofotini do'zaxda oladi, Stivenson esa o'ladi. & Rdquo Nutqdan keyin politsiya Stivensonni auditoriyadan olib chiqishga urindi, lekin g'azablangan olomon uni o'rab oldi. Bir payt Stivenson politsiya himoyasidan chiqib, unga qichqirayotgan ayol bilan gaplashmoqchi bo'ldi. Ayol piket belgisi bilan Stivensonni boshi ustidan yopdi. Keyin Stivenson: "Bu odamlarmi yoki bu hayvonlarmi?" - dedi

Vashingtonga qaytib kelgach, Stivenson Kennedi va rsquos spikeri Artur Shlesingerga Kennedi Texasga bormasligi yoki hech bo'lmaganda Dallasdan qochmasligi haqida ogohlantirdi. Atmosferada juda yomon va qo'rqinchli narsa bor edi, - dedi Stivenson Shlesingerga. Shlesinger ogohlantirishni o'tkazib yubormadi. Agar u shunday bo'lganida ham, Kennedi Dallasdan qochgani shubhali, buni qilish qo'rqoqdek tuyulardi. Kennedi bu qaror uchun hayoti bilan to'lagan.

2002 yil fevral oyida vitse -prezident Dik Cheyni Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasiga sobiq elchi Jozef C. Uilsonni Afrikaning kichik Afrika davlatiga yuborish huquqini berdi, chunki Saddam Husayn va Iroq yadro qurolida sariq uran sotib olishga urinayotgani haqida mish -mishlar bor yoki yo'qligini. qurol. Yellowcake - uran kontsentrati kukuni (och sariq rangda), bu uran xom ashyosini yadro qurolida ishlatiladigan, yuqori darajadagi boyitilgan uranga aylantirishda vositachi qadamdir. Nigerda tabiiy uran konlari katta bo'lganligi sababli, Iroq, ehtimol, yadro quroli dasturida foydalanish uchun sariq pirojnani yashirincha sotib olmoqchi bo'lishi mumkin edi. Uilson Niger bosh vaziri bilan maslahatlashdi va Iroq Niger bilan sariq uran sotib olish bo'yicha savdo bitimlari borligi haqida hech qanday ma'lumot yo'q degan xulosaga keldi. Bu haqda u Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasiga 2002 yil mart oyida xabar bergan.

2003 yil yanvar oyida, AQSh Prezidenti Jorj Bush, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Iroqqa bostirib kirganidan so'ng, Saddam Husayn yaqinda Afrikadan ko'p miqdorda uran qidirganini bildi. Uilson Nyu-York Tayms uchun bosma maqola yozdi va u erda Nigerga o'z missiyasini ochib berdi. U Iroqning uran sotib olish imkoniyatini o'rganganini va undan hech narsa topa olmaganini, bu haqda Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi va Oq uyga ma'lum qilganini aytdi. U Prezident va rsquosning bayonoti Iroq bilan urushni oqlash sifatida chalg'ituvchi ekanligini ko'rsatdi. Keyinchalik, Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi direktori Jorj Tenet, bu so'zlar hech qachon Prezidentlar shtatining murojaat matnida bo'lmasligi kerakligini aytdi, lekin baribir Iroq yadroviy materialni qo'lga olishga harakat qilmoqda, atom qurolini ishlab chiqarmoqda yoki hatto ishlab chiqardi deb o'ylardi. ommaviy qirg'in quroli (WMD).

AQSh Iroqqa bostirib kirgandan so'ng, Bush ma'muriyati ogohlantirganidek, Iroqda yadro materiallari, yadro quroli, yadroviy qurol dasturlari yoki ommaviy qirg'in qurollari bor yoki yo'qligini aniqlash uchun mamlakatda uzoq va to'liq qidiruv o'tkazildi. Amerika xalqi. Hech qanday qurol -yarog 'yoki Iroq faol yoki hatto oddiy yadroviy dasturga ega ekanligi haqida hech qanday ma'lumot topilmadi.

Harbiy-sanoat kompleksi (MIK)-bu milliy qurol-yarog ', qonun chiqaruvchi/ma'muriy hukumat va mudofaa sanoati kompaniyalaridan iborat bo'lib, ular milliy resurslarni tobora ko'proq harbiy xaridlarga aylantirish uchun ishlaydi. Garchi bunday komplekslar odamlar urush olib borish va yaxshi qurol ishlab chiqarish uchun texnologiyadan foydalana boshlagan paytdan beri mavjud bo'lsa -da, aynan Ikkinchi jahon urushi va atom asrining ko'tarilishidan so'ng, MIKning AQSh versiyasi MIKni tashvishga solayotgan odamlarni qo'rqita boshladi. hokimiyatni ushlab turishning tipik demokratik vositalarini, mo''tadillikni va nazoratni boshlay boshladi. Prezident va sobiq general Duayt Eyzenxauerdan boshqa hech kim tashvishlanmagan. Prezident bo'lgan sakkiz yil mobaynida Eyzenxauer Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining tobora kengayib borayotgan va kuchli mikrofonlarining dahshatli o'sishi va kuchini kuzatgan. U 1961 yil 17 yanvarda xalq bilan xayrlashuv nutqida ishdan ketganida, u quyidagi ogohlantirishni berdi:

& ldquo Tinchlikni saqlashning muhim elementi - bu bizning harbiy muassasamiz. Bizning qo'llarimiz kuchli va tezkor harakatlarga tayyor bo'lishi kerak, shunda hech qanday potentsial tajovuzkor o'z vayronagarchiliklarini xavf ostiga qo'ymaydi.

& LdquoBu ulkan harbiy korxona va yirik qurol sanoati birlashuvi Amerika tajribasida yangi. Iqtisodiy, siyosiy, hatto ma'naviy va mdashning umumiy ta'siri har bir shaharda, har bir shtat uyida, federal hukumatning har bir idorasida seziladi. Biz ushbu rivojlanish zarurligini tushunamiz. Shunga qaramay, biz uning jiddiy oqibatlarini tushunishimiz kerak. Bizning mehnatimiz, manbalarimiz va tirikchiligimiz jamiyatning tuzilishi bilan bog'liq. Hukumat kengashlarida biz harbiy-sanoat majmuasi tomonidan izlanayotgan yoki o'ylanmagan asossiz ta'sirga ega bo'lishdan ehtiyot bo'lishimiz kerak. Noto'g'ri kuchning halokatli o'sish ehtimoli mavjud va saqlanib qoladi.

& LdquoBiz hech qachon bu kombinatsiyaning og'irligi bizning erkinliklarimizga yoki demokratik jarayonlarga xavf solishiga yo'l qo'ymasligimiz kerak. Biz hech narsani oddiy deb qabul qilmasligimiz kerak. Faqat hushyor va bilimli fuqarolar xavfsizlik va erkinlik birgalikda gullab -yashnashi uchun bizning tinch usullarimiz va maqsadlarimiz bilan ulkan sanoat va harbiy mudofaa texnikasini moslashtirishga majbur qila oladi. & Rdquo

Eyzenxauer va rsquosning ogohlantirishiga e'tibor berilmadi. Bugungi kunda AQShda MIK har qachongidan ham kuchliroq va kuchliroq bo'lib, nisbatan tinchlik davrida ham AQShning qurol -yarog'ni keng miqyosli dasturlarini ishlab chiqarishni to'xtatish va o'z milliy boyliklarining katta qismini harbiy xizmatlarga sarflashni to'xtatish deyarli imkonsizdir. Sovet Ittifoqi qulaganidan keyingi 90 -yillar). Bugungi kunda AQShning harbiy byudjeti boshqa davlatlarning umumiy byudjetidan deyarli katta emas.

1800 -yillarning oxirlarida Genri Kley Frik boshchiligidagi bir qancha boy sanoat baronlari shaharning isidan, axloqsizlikdan va issiqdan shaxsiy chekinishni va Pensilvaniya g'arbiy tog'larida joy olishni xohlashdi. Ular 1800 -yillarning boshlarida Pensilvaniya shtati Jonstaun yaqinidagi Conemaugh daryosida suv ombori sifatida qurilgan to'g'on va ko'lni sotib oldilar va Janubiy Fork baliqchilik va ovchilik klubini tuzdilar. Ular o'z ko'llarini "LedquoLake Conemaugh & rdquo" deb atashdi va garchi uni yaratgan to'g'on dastlab yaxshi qurilgan bo'lsa-da, yillar o'tib, texnik xizmat ko'rsatilmaganligi va o'zgarganligi sababli, u tobora beqaror bo'lib qolgan. Sanoatchilar uni sotib olishganda, u allaqachon oqardi va yaroqsiz holatda edi. G'ayrioddiy boyliklardan to'g'onni mustahkamlash va tuzatish uchun ishlatishdan ko'ra, ular ko'pincha loy va somondan yamoq yasashgan, ular tez -tez oqardi.

1889 yil 31-mayda Jonstaun-Saut Fork hududida bo'ron Pensilvaniya tarixida qayd etilgan eng yomon yomg'irlardan biriga aylandi. 24 soat ichida olti-o'n dyuymli yomg'ir yog'di va mahalliy oqimlar qirg'oqdan chiqib, allaqachon beqaror Conemaugh ko'liga suv quydi.

O'sha kuni ertalab, janubiy vilkalar baliqchilik va ovchilik klubi prezidenti Elias Unger uyg'onib, ko'lning suv sathi to'g'onga yaqinlashayotganini ko'rdi. Unger tezda blokirovka qilingan to'kish yo'llarini tozalashga ekipajni yig'di, lekin ular qoldiqlarni tozalay olmadilar. Keyin uning odamlari, to'daning bosimini olib tashlash va suvni boshqa joyga to'kish uchun yana to'kilgan yo'lni qazishga harakat qilishdi. Bu ham muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi.

To'g'on har qanday vaqtda qulab tushishidan qo'rqib, Janubiy Fork klubi muhandisi Jon Parkga ot bilan minib, yaqin atrofdagi Janubiy Fork shahriga telegraf idorasiga Janubiy Fork va Jonstaunga ogohlantirish yuborishni buyurdi. Parke buni amalga oshirdi va telegraf orqali bir emas, ikkita ogohlantirish yubordi, ularning ikkalasi ham hech qachon Janubiy Fork va Jonstaun amaldorlariga o'tkazilmagan, ular chora ko'rishlari va shaharlarni evakuatsiya qilishlari mumkin edi. Yillar mobaynida to'g'on buzilgani haqida tez -tez yolg'on signallar bo'lgan (tez -tez oqish va ta'mirlash tufayli), hech kim Parkga to'g'on yopilmasligini aytganida ishonmagan.

Soat 15:10 atrofida to'g'on nihoyat joyini bo'shatdi. Uning tarkibi, taxminan 20 million tonna Conemaugh ko'li suvi, Kichik Konemo daryosidan oqib tushdi. Suv birinchi bo'lib Janubiy Fork shahriga etib keldi. Yaxshiyamki, ko'pchilik odamlar suvning shovqinini eshitib, tog 'yonbag'ridan balandlikka ko'tarilishdi va faqat to'rt kishi halok bo'ldi. Jonstaun aholisi omadli emas edi. Suv to'lqini soatiga 40 mil tezlikda harakatlanib, balandligi 60 futga yetdi, uylar, telefon ustunlari, toshlar, daraxtlar, temir yo'l vagonlari va boshqa yo'llarni tashib, shaharga bostirib kirdi. Taxminan 2,209 kishi halok bo'lgan, bu AQSh tarixidagi o'sha paytdagi eng dahshatli falokat.

1912 yil aprel oyida Kiril Evans Atlantika okeani bo'ylab sayohatda Kaliforniya SS SS telegraf operatori sifatida ishlagan. 1912 yil 14 -aprelga o'tar kechasi Kaliforniyalik kapitan Stenli Lord kemani ko'plab muz aysberglari bo'lgan keng muz maydoniga kirganida to'xtatib qo'ydi. Lord simsiz aloqa operatorlari xonasiga kirib, Evansga muz maydonidagi boshqa kemalarni ogohlantirishni buyurdi. Evans aynan shunday yo'l tutdi va boshqa kemalarga muz yaqinlashayotgani haqida simsiz ogohlantirishlar yubordi.

"Titanik" bortidagi simsiz xonada, operatorlar Jek Flibs va Xarold Brid, birinchi safarida "Titanik" ning AQShga, kemadan AQShga yuborishi kerak bo'lgan shaxsiy xabarlar yig'indisidan o'tishga harakat qilishdi. Philips Evans va rsquo muzlari haqida ogohlantirish xabarini oldi, lekin Kaliforniyalik "Titanik" ga juda yaqin bo'lgani uchun va Evans o'z komplektini to'liq quvvatga aylantirgani uchun u deyarli naushnikni Philips boshidan uchirib yubordi. G'azablangan Flibs unga tushishni aytdi va Philips hech qachon muzdan o'tib, ko'prik yoki kema kapitaniga ogohlantirmagan. Evans o'zini buyurganini qilganini sezdi, radiokompyuterini o'chirdi va uxlashga yotdi. Ko'p o'tmay, Titanik g'arbdan Amerikaga qarab, Evans ularni ogohlantirmoqchi bo'lgan muz ustida paydo bo'ldi, aysbergga urildi va 1500 dan ortiq odam halok bo'ldi.

2010 yilda BP kompaniyasiga tegishli va Transocean tomonidan boshqariladigan Deep Water Horizon neft platformasidagi operatsiyalar yaxshi ketmadi. Aslida, neft qudug'ini burg'ilash va neft ishlab chiqarish (va daromad) boshidanoq dahshatli tush edi va rejadan ortda qoldi. Deepwater Horizon Luiziana shtatining janubi -sharqiy qirg'og'idan 41 mil uzoqlikda, suv chuqurligi taxminan 5000 fut bo'lgan Makondo prospektida qidiruv qudug'ini burg'ilay boshladi. 2010 yil 20 aprelda neft burg'ulash qurilmasi portladi, yondi va cho'kdi, 11 ishchi halok bo'ldi va tarixdagi eng yomon ekologik ofatlardan biriga sabab bo'ldi.

Tabiiy ofat kuni ertalab burg'ulash qurilmasi operatori va Transocean xodimi Jimmi Xarrell BPning yuqori lavozimli mulozimi bilan janjallashib qolgan. BP Xarreldan gazni ushlab turish va uni burg'ulash trubasining yuqoriga ko'tarilishini to'xtatib qo'yish uchun engilroq dengiz suvi o'rnini bosishini xohladi. Quduqni yopishdan oldin burg'ulash trubasining pastki qismini yig'ish uchun odatda loy ishlatilgan. Xarrell ikkita oqish testini o'tkazmasdan buni rad etdi. Ikkala sinov uchun ham burg'ilash loyining burg'ulash maydonchasiga chiqib ketishiga imkon beradigan quvurda qochqinlar topilgan. Muvaffaqiyatli sinovda quvurdan loy oqib chiqmasligi kerak edi. Ba'zi sabablarga ko'ra, sızıntılara qaramay, Harrel quvurdan og'ir loyni olib tashlash bilan oldinga borib, uni engil dengiz suvi bilan almashtirdi. Kechki soat 9:45 da dengiz suvi, metan gazi va loydan yasalgan geyser trubadan platformaga chiqib ketdi. Gaz yondi va burg'ulash moslamasi portladi va yonib ketdi.

Though he would later testify that he could &ldquonot recall&rdquo having a confrontation with the BP official, as soon as the rig exploded and caught fire, and before he abandoned the rig, other crew members heard Harrell shouting into a satellite phone talking to the BP office in Houston and saying: &ldquoAre you fucking happy? Are you fucking happy? The rig&rsquos on fire! I told you this was gonna happen.&rdquo

Though Harrell now states he cannot remember giving BP a warning, others have testified that is exactly what he did. At a meeting with BP officials just before the explosion, a frustrated Harrell told another employee &ldquoI guess that&rsquos what we have the pincers for&rdquo &ndash referring to the automatic blowout preventer which was supposed to slice into and seal the well head if the ultimate disaster happened. The blowout preventer, along with just about every other safety device, failed that day.

Katsuhiko Ishibashi is a well-respected professor and seismologist at Kobe University in Japan. Since the early 2000s he has been warning Japan that the country&rsquos many nuclear power plants are in danger of serious damage or even a melt down because they have been built in earthquake-prone areas.

In 2006 he was a member of a government committee that was to revise the national guidelines on making Japan&rsquos nuclear power plants more resistant to earthquakes. He proposed that Japan review its standards for surveying and assessing the danger from active faults, but this proposal was rejected. He later resigned saying the committee&rsquos review process was unscientific and the outcome of the committee findings were rigged in favor of the Japan Electric Association. He also claimed the final guide that the committee produced was flawed because it underestimated the design basis for earthquake ground motion. Ishibashi also stated that Japanese engineers were overconfident in their predictions of plant engineering and safety design to withstand an earthquake.

Ishibashi warned of the danger of an earthquake-induced nuclear disaster at an International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics conference held in Sapporo. He said: &ldquoThe seismic designs of nuclear facilities are based on standards that are too old from the viewpoint of modern seismology and are insufficient. The authorities must admit the possibility that an earthquake-nuclear disaster could happen and weigh the risks objectively.&rdquo

Ishibasi once said: &ldquoI think the situation right now is very scary &hellip it&rsquos like a kamikaze terrorist wrapped in bombs just waiting to explode.&rdquo

All of Ishibasi&rsquos fears came true on March 11, 2011 when a huge off shore earthquake and resulting tsunami damaged the Fukushima Diiachi nuclear power plant resulting in a level 7 International Nuclear Event Scale disaster &ndash the highest level nuclear disaster possible.

In May 2011, he said &ldquoIf Japan had faced up to the dangers earlier, we could have prevented Fukushima.&rdquo

When Brooksley Born took over as head of the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), a government agency empowered with the task of monitoring and regulating the commodities exchange in the US, she very quickly discovered something that shocked her. An entire branch of the commodities market known as Over the Counter commodities (OTC commodities) existed that were for all intents and purposes, totally unregulated. Worse, the government (which was supposed to monitor and regulate commodity trading) didn&rsquot even know these types of commodity investments existed. Gargantuan sums of money were being traded as OTC commodities called &ldquoderivatives,&rdquo with no regulation and nobody even aware it was taking place. On Wall Street they called it the &ldquoBlack Box&rdquo of trading, only those involved knew the details. And they wanted it to stay that way.

Born had other ideas. The more she learned about OTC commodities and the derivatives markets, the more frightened she grew that something terrible would happen to the US and world economies. Bond was most worried about the derivatives and swaps markets &ndash where the risk associated with investments were traded as insurance policies. These were complicated financial investments understood by very few people, and banks began to fraudulently sell them to unsuspecting customers who did not fully understand what they were buying, and who ended up losing huge sums of money. Born believed that it was the job of her agency to investigate and prosecute such fraud. Alan Greenspan had other ideas about that. Greenspan, who more then any other single individual can be blamed for the US financial and economic collapse of 2008, believed, foolishly and naively, that regulation and enforcement was unnecessary &ndash that banks, financial firms, and business could &ldquoregulate themselves.&rdquo

Born believed differently and when she tried to move to regulate OTC derivatives for the first time, she was met by the full force of the financial industry lobbying effort. She and her agency were crushed by political power and Born eventually resigned. But the warnings she had made about the unregulated OTC derivatives market becoming far too large and posing a threat to the very structure of the US and world economy did not go away. By 2007 just before the crash, the OTC derivatives market was valued at a mind-numbing $595 trillion. Derivatives were being written to insure derivatives, which were themselves written on derivatives. It was a house of cards of financial debt waiting to fall, all it needed was a triggering event. And the collapse of the housing market did just that. In a matter of months the huge load of debt, most of it in the form of &ldquocredit default swaps&rdquo and derivatives, led to the fall of Lehman Brothers, which triggered an almost complete collapse of the US financial market. Only emergency influx of US taxpayer money to buy the worthless &ldquotoxic assets&rdquo off the books of banks and large investment houses, saved the US economy from plunging into another Great Depression.
As the US financial markets imploded under the weight of derivative trading debt she had warned against and tried to regulate, Born had this to say: &ldquoIt was my worst nightmare coming true. Nobody really knew what was going on in the market. The toxic assets of many of our biggest banks are over-the-counter derivatives and caused the economic downturn that made us lose our savings, lose our jobs, lose our homes. It was very frightening.&rdquo

And she has another warning, even after the collapse of 2008: &ldquoI think we will have continuing danger from these markets and that we will have repeats of the financial crisis. It may differ in details, but there will be significant financial downturns and disasters attributed to this regulatory gap over and over until we learn from experience.&rdquo

John O&rsquoNeil was an FBI agent who, more than anyone else in the agency, was actively investigating the terrorist group Al-Qaeda in the 1990s and the links between state sponsors of terrorism such as Yemen and Saudi Arabia, Al-Qaeda operatives, and attacks on US interests around the world including the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center buildings. The more O&rsquoNeil dug into the shadow world of international terrorism, the more he began to warn anyone in Washington DC that would listen, that Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden were major threats to the US. Throughout the 1990s, with the first attack on the World Trade center buildings, the attacks on US embassies, and the attack on the US Cole, all being linked to Al-Qaeda, O&rsquoNeil and his predictions were turning out to be true. Yet his personal style stepped on the shoes of powerful people in Washington DC and FBI headquarters, many of whom were jealous of his successful predictions. By August 2001, his enemies had pushed him out of the FBI. O&rsquoNeil resigned to take the job as head of security for the World Trade Center buildings. One of his friends told him he had taken the perfect job because Al-Qaeda had already attacked there and he was safe. O&rsquoNeil disagreed and said that he thought Al-Qaeda was coming back to the World Trade Centers to finish the job. The night before the attacks in a conversation with another friend, O&rsquoNeil told him that he felt an attack on US soil was going to happen, and happen in a matter of days or weeks. He was still monitoring activities coming out of Afghanistan and felt, in his stomach, that the attack was coming, and soon.

He had good reason to feel this way. Just before he left the FBI, O&rsquoNeil was closing in on the trail of several leads, leads linking terrorists coming out of Yemen into the United States. Information from a terrorist suspect the FBI was tracking should have been setting off red warning lights, but without O&rsquoNeil, no one was shouting the warnings (with the exception of Richard Clarke and a few others who were actively and aggressively trying to warn the new Bush administration that an attack was coming) and no one in the Bush administration was listening, or concerned. This terrorist told the FBI of a meeting in Malaysia attended by two of the Al-Qaeda terrorists who had participated in the attack and bombing of the US Cole. These two had been moving in and out of the United States and practicing on flight school simulators. They would be two of the Al-Qaeda terrorists who on September 11, 2001, crashed flight 77 into the Pentagon.

John O&rsquoNeil was in the south World Trade Center building that day. He survived the initial impact of the plane. He called his wife to tell her conditions were terrible but he was making his way out of the building. He never made it. His body was later found in one of the stair towers of the south building. For more information on John O&rsquoNeil and his incredible story, see the PBS Frontline documentary called &ldquoThe Man Who Knew.&rdquo

In the 1980s Roger Boisjoly worked as an engineer at Morton Thiokol, maker of the solid rocket boosters used in the space shuttle program. In 1985, a year before the space shuttle Challenger disaster, Boisjoly had been warning Thiokol that the joints used to seal the sections of the solid rocket boosters could fail if they became too cold before launch.

The space shuttle used two solid fuel rocket boosters and a central hydrogen gas tank, to fuel the engines for launch. The different sections of the solid rocket boosters were sealed to one another with a rubber material or gasket called an &ldquoo-ring.&rdquo Boisjoly and other Thiokol engineers had found that in cold weather conditions, the rubber material in the o-rings became brittle and did not seal the sections into place. In this case, the o-ring would fail to prevent the flames from reaching the rocket&rsquos metal casing. If this happened, the flames could trigger a huge explosion of the hydrogen fuel tank located right next to the boosters.

On January 27, 1986 the space shuttle Challenger was on the launch pad set for launch the following day. The weather forecast for Cape Canaveral was to be unusually cold with temperatures dropping below freezing. All of that evening and into the morning hours of January 28, Boisjoly and other engineers pleaded with NASA to delay the launch. Senior managers at Thiokol and NASA officials rejected their argument. NASA insisted the shuttle would launch the morning of January 28 as scheduled, even with the cold weather. Only a minute after taking off, the o-ring on one of the solid fuel rocket boosters failed just as Boisjoly had predicted it would. The flames shot out from the booster and hit the hydrogen tank, which exploded, killing all of the astronauts on board. Boisjoly was so sure that the booster o-rings would fail, he could not make himself watch the launch.

The resulting investigation of the Challenger disaster showed NASA had developed an internal culture that all but ignored safety. It was a culture that pushed to launch the Challenger to meet the schedule and keep politicians happy. Astronaut safety took a back seat to NASA and Washington DC politics.

For his testimony exposing NASA and Thiokol, the space engineering community blackballed Boisjoly. He spent the last 17 years of his life lecturing on engineering ethics. In 2003 when an unchanged NASA culture caused the disintegration of the shuttle Columbia, Boisjoly stated that NASA engineers and administrators should be charged with murder and the only way to change the NASA culture was to throw people in jail.


Leach was injured!

Muallif: dunmunro » Mon Apr 14, 2014 8:24 am

I'm just reading through Wills' In the Highest Traditions of the Royal Navy , and on page 90 it states: "Unknown to many Captain Leach had received an internal injury when the 15in shell struck the compass platform. " ( p.90) and "On 16 June Captain Leach was admitted to Bovery Tracery Hospital for Hernia Surgery, a more serious operation in 1941 than it is today. He was not discharged until 25 June and went to Yarner on sick leave. He and his wife had much to celebrate and this time of recovery was his longest stay at Yarner during the war. Leach did not return to PoW until 1 August." (p.95)

So not only was Leach knocked unconscious he also suffered a hernia probably from the shock wave generated by the passing 38cm shell, and was on sick leave for 2.5 months after returning to England.

I have to say that I'm not much impressed by Wills biography. A good biographer would have presented the medical report rather than just mentioning it in passing. Wills also states that Leach was the Director of Naval Ordnance for two years from early 1939 to early 1941 (exact dates are not given) yet manages to write a whole paragraph about on this very interesting topic and period in Leach's career without quoting Leach even once.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: Alberto Virtuani » Mon Apr 14, 2014 8:33 am

@ Dunmunro, we already discussed the hernia of Capt. Leach in the thread "Articles of War", thanks to Paul medical experience and my own experience with 2 hernia.

Without minimizing the fact that he received an injury, such a disease is not preventing any normal reaction during the battle as the hernia was not a strangulated one (that would have required an emergency surgery). I didn't realise when I got the hernia (no pain) and I planned my first hernia surgery 2 months in advance).

BTW: I agree with your overall evaluation on Wills biography, however some interesting info are in it.

" It takes three years to build a ship it takes three centuries to build a tradition " (Adm.A.B.Cunningham)

" There's always a danger running in the enemy at close range " (Adm.W.F.Wake-Walker)

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: dunmunro » Mon Apr 14, 2014 8:47 am

Alberto Virtuani wrote: @ Dunmunro, we already discussed the hernia of Capt. Leach in the thread "Articles of War", thanks to Paul medical experience and my own experience with 2 hernia.

Without minimizing the fact that he received an injury, such a disease is not preventing any normal reaction during the battle as the hernia was not a strangulated one (that would have required an emergency surgery). I didn't realise when I got the hernia (no pain) and I planned my first hernia surgery 2 months in advance).

BTW: I agree with your overall evaluation on Wills biography, however some interesting info are in it.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: paulcadogan » Mon Apr 14, 2014 1:02 pm

Not sure how correct the latter part is as that might refer to the HACS hit.

Shell “A”—15”. Entered starboard forward corner of compass platform and left through port searchlight control position. It is uncertain whether it passed overboard whole or whether partial detonation occured [sic misspelling in original] near the port after corner of the compass platform.

Damaged [sic] caused. Captain’s T.B.I.’s damaged chart table destroyed all instruments, V.Ps and wiring in port after section of compass platform destroyed port searchlight sights, control instruments and wiring destroyed majority of personnel on compass platform and port side A.D.Os position killed or wounded: VG/VP gear and signal deck multiphones damaged.

Strange. the "Captain's T.B.I's" (what are those?) and the chart table are not mentioned in the scans of the original document posted by Antonio.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: Antonio Bonomi » Mon Apr 14, 2014 5:50 pm

my friend, you know that when I state something, especially lately on this very delicate argument, . usually I have my reasons and related evidence supporting it.

Did you take a look at my latest post attachments with the Compass Platform layout, the original Compass Platform photo and were the main communication Voice Pipes were located on PoW Compass Platform ?

Than please take a good look at the damage photos, . check the drawings and instruments, .. check the real damages occurred.

Hopefully you will realize and agree that the Voice Pipes needed by Capt. Leach to give the order were still ALL there : intact ! . untouched by the Bismarck shell.

There was NO reason, . for a Captain " in urgency " like Leach was in that moment to provide that order . to move away from there and NOT to use them.

YES, the Compass Platform was damaged as far as some communication were related to, some telephones and Voice Pipes, but ONLY in the AFT PORT corner as available photos shows !

Everything else was just perfectly available and still usable . like always, . before and after.

That is why Esmond Knight made it that way on the movie . with a bit of drama on it . since he showed a body on the compass and Leach using the compass Voice Pipes, . in reality he used the Pelorus side voice pipes . the ones ahead of the Compass . more distant from were the Bismarck shell passed and consequently even on a better state than the Compass ones . for reference just compare the after damage photos with the original PoW compass platform one I have posted above, . and for help on realize were they were, just use the original PoW Compass Platform drawing above.

NOTE : for this shell damage, the Hit Nr. 1 on PoW damage report ADM267/111 , I have posted on page 4 of this thread the original full page (on 2 pics ) analysis of the damage report. From that detailed report you can realize there were NO damages on the center/forward main communication instruments ( Compass and Pelorus ) of the PoW, . but as said, . the images themselves speak a thousand words.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: Antonio Bonomi » Mon Apr 14, 2014 8:11 pm

Here the HMS Prince of Wales Compass Platform center forward looking to the bow the photo shows the side of the Compass and the Pelorus, . plus 4 of the 5 forward Kent glasses , . the last one on port is hidden by the Compass sphere. The Pelorus in centered on the third and middle Kent glass.
Please notice on the Pelorus the Voice Pipes.

NO need to go 2 levels down below to give an URGENT order thru a Voice Pipe still well available at 1 meter from were you are.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: dunmunro » Mon Apr 14, 2014 9:08 pm

Strange. the "Captain's T.B.I's" (what are those?) and the chart table are not mentioned in the scans of the original document posted by Antonio.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: paulcadogan » Tue Apr 15, 2014 5:12 am

Come now Antonio! Those photographs were taken days after the battle when the ship was in for repairs. Everything had been cleaned up. They cannot possibly be used to represent the condition immediately after the shell went through at 1000 miles per hour! Were those instruments even accessible? Siz qila olmaydi presume to know that.

And I can't believe you're actually trying to use the Sink the Bismarck movie to support your point! Esmonde Knight did not witness the state of the compass platform after the hit - he was temporarily blinded! He was an actor playing a role according to his director's wishes.

Hmmmm! But if you really want to use it - why not use the "gawk time" as well for Hood's explosion! :

(Group of officers/ratings along with Leach on the CP of PoW stand in shocked silence) "Good God!" mutters Leach eventually as he lowers his binoculars with Hood disappearing under a cloud of smoke. "Yeoman! Make to Admiralty from Prince of Wales. Tell them..(he swallows). Tell them the Hood has blown up."

"Aye Aye sir!" responds the Yeoman who then turns to go send the report. (The wail of approaching shells grows)

"Starboard 15!" yells Leach. (Cuts to the Admiralty in London)

Great script-writing, but hardly what really happened.

Levity aside now, the fact is LEACH HIMSELF thought AT THE TIME the damage was worse than it actually was and wrote as much in his narrative. He had 7 months of life left to tell what he did to others and they reported as such. You cannot simply, 70-odd years later, look at a diagram and photographs and presume to say that those reports are incorrect and that he did something else just to suit your timeline.

Sorry my friend. as we say in Jamaica. "Try yuh bess!!" (Try your best!). I'm not buying this one!

@ Duncan. rahmat! Hood's equivalent would have been the "Evershed Bearing Indicator" then. Same thing? Or were PoW's more technologically advanced? We can see in the diagram that one of those was very close to the shell's entry point and would have been taken out by the sheer force of the blast from the shell's passage even if it was not hit directly.

I saw a scan of part of Garzke & Dulin's description of the damage and they also say, like Grenfell, that communications with the steering was cut off.

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: Antonio Bonomi » Tue Apr 15, 2014 6:36 am

of course you are free to have your opinion about those photo evidences, . I keep mine and it is conclusive for me as you may have realized.

The movie is just a representation of what really happened . and more or less the time is correct as well, . a couple of minutes.

You may read again the page I have attached above about the damage report caused by this shell focusing in particular to the damages on the front forward part of the Compass Platform, . which state that basically there were NO damages.

Than I think the last phrase about the real impact on the fighting efficiency will make it all clear.

It is NOT the reference of some damages on the AFT PORT side of the Compass Platform communication links that we can see on other available damage photos that will sustain any theory that Capt Leach cannot use what he had at hand 1 meter from him and still intact.

Just as many other aspects of this battle also in this case the truth and the reality has been a lot altered in order to fit what they wanted to sell about this event.

The truth was very different . . and I am afraid I am NOT done yet discovering " can of worms " here .

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: Alberto Virtuani » Tue Apr 15, 2014 7:15 am

@Paul Cadogan and Antonio Bonomi: again I insist that we will never possibly know from where the order for disengaging was given. No evidence for this point is available and Leach never said from where he gave the order.

However, the voicepipes in the front of the compass platform were for sure in place and a voicepipe is a VERY reliable equipment: if it is in place (even if damaged at its end), then it works and the Captain knows it.
I agree with Paul: the damage was overestimated in the minutes after the shell passed (mostly due to the communication switchboard destroyed in the port aft corner), however one thing is to conduct the ship for a long time in action from a damaged bridge and one (very different) is to just give an order at the voicepipe and then to leave quickly to gain a better position.

So, IMHO, no need for Leach, being in urgency, to descend to another place to give the order while over events could need important decisions. If he did, then he was really unhurt (not unconscious at all) as 40 seconds are enough but for sure not a long time to take the decision, to descend and to have the ship starting the turn. If he was knocked slightly unconscious, then the order was given from the compass front voicepipe.

" It takes three years to build a ship it takes three centuries to build a tradition " (Adm.A.B.Cunningham)

" There's always a danger running in the enemy at close range " (Adm.W.F.Wake-Walker)

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: Antonio Bonomi » Tue Apr 15, 2014 10:05 am

I agree with you my friend, . your way to see the events is in line with what I think.

Still if I can put a percentage on the 2 possibilities based on today knowledge and evidences : 90% order given from Compass Platform and 10 % from the Conning Tower.

Here following the photo damages from Hood website :

Please notice that on the first photo, showing the entrance of the Bismarck 15 inch ( 381 mm ) shell from the starboard upper corner of the Compass Platform were we can see the legs of a workman we can see a very important detail.

There are 2 Voice Pipes we can see just below the legs of the workman, . the one on the left more forward has been broken on the end and bent down a bit by the Bismarck shell since it was on the shell path inside the compass platform ( it is still usable anyway as we can see ) . the one more back on the right, . just some centimeters distant from the other that has been broken, . but OUT of the shell path by few centimeters, . is still intact and perfect.

What this tell us ? Very simple, the photo shows the status of the HMS Prince of Wales Compass Platform BEFORE the repair activities started.
In fact they are attached as damage report and they have been a lot requested as evidences from the Admiralty as we can read on the document package itself.

More, the Bismarck shell path, so 38 cm ( 15 inches ) with some more centimeters around her is the only area that has been really impacted by the shell path inside the Compass Platform from the shell entrance hole on starboard side, until the shell reached the exit point aside the door on port side aft ( photos 2 and 3 ).

No fire, No explosion neither outside the port side bridges, . damages limited to the ones we can see on the available photos, . perfectly listed on the report.

There were NO reasons NOT to use the Compass Platform Voice Pipes to give the order : " Hard to Port ! " by Capt Leach.

Just as a curiosity, . on the movie the elapsed time between the hit received and the order given was just around 30 seconds . more or less just how much it took on reality that morning . 06.00 and 50 seconds ( hit received ) ---> 06.01 and 20/5 seconds ( order issued ) . so you can have a good idea on how it went .

Re: Hit on POW compass platform

Muallif: wadinga » Tue Apr 15, 2014 12:08 pm

Perhaps you are letting an old movie's squeamishness about depicting the horrors of real-world naval combat cloud your understanding of the real-world situation on the Compass Platform. Decamping to the inadequately-armoured ,cramped and visually-impaired Conning Tower in the middle of an action, when split second decisions were required, is not a thing Leach would have done unless absolutely necessary. You guessing about whether his communications were operational, at that moment, is not valid, and we know comms with the DCT were broken.

This whole "Order given before leaving" scenario is a quick fix just to shore up the increasingly ludicrous 40 sec timetable between hit and turn. Sam Woods had time to make a phone call from the Conning Tower about Hood's demise as well, before he got blown up.

No-one was depicted in the movie with a large wooden splinter piercing his face. We have no way of knowing what body parts of how many victims were redistributed over the interior of the Compass Platform. The gory dribbling of blood through the voicepipe to the plot was something that did make through to the movie, although not in such quantities as to make the action plot indecipherable. Short circuits blow fuses, nobody knows what repairs were done, before the Con went back to the Compass Platform.

Suddenly there was a blinding flash in front of my eyes and I felt enveloped in a pocket of searing heat.

I heard no explosion and everything appeared in slow motion.
I was sucked up the ladder and seemed to float across the bridge area.
After floating for what seemed an age I finally came to rest on the deck amidst a shambles of torn steel fixtures, collapsed searchlights and human bodies.
As I regained my senses, the sweet smell of burned flesh mingled with the acrid stench of high explosives assailed my nostrils, gradually my brain cleared and the red fog lifted from my eyes.
Everything was enveloped in dark grey smoke.

This is first-hand eye-witness evidence of an explosion. The fact that the dockyard report didn't find evidence, days later, doesn't mean anything. Undoubtedly, Woods, who was far further away than Leach, also considered himself "unhurt". BTW all the other witnesses were dead, mortally wounded or unconscious and blinded.

I note yet another spurious use of statistics ie "90%" to try and give a biased speculation more validity.

those who go out looking for worms, want to find to find worms. I haven't seen a single wriggler yet.


Tarkibi

The Lincoln MKS made its first appearance as a concept car at the 2006 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan. The MKS Concept provided a preliminary view of the design direction that Lincoln was taking for their new full-size flagship sedan of the same name.

The MKS included Lincoln's signature waterfall grille with a crosshatching that was later used in the grille for the 2007-2009 Lincoln MKZ. The concept car's headlights featured adaptive lighting that pivoted the headlight projectors in concert with steering inputs. The headlight assemblies incorporated a series of LEDs that would blink in sequence for turn indication. Side vents at the rear of the front wheel wells were adorned with the Lincoln star. The MKS Concept featured a large sunroof and moonroof combination that takes the place of a conventional roof. The MKS Concept's rear were LED-based parking and brake lamps and dual chrome, trapezoidal-shaped exhaust tips. The MKS Concept rode on 20x8.5-inch, ten spoke wheels. [8]

The MKS Concept seats were covered in cream-colored Aniline leather while the doors and interior panels were covered in pearl-white suede. The dashboard was covered in dark grey suede. Instrumentation and controls featured satin nickel inserts and chrome trim with backlighting provided by white LEDs. An applique of real maple wood ran across the instrument panel, dividing it into upper and lower sections. Features included Bluetooth device connectivity, a DVD-based navigation system, a 14-speaker, 500-watt audio system, a passive entry system that identifies the driver and allows starting the vehicle by carrying its key fob, and a push button ignition system. Safety was provided by dual front airbags, driver and passenger side airbags, and side curtain airbags. [8]

The MKS Concept was based on Ford's front-wheel drive, Volvo-derived D3 Automobile platform that was already in use in the then-Ford Five Hundred, Ford Freestyle, and Mercury Montego (the version used for the MKS in particular was coded D385). It has independent suspension with MacPherson struts and rearward-facing lower L-arms with a stabilizer bar in the front and a multilink coil over shock setup with a stabilizer bar in the rear. The MKS Concept featured an active all-wheel drive system. Powering the MKS Concept was a Ford/Yamaha 4.4 L DOHC V8 producing 315 hp (235 kW) at 4500 rpm and 320 lb·ft (433 N·m) of torque at 3000 rpm. The engine was mated to a 6-speed automatic transmission. [9]

The production version of the Lincoln MKS was unveiled to the public in November 2007 at the LA Auto Show. Sales began in the summer of 2008 as a 2009 model. The front fascia of the production version received a new grille, a chrome, split-wing design. The trapezoidal-shaped chrome exhaust tips of the MKS Concept were replaced with more common circular chrome tips. [10]

The production MKS uses leather seating surfaces, thermoplastic olefin door and interior panels, as well as leatherette for the top of the dashboard. The maple wood instrument panel applique from the concept car was replaced with olive-ash or ebony wood. [10]

The MKS was the first series production Lincoln with radar autonomous cruise control system. Other features include intelligent access system with a push button start, a keyless entry keypad that is mounted flush inside the driver-side B-pillar with buttons that only appear when touched, and optional adaptive HID headlights. [11] Other features include automatic HID headlights, foglights, an Easy Fuel capless fuel filler, foldable power adjustable mirrors with memory, 18x7.5-inch machined aluminum wheels, a 6-speaker audio system with an AM/FM radio and 6-disc in-dash CD changer, Sirius satellite radio with a six-month prepaid subscription, dual-zone automatic climate control, an auto-dimming rear view mirror with compass, 12-way, heated and cooled power driver and passenger seats, heated rear seats, a power tilt and telescoping steering wheel with memory, a universal garage door opener, and Lincoln SYNC.

Safety features include dual front airbags, driver and passenger side airbags, and side curtain airbags. Three equipment packages include the Navigation Package (a DVD navigation system, a THX II-Certified, 14-speaker, 600-watt audio system with an AM/FM radio and six-disc in-dash CD player, and a rearview camera) Technology Package (adaptive HID headlights, rain-sensing windshield wipers, a forward-sensing system, [ tushuntirish kerak ] a power sunshade for the rear window, and the intelligent access system with push button start) the Ultimate Package includes everything in the Navigation and Technology packages and a dual panel moonroof, premium 19x8-inch painted alloy wheels, Ultimate seating trim with color-keyed suede strip in the center of the seat back, and a Lincoln Star logo embroidered into the front seat headrests an Aluminum Applique Package (aluminum dash trim in the place of wood, as well as a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift knob), is also available but requires the Navigation, Technology, or Ultimate packages. Options include all-wheel drive, 19x8-inch machined aluminum wheels, 20x8-inch polished aluminum wheels, adaptive cruise control, and a PowerCode remote starter. [12]

Active Park Assist, a system which uses ultrasonic sensors to find and measure a parking space, then operate the steering wheel to accomplish the parallel parking task, will be available in mid-2009 as an option on the 2010 MKS. [13] This feature is accomplished by using software control of the Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. [14]

The production MKS rides on Ford's D3 platform. The MKS features an independent suspension with MacPherson struts and rearward-facing lower L-arms with a 26 mm (1.0 in) stabilizer bar in the front and a multilink coil over shock setup with stamped steel lower control arms and cast upper control arms in the rear "Lincoln Drive Control" with continuously controlled damping (CCD) available as optional feature. The car features four-wheel antilock disc brakes (12.25-inch (311 mm) rotors in the front and 12.75-inch (324 mm) rotors in the rear) with standard AdvanceTrac traction control and Roll Stability Control (RSC). Front-wheel drive (FWD) is standard while all-wheel drive (AWD) is optional. In a significant departure from the MKS Concept and past Lincoln flagship sedans, the production MKS does not offer a V8 engine. In the place of the 4.4 L Ford/Yamaha V8 found in the MKS Concept, the production MKS is powered by an all-aluminum 3.7 L Duratec DOHC V6, a larger bore derivative of the Duratec 35 and a member of Ford's Cyclone engine family. The engine was designed to accept either regular grade, 87 octane gasoline or premium grade, 91 octane gasoline. Using regular grade gasoline, the 3.7 L V6 produces 273 hp (204 kW) at 6250 rpm and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. Using premium grade gasoline results in a small boost in output to 275 hp (205 kW) at 6250 rpm and 276 lb·ft (374 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. Power from the MKS' V6 is transmitted to the wheels via Ford's 6F50 6-speed automatic transmission. The transmission is equipped with SelectShift which simulates the operation of a manual transmission. [12] A road test by Avtomobil va haydovchi magazine of an AWD-equipped MKS recorded acceleration from zero to 60 mph in 7.5 seconds and a quarter-mile in 15.7 seconds at 90 mph (140 km/h). Testers noted the MKS' heavy weight of over 4300 lbs. [15] Ford introduced its EcoBoost V6, an all-aluminum, twin-turbocharged, direct injection 3.5 L DOHC V6, in the 2010 MKS [16] arriving in showrooms in the summer of 2009. [6]

The EcoBoost engine provides 355 hp (265 kW) and 350 lb⋅ft (475 N⋅m) of torque. [17]


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Fieldsheer is leading the digital revolution of a human technology -- apparel -- that has remained fundamentally unchanged for thousands of years.


Tarkibi

The Lincoln MKX made its first appearance as the Lincoln Aviator concept vehicle at the 2004 North American International Auto Show as a successor to the first generation Aviator. The concept vehicle was smaller and more car-like with a V6 that was rated at 245 hp (183 kW) and 240 lb⋅ft (330 N⋅m). The Aviator Concept also differed from the production model stylistically and with its panoramic sunroof. The production model received the MKX nameplate, with Lincoln management suggesting a "mark ex" pronunciation during the 2006 auto show circuit, which was then changed to the phonetic M-K-X. [6] Due to the similarity of the MKX name to the MDX name used by Acura for their competing luxury crossover, Honda, Acura's parent company, filed a lawsuit against Ford in January 2006, eventually settling the case out of court. [7]

The 2007 MKX debuted in December 2006 as a rebadged variant of the Ford Edge. In addition to the chrome grille, the MKX's front fascia features projector-beam headlight assemblies with standard chrome-accented fog lights mounted in the lower fascia. The MKX features an optional adaptive headlight system that pivots the aim of the light projectors to match the steering inputs of the driver. In the rear, the MKX features dual chrome exhaust tips and brake lights backlit by LEDs with a light bar that crosses the MKX's liftgate. The optional sunroof, marketed as a Panoramic Vista Roof, is the production version of the glass roof feature shown on the 2004 Aviator Concept. The Vista Roof features a forward power sunroof and a fixed rear moonroof with dual power sunshades.

The interior of the MKX features leather seating surfaces and wood accents in the steering wheel, dash area, and door panels. as well as carpeting, sound-deadening, [8] automatic headlights, dual power heated mirrors with puddle lamps, an auto-dimming rearview mirror, power windows with single touch up and down function and all-window capability, power locks, remote keyless entry with keypad, theater dimming for the interior lights, cruise control, air conditioning with automatic climate control, 8-way power driver and passenger seats, message center with compass, and a six speaker, AM/FM stereo radio with a 6-disc CD changer. Interior options include power driver and passenger lumbar supports, heated front seats, heated and cooled front seats (separate option), heated rear seats, an Easy Fold automatic folding second-row seat, a reverse sensing system, a power liftgate, a DVD-based navigation system, Sirius satellite radio, and a THX II-Certified audio system with 14 speakers. MKX's safety features include a tire pressure monitoring system, three-point seat belts, dual front-side airbags, front seat-deployed side airbags, and Safety Canopy curtain airbags. [9]

As a rebadged variant of the Ford Edge, the MKX also shares Ford's CD3 platform, unibody construction, four-wheel independent suspension with a MacPherson strut front suspension with L-shaped lower control arms and a four-link rear suspension with stamped steel control blades and monotube shocks. Both the front and rear suspensions feature an isolated subframe and stabilizer bar. Four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes are standard in all models with Ford's AdvanceTrac traction control system with Roll Stability Control (RSC) optional. Front-wheel drive is standard and all-wheel drive is optional. [10]

The MKX comes with standard 18-inch machined aluminum wheels with 18-inch chrome wheels optional. The sole powertrain in the MKX is an all-aluminum, 3.7 L Duratec DOHC V6 mated to Ford's 6F50 6-speed automatic transmission. Like the Edge, which shares the powertrain, the MKX's engine produces 265 hp (198 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 250 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) of torque at 4,500 rpm noticeable improvements over what the Aviator Concept's engine was rated at. The MKX, Edge, and Lincoln MKZ were the first recipients of Ford's 3.5 L Duratec V6. Front-wheel drive versions of the MKX come with a 19 US gal (72 L 16 imp gal) fuel tank while all-wheel drive models come with a 20 US gal (76 L 17 imp gal) fuel tank. The MKX has a base curb weight of 4,220 lb (1,910 kg) when front-wheel drive only and 4,420 lb (2,000 kg) when equipped with all-wheel drive. [9]

For 2008 changes for the MKX included Lincoln badges added near the front doors as well as Ford Sync, Limited Edition va Monochromatic Limited Edition packages with unique styling elements and 20-inch chrome wheels, and a voice-activated DVD navigation system. Previously optional features that were now standard included AdvanceTrac with RSC, a reverse sensing system, Sirius satellite radio, the THX II-Certified audio system, heated and cooled front seats, and driver and passenger power lumbar supports. No major changes were made for the 2009 MKX.

Refresh (2011–2015) Edit

For the 2011 model year, the MKX was refreshed with a new interior, a new front-end resembling the 2010–2012 MKZ, a new rear end and a 3.7-liter DOHC V6 which boosts the MKX's power up to 305 hp (227 kW) and 280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) of torque.

The 2011 MKX featured the first application of the all-new MyLincoln Touch driver connect technology system.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Chokmas kema TITANIK Haqida Siz Bilmagan Sirlar


Izohlar:

  1. Waldemarr

    Shuningdek, sizning ajoyib g'oyangizsiz qilamiz

  2. Bobbie

    You are not right. I can defend the position.

  3. Aleyn

    Shaxsiy xabarlar bugungi kunda borasizmi?

  4. Fausto

    Kechirim so'rayman, lekin siz noto'g'ri deb o'ylayman. Men o'z pozitsiyamni himoya qila olaman. Menga PM orqali yozing.

  5. Turi

    Does everyone have private messages sent today?

  6. Ommar

    Ooooo... ajoyib! rahmat! ))



Xabar yozing