Qadimgi texnologiya

Qadimgi texnologiya


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Tarixni soxtalashtirgan 9 pichoq

Ming yillar davomida qilich, pichoq va xanjar kabi qirrali qurollar butun dunyodagi jangchilar uchun eng yaxshi qurol edi. Ba'zi hollarda individual qurollar ham berilgan ...ko'proq o'qish

Qadimgilarga qarzdor bo'lgan 8 ta ixtiro

1. Qog'oz miloddan avvalgi 3000 -yillarda misrliklar Nil bo'yida keng tarqalgan manzara bo'lgan papirus o'simlikining qudug'idan qog'oz tayyorlash texnikasini ishlab chiqishgan. Uzoq chiziqlar bir -biriga to'qilgan va og'ir, ularni ingichka choyshabga bog'lab qo'yishgan. Misrliklar ham ...ko'proq o'qish

Qadimgi dunyoni boshqarishda Rimga yordam bergan 8 yo'l

1. Ular Rim harbiy qudratining kaliti edi. Birinchi yirik Rim yo'li - mashhur Appian yo'li yoki "yo'llar malikasi" - miloddan avvalgi 312 yilda qurilgan. Ikkinchi Samnit urushi paytida respublika Rimi va uning Kapua shahridagi ittifoqchilari o'rtasida etkazib berish yo'li bo'lib xizmat qiladi. O'shandan beri yo'l ...ko'proq o'qish

Qadimgi Rim betonining sirlari

Tarixda qadimiy betonga ko'plab havolalar mavjud, shu jumladan milodiy 1 -asrda yashab, milodiy 79 -yilda Vesuvius tog'ining otilishida vafot etgan mashhur rim olimi Pliniy oqsoqolning yozuvlarida. Pliniy eng yaxshi dengiz betonini yasaganligini yozgan. vulqondan ...ko'proq o'qish

Qadimgi Rimni qurgan 10 ta yangilik

1. Suv o'tkazgichlari Rimliklar o'z kunlari uchun ko'plab qulayliklarga ega edilar: jamoat hojatxonalari, er osti kanalizatsiya tizimlari, favvoralar va bezakli hammomlar. Bu suv yangiliklarining hech biri Rim suv o'tkazgichisiz amalga oshmaydi. Birinchi bo'lib ular miloddan avvalgi 312 yilda ishlab chiqilgan ...ko'proq o'qish

Rim Panteoni - ulkan quyosh soati?

Eng yaxshi saqlanib qolgan va me'moriy jihatdan eng murakkab Rim yodgorliklaridan biri bo'lgan Panteon o'zining 2000 yillik tarixi davomida doimiy ishlatilgan va ko'plab boshqa binolarni ilhomlantirgan. Shunday bo'lsa -da, a ...ko'proq o'qish


Elektron qo'shimcha materiallar onlaynda https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3780920 saytida mavjud.

Qirollik jamiyati tomonidan Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ shartlari asosida nashr etilgan, bu asarlar muallifi va manbasi hisobga olingan holda cheklanmagan foydalanishga ruxsat beradi.

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Qadimgi Afrikada fan va texnika sohasida katta yutuqlar

Qo'rqinchli qullik tizimidan, sherikchilikdan va Jim Krou davridan azob chekishiga qaramay, erta afro-amerikaliklar ilm-fan va texnologiyaga son-sanoqsiz hissa qo'shdilar (1). Bu nasl -nasab va yutuq madaniyati kamida 40 000 yil oldin Afrikada paydo bo'lgan. Afsuski, Afrikaning tarixi, qadimgi Misrdan tashqari, kamdan -kam e'lon qilinganligi sababli, bu yutuqlar haqida ko'pchiligimiz bilmaymiz.

Afsuski, fanning kelib chiqishi haqidagi munozaralarning katta qismi faqat yunonlar, rimliklar va boshqa oq tanlilarni o'z ichiga oladi. Ammo, aslida, ularning kashfiyotlarining aksariyati Afrikadagi voqealardan ming yillar o'tib paydo bo'lgan. Misrdagi ajoyib qora tsivilizatsiya jozibali bo'lib qolsa-da, qadimgi Sahroi Afrikada ham murakkab va ta'sirli ixtirolar mavjud edi. Bu sohada bir qancha olimlar bor. Eng sermahsul - Ratjers universiteti dotsenti, marhum Ivan Van Sertima. U bir paytlar dahshatli tarzda yozganki, "dunyoning asablari asrlar davomida afrikalik dahoning tebranishlari bilan o'lib ketgan" (2).

Bu erda men uzoq vaqt o'lgan asabga elektr impulsini yuborishga harakat qilaman. Men faqat bu ulkan yutuqlar samolyoti bilan ucha olaman. Shunga qaramay, Afrikaning qadimgi aholisi, dunyoning boshqa ko'plab qadimgi odamlari singari, o'z dahosiga ega bo'lganligi aniq bo'lishi kerak.

Shubhasiz, matematika bo'yicha ko'plab zamonaviy maktab tushunchalari, birinchi hisoblash usuli singari, Afrikada ishlab chiqilganini bizdan faqat bir nechtasi biladi. 35 ming yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin, misrliklar matematikaga oid darsliklarni skript qilib, ularga kasrlarning bo'linishi va ko'payishi va shakllar maydoni va hajmini hisoblash uchun geometrik formulalar kirgizilgan (3). Masofalar va burchaklar hisoblab chiqildi, algebraik tenglamalar yechildi va Nil toshqinlarining kattaligi haqida matematik asosli bashoratlar qilindi. Qadimgi misrliklar aylanani 360 gradusga ega deb hisoblashgan va Pi ni 3.16 (3) da baholaganlar.

Sakkiz ming yil oldin, hozirgi Zair aholisi, hozirgi Nigeriyadagi Yoruba xalqi kabi, o'z raqamlar tizimini ishlab chiqdilar. Yoruba tizimi 20 birlikdan iborat edi (10 o'rniga) va turli sonlarni aniqlash uchun ta'sirchan miqdordagi ayirish kerak edi. Olimlar bu tizimni maqtashdi, chunki u juda mavhum fikrlashni talab qildi (4).

Astronomiya

Bir qancha qadimgi Afrika madaniyati astronomiyada kashfiyotlar tug'di. Ularning ko'pchiligi biz hali ham tayanadigan poydevorlardir, ba'zilari shu qadar rivojlanganki, ularning kashfiyot usullarini hali ham tushunish mumkin emas. Misrliklar Quyosh va burjlar harakatini va oy tsiklini chizishgan. Ular yilni 12 qismga bo'lishdi va 365 va frak14 kundan iborat bir yillik taqvim tizimini ishlab chiqdilar (3). Soatlar harakatlanuvchi suv bilan qilingan va quyoshga o'xshash soatlar ishlatilgan (3).

Hozirgi Keniyada Afrikalik Stounxenj nomi bilan tanilgan (miloddan avvalgi 300-yillarda qurilgan) ajoyib taqvim edi (5). Mali Dogon xalqi juda ko'p batafsil astronomik kuzatuvlarni to'plagan (5). Ularning ko'plab kashfiyotlari shu qadar rivojlangan ediki, ba'zi zamonaviy olimlar o'z kashfiyotlarini kosmonavislar yoki noma'lum evropalik sayohatchilar deb atashadi, garchi Dogon madaniyati bir nechta kosmik hodisalarga asoslangan tantanali an'analarga boy bo'lsa. Dogon Saturn va halqalarni, Yupiter va Oyni, Somon yo'lining spiral tuzilishini va Sirius yulduzlar tizimining orbitasini bilar edi. Yuz yillar oldin ular bu tizimda 1990 yilgacha aniq orbitalar tuzishgan (6). Ular bu tizimda juda katta zichlikka ega va oddiy ko'z bilan ko'rinmaydigan asosiy yulduz va ikkinchi darajali yulduz (hozir Sirius B deb ataladi) borligini bilishgan.

Metallurgiya va asboblar

Qadimgi Afrikada metallurgiya va asbobsozlik sohasida ko'plab yutuqlarga erishildi. Bularga bug 'dvigatellari, metall kesma va arra, mis va temir asboblar va qurollar, mixlar, elim, uglerodli po'lat va bronza qurollar va san'at kiradi (2, 7).

1500-2000 yillar oldin Tanzaniya, Ruanda va Ugandadagi yutuqlar o'sha paytdagi evropaliklardan oshib ketgan va ular bu haqda bilib, evropaliklarni hayratda qoldirgan. Qadimgi Tanzaniya pechlari rimliklarga qaraganda 1800 ° C va 200 dan 400 ° C gacha issiqroq bo'lishi mumkin (8).

Arxitektura va muhandislik

Har xil o'tmishdagi Afrika jamiyatlari murakkab muhitni yaratdilar. Albatta, misrliklarning muhandislik yutuqlari bor: hayratlanarli darajada ko'tarilgan obelisklar va 80 dan ortiq piramidalar. Piramidalarning eng kattasi 13 gektar maydonni egallaydi va 2,25 million blok toshdan yasalgan (3). Keyinchalik, 12 -asrda va ancha janubda, Zimbabve va Mozambikda yuzlab buyuk shaharlar bo'lgan. U erda ulkan tosh majmualari shaharlarning markazi edi. Ulardan biri 250 metr uzunlikdagi, 15000 tonna egri granitli devorni o'z ichiga olgan (9). Shaharlarda qasrga o'xshash ulkan birikmalar mavjud bo'lib, ular temir ishi kabi aniq vazifalar uchun ko'plab xonalarga ega. 13 -asrda Mali imperiyasi ajoyib saroylari, masjidlari va universitetlari bo'lgan Timbuktu shahrini o'z ichiga olgan ta'sirchan shaharlar bilan faxrlandi (2).

Dori

Bugungi kunda biz ishlatadigan ko'plab davolash usullarini butun Afrika bo'ylab qadimgi xalqlar ishlatgan. Evropaning Afrikaga bostirib kirishidan oldin, hozirgi Misr, Nigeriya va Janubiy Afrikadagi tibbiyot, bir nechta joylarni aytganda, Evropadagi tibbiyotga qaraganda ancha rivojlangan edi. Bu amaliyotlardan ba'zilari salitsil kislotasi bo'lgan o'simliklarni og'riqlar (aspirinda bo'lgani kabi), diareya uchun kaolin (Kaopektatda bo'lgani kabi) va Gram -musbat bakteriyalarni o'ldirish uchun 20 -asrda tasdiqlangan ekstraktlar edi. Boshqa ishlatilgan o'simliklar saratonga qarshi xususiyatlarga ega bo'lib, abortga sabab bo'lgan va bezgak va mdash bilan davolangan va ular G'arbning zamonaviy davolanishlari kabi samarali ekanligi isbotlangan. Bundan tashqari, afrikaliklar ouabain, capsicum, fizostigmin va reserpinni kashf qilishdi. Qadimgi Afrikada Evropada amalga oshirilishidan oldin o'tkaziladigan tibbiy muolajalarga emlash, otopsi, oyoq -qo'llarining tortilishi va suyaklarning sinishi, o'qni olib tashlash, miya jarrohligi, terini payvand qilish, tish bo'shliqlarini to'ldirish, soxta tishlarni o'rnatish kiradi. , behushlik va to'qimalarni kuydirish (3). Bundan tashqari, Afrika madaniyati antiseptik sharoitda operatsiyalarni universal tarzda amalga oshirgan, bu tushuncha faqat Evropada paydo bo'lgan (2).

Navigatsiya

Ko'pchiligimiz bilamizki, Evropaliklar birinchi bo'lib Amerika qit'asiga suzib ketishgan. Biroq, bir qancha dalillarga ko'ra, qadimgi afrikaliklar Evropadan yuz yillar oldin Janubiy Amerika va Osiyoga suzib ketishgan. Afrika bo'ylab minglab kilometr suv yo'llari savdo yo'llari edi. Afrikadagi ko'plab qadimgi jamiyatlar turli xil qayiqlarni, shu jumladan, qamishdan yasalgan kichik idishlar, yelkanli qayiqlar va kabinalari va hatto pishirish imkoniyatlari bo'lgan ulkan tuzilmalarni qurdilar. Mali va Songxay uzunligi 100 fut va eni 13 fut bo'lgan, 80 tonnagacha yuk ko'taradigan qayiqlarni qurdilar (2). Atlantika okeanidagi oqimlar G'arbiy Afrikaning bu qismidan Janubiy Amerikaga oqadi. O'simliklardan olingan genetik dalillar va o'sha paytlarda Janubiy Amerikada yashovchi jamiyatlarning ta'riflari va san'ati shuni ko'rsatadiki, G'arbiy Afrikaliklarning oz qismi Janubiy Amerikaning sharqiy sohiliga suzib, o'sha erda qolishgan (2).
Zamonaviy olimlar bu qadimiy kemalar va ularning baliq ovlash vositalarini rekonstruksiya qilishdi va transatlantik sayohatni muvaffaqiyatli yakunladilar. Taxminan, ular 13 -asrda Janubiy Amerikaga suzib ketayotganda, bu qadimgi xalqlar ham fillarni yuk sifatida olib Xitoyga va orqaga suzib ketishgan (2).

Afrikalik asli odamlar qadimiy, boy va murakkab madaniyatlardan kelib chiqqan bo'lib, ular ko'plab sohalarda boy texnologiyalarni yaratdi. Umid qilamanki, vaqt o'tishi bilan bu sohada tadqiqotlar ko'payadi va ko'p odamlar bu ulkan yutuqlar haqida bilishadi.


Qadimgi Misr texnologiyasi: yutuqlar va ixtirolar

Qadimgi Misrning Giza piramidalarini qadash uchun matematika, xususan, geometriya haqida murakkab bilim kerak edi. Kim bunga shubha qilsa, faqat Meidumda qulab tushgan piramidani ko'rib, matematikada xato ketganda, monumental qurilish loyihasi bilan nima sodir bo'lishini tushunish kerak.

Matematika davlat zaxiralari va tijorat operatsiyalarini yozishda ishlatilgan. Qadimgi misrliklar hatto o'z kasr tizimini yaratdilar. Ularning raqamlari 10 birliklarga asoslangan edi, masalan, 1, 10 va 100. Shunday qilib, 3 birlikni bildirish uchun ular "1" raqamini uch marta yozadilar.

Astronomiya

Misrliklar tungi osmonni diqqat bilan kuzatdilar. Ularning dini osmon, samoviy jismlar va elementlar tomonidan shakllangan. Misrliklar yulduzlarning osmon harakatini o'rganib, sun'iy ufqlarni yaratish uchun loydan g'ishtdan yasalgan dumaloq devorlar qurib, quyosh chiqqanda quyoshning o'rnini belgilashdi.

Ular, shuningdek, yozgi va qishki kunduzlarni izohlash uchun plumb-boblardan foydalanishgan. Ular astronomiya haqidagi bilimlaridan foydalanib, Sirius yulduzi va oy fazalarini kuzatishlari asosida batafsil oy taqvimini tuzdilar. Osmon haqidagi bu tushuncha, 12 oy, 365 kun va 24 soatlik kunlarga asoslangan, bugungi kunda ham qo'llaniladigan taqvim yaratish uchun bilim yaratdi.

Dori

Qadimgi misrliklar tibbiyot sohasidagi dastlabki ishlanmalarni yaratdilar. Ular inson va hayvon kasalliklarini davolovchi dori -darmonlar va anatomiya haqida yaxshi bilimga ega bo'lishdi. Bu ma'lumot mumiyalash jarayonida ularning o'liklarini saqlab qolish uchun ishlatilgan.

Dunyodagi eng qadimgi tibbiy matnlardan biri qadimgi Misrda yozilgan. Bu nevrologiyani erta tushunishini anglatadi, chunki u miyani tavsiflaydi va tahlil qiladi.

Tibbiy davolanish hali ham qiyin bo'lib qoldi va ularning ba'zi tibbiy amaliyotlari bemorlari uchun xavf tug'dirdi. Ko'z infektsiyasini davolashda ularning miyasi va asal aralashmasi ishlatilgan, yo'talni davolash uchun pishirilgan sichqon tavsiya qilingan. Qadimgi misrliklar, shuningdek, infektsiyalarni oldini olish uchun pirsingni va yaralarni davolash uchun sigir go'ngi bilan shug'ullanishgan. Bu amaliyotlar qadimgi misrlik bemorlarda qoqshol rivojlanishiga yordam bergan.

Qadimgi misrliklar ham sehr-jodu kuchiga chuqur ishonishgan. Ularning ko'plab tibbiy davolanishlari, yovuz ruhlardan qutulish uchun mo'ljallangan sehr -jodu bilan birga kelgan, ular bemorlarni kasal qiladilar deb ishonishgan.

Qishloq xo'jaligi

Misrning ko'p qismi quruq, shamolli cho'l bo'lgani uchun qishloq xo'jaligi qirollikning omon qolishi uchun muhim ahamiyatga ega edi. Nil daryosining har yili suv bosishi natijasida boyitilgan, unumdor tuproqning tor bo'lagiga bog'liq bo'lgan qadimgi misrliklar qishloq xo'jaligi mahsulotlarini ko'paytirish uchun bir qator texnologiyalarni ishlab chiqishgan.

Sug'orish tarmoqlari

Ming yillar mobaynida qadimgi misrliklar sug'orish kanallari va kanallarining ulkan tarmog'ini yaratdilar. Ular oddiy, ammo samarali gidrotexnika texnikasini ilmiy tamoyillarga asoslangan holda qo'lladilar. Bu tarmoq fir'avnlarga ekin maydonlarini ancha kengaytirish imkonini berdi. Keyinchalik Rim Misrni provinsiya sifatida qo'shib olgach, Misr asrlar davomida Rimning savatiga aylandi.

Misrshunoslar, erta sug'orish tizimlari qadimgi Misrda o'n ikkinchi sulolada ishlatilganligini ko'rsatuvchi dalillarni topdilar. Qirollik muhandislari Fayiyum vohasidagi ko'ldan ortiqcha suvni saqlash uchun suv ombori sifatida foydalanishgan.

Ho'kizdan tortilgan omoch

Qadimgi misrliklar uchun har bir ekish mavsumi maydonlarni ekish uchun poyga bo'lib, ular keyingi suv toshqini davridan oldin yig'ib olinishi mumkin edi. Erni ishlov berishni tezlashtirgan har qanday texnologiya ma'lum bir mavsumda ishlov berilishi mumkin bo'lgan er maydonini ko'paytirdi.

Birinchi ho'kiz shudgorlari qadimgi Misrda miloddan avvalgi 2500 yillarda paydo bo'lgan. Bu qishloq xo'jaligi yangiliklari malakali metallurgiya va temirchilikni birlashtirib, chorvachilikdagi yutuqlar bilan birga asosiy shudgorni shakllantirdi.

Ho'kizni tortib olish uchun shudgorlash jarayoni tezlashdi, bug'doy loviya, sabzi, salat, ismaloq, qovun, qovoq, bodring, turp, sholg'om, piyoz, pırasa, sarimsoq, yasmiq va nohutning yillik ekinlariga yo'l ochdi.

Ierogliflar

Qadimgi Misr yozuvning tizimli shaklini yaratgan ilk madaniyatlardan biri edi. Ierogliflar dunyodagi eng qadimiy artefaktlardan biri bo'lib qolmoqda va misrliklar ularni yirik jamoat binolari, ma'bad majmualari, obelisklar va qabrlarga yozilgan yozuvlar orqali yirik voqealarni tasvirlashda ishlatgan.

Rivojlangan ma'muriyatda rasmiylarga qirollik ustidan nazorat o'rnatishga yordam berish uchun muntazam ravishda batafsil yozuvlar saqlanib turardi. Rasmiy xatlar qo'shni qirolliklar bilan tez -tez almashib turar va diniy chaqiruvlarni aks ettiruvchi muqaddas matnlar yaratilar edi. "O'liklarning kitobi" qadimiy misrliklar sehrlangan sehrlarni o'z ichiga olgan muqaddas matnlar turkumidan biri bo'lib, dunyodan o'tib ketayotgan odamlarni ruhiy olamni boshqarishga yordam beradi.

Papirus

Papirus Nil daryosi bo'yida va uning botqoqlarida mo'l -ko'l o'sdi. Qadimgi misrliklar uni qanday ishlab chiqarishni o'rgandilar, G'arb dunyosida yozish uchun bardoshli qog'ozga o'xshash materialning birinchi shaklini yaratdilar.

Papirus ommaviy ishlab chiqarilgan bo'lsa -da, u qimmat bo'lib qoldi va qadimgi misrliklar asosan davlat hujjatlari va diniy matnlarni yozish uchun papirusdan foydalanishgan. Misr o'z papirusini Qadimgi Yunoniston kabi qadimiy savdo sheriklariga sotdi.

Qadimgi misrliklar papirus bilan birgalikda qora siyoh shaklini ishlab chiqishgan. Ular, shuningdek, yorqin rangli rangli siyoh va bo'yoqlar turkumini ishlab chiqdilar. Bu siyohlarning rangi asrlar mobaynida davom etgan va ming yillar o'tib ham bugungi kunda aniq o'qilishi mumkin bo'lgan yorqinlik va yorqinlikni saqlab qoldi.

Kalendarlar

Rivojlangan tsivilizatsiyaning bir belgisi - taqvim tizimining rivojlanishi. Qadimgi misrliklar o'z taqvimini bundan 5000 yil oldin ishlab chiqqan. Dastlab u Nil daryosining yillik suv toshqini davriga to'g'ri keladigan uch, to'rt oylik mavsumlarga bo'lingan 12 oylik oy tsiklini o'z ichiga olgan.

Biroq, qadimgi misrliklar, suv toshqinlari iyun oyining oxirigacha 80 kun davomida sodir bo'lishi mumkinligini payqashgan. Ular toshqinlar Sirius yulduzining heliacal ko'tarilish davriga to'g'ri kelganini kuzatishdi, shuning uchun ular taqvimini ushbu yulduzning paydo bo'lish davriga qarab qayta ko'rib chiqishdi. Bu yil kunlarini kuzatish uchun taqvim aniqligini takomillashtirish uchun astronomiya qo'llanadigan jamiyatning birinchi qayd qilingan holatlaridan biridir. Biz bugungi kunda ham qadimgi Misr taqvimi modelining versiyasidan foydalanamiz.

Soatlar

Qadimgi misrliklar, shuningdek, vaqtni kuzatish uchun turli xil asboblar yordamida kunni bo'laklarga bo'lishning dastlabki tsivilizatsiyalaridan biri bo'lgan, bu soatning qadimiy ekvivalenti. Vaqt soatlarining shakllari soyali soatlar, quyosh soatlari, obelisklar va merketlardan iborat edi.

Vaqt quyosh pozitsiyasini kuzatish orqali aniqlandi, tun esa yulduzlarning chiqishi va botishi yordamida aniqlandi.

Qadimgi Misrda ibtidoiy suv soatlari ishlatilgani haqida ba'zi dalillar saqlanib qolgan. Bu "soatlar" tagida kichik teshik ochilgan piyola shaklidagi idishlardan foydalangan. Ular kattaroq suv idishining ustiga suzib ketdilar va asta -sekin to'ldirishga ruxsat berildi. Suv sathining ko'tarilishi o'tgan soatlarni ko'rsatdi. Ruhoniylar asosan ushbu qurilmalardan ibodatxonalaridagi vaqtni o'lchash va muqaddas diniy marosimlarni o'tkazish uchun foydalanganlar.

Qurilish va muhandislik texnologiyalari

Qadimgi Misr bo'ylab ulkan ma'bad majmualari, keng saroylar, hayratlanarli piramidalar va ulkan qabrlar paydo bo'lgan. Qadimgi Misr juda konservativ jamiyat edi. Ular ilg'or matematika, muhandislik, astronomiya va materialshunoslik bilimlarini birlashtirgan epik qurilish dasturlari uchun jarayonlar va tartiblarni ishlab chiqdilar.

Misrlik o'zining ajoyib binosini qanday qurgani haqidagi ko'plab savollar bugungi kunda javobsiz qolmoqda. Biroq, ba'zi tushuntirishlarni qadimgi Misr yodgorlik yozuvlari, qabr rasmlari va matnlardagi yozuvlarda topish mumkin.

Shubhasiz, qadimgi misrliklar texnologiya va amaliy fan haqida g'ayrioddiy tushunchalarga ega edilar.

Uyushgan mehnat

Qadimgi Misrning monumental qurilish loyihalari muvaffaqiyatining kalitlaridan biri bu ularning logistika va tashkilotchilikni o'z vaqtida juda katta miqyosda o'zlashtirishlari edi. Misrliklar yuqori samarali uyushgan mehnat tizimini ixtiro qilgan va tarqatgan birinchilardan bo'lib. Ishchilar va hunarmandlar yashaydigan qishloqlar ulkan tosh va loydan yasalgan g'ishtli inshootlarni qurish uchun zarur bo'lgan ishchi kuchini saqlash uchun zarur bo'lgan novvoyxonalar, omborxonalar va bozorlar bilan birgalikda qurilgan, ba'zan har yili Nil daryosi yaratgan tanaffus paytida. toshqinlar.

Asboblar, dastaklar va oddiy mashinalar

Juda ko'p yodgorlik toshlarini qazish, tashish va o'rnatish uchun jarayonni tartibga solish va odamlarning kuchini oshirish uchun bir qator oddiy mashinalar kerak edi. Qo'l, qarama -qarshi kran va rampa qadimgi misrliklar ishlatgan oddiy qurilish mashinalarining namunalari edi. O'sha paytda ishlab chiqilgan usullar va tamoyillarning ko'pchiligi hozirgacha zamonaviy qurilish loyihalarida keng qo'llanilmoqda.

Qurilish asboblari mohiyatan sodda edi va ko'plab misollar qabrlarda, qadimgi karerlarda va qurilish maydonlarida topilgan. Bu erda tosh, mis va bronzadan eng ko'p ishlatiladigan asboblar uchun materiallar ishlatiladi. Tosh qazish, tosh ishlov berish va qurilish asboblariga toshlar, bolg'a, bolg'a va kesaklar kiradi. G'isht, tosh blok va haykallarni siljitish uchun katta asboblar yaratilgan.

Arxitektura asboblari tekis sathlardan va vertikal burchaklarni o'lchash uchun har xil turdagi chiziqlardan iborat edi. Umumiy o'lchash asboblari kvadratlar, arqonlar va qoidalarni o'z ichiga olgan.

Qadimgi ohak

Iskandariyaning Portus Magnus sharqidan topilgan port tuzilmalarining arxeologik qoldiqlari katta ohaktosh bloklari va taxta va qoziq qoliplariga mahkamlangan ohak detritlaridan iborat. Har bir qoziq to'rtburchaklar shaklida kesilgan va qoziq taxtalarini ushlab turish uchun ikkala tomonning chuqurchalari bor edi.

Piramidalarni qurishda qanday texnologiyalar ishlatilgan?

Buyuk Piramidani qurishda ishlatilgan texnologiyalar hanuzgacha Misrshunoslar va muhandislarni sir tutib kelmoqda. Tadqiqotchilar ma'muriy hisob -kitoblar yordamida qurilish loyihasining aspektlarini eslatib, ularning usullari va texnologiyalarini bilib olishadi. Meidumda qulab tushgan piramida muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganidan so'ng, har bir qadam fir'avn Joserning vaziri Imxotep tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan dastlabki rejaga muvofiq bajarilishini ta'minlashga e'tibor qaratildi. Keyinchalik Eski Qirollikda, Misr janubining gubernatori Veni, piramida uchun soxta eshikni ochish uchun ishlatilgan granit bloklarini olish uchun Elefantinaga qanday borganligi haqida o'yilgan yozuv bor edi. U qanday qilib yuklarni tashish uchun yuk tashish uchun qayiqlarni qazib olishni buyurgan beshta kanalga ko'rsatma bergan.

Veni singari omon qolgan hisoblar qadimgi Misrning ulkan yodgorliklarini qurish uchun zarur bo'lgan katta kuch va resurslarning jamlanishini ko'rsatadi. Ishchi kuchini ta'minlash uchun zarur bo'lgan materiallar va bu ulkan inshootlarni barpo etish uchun zarur bo'lgan materiallar haqida ko'plab yozuvlar mavjud. Xuddi shunday, biz Giza piramidalarini va ularning keng ma'bad majmualarini qurishdagi qiyinchiliklarni tasvirlab beradigan juda ko'p hujjatlar oldimizga keldik. Afsuski, bu hisob -kitoblar ushbu ajoyib tuzilmani yaratish uchun qo'llaniladigan texnologiyani yoritmaydi.

Qadimgi misrliklar Gizadagi piramidalarni qanday qurish haqidagi eng mashhur va bardoshli nazariya rampalar tizimidan foydalanishni o'z ichiga oladi. Bu rampalar har bir piramida ko'tarilganda qurilgan.

Rampa nazariyasiga kiritilgan o'zgartirishlardan biri, rampalar tashqi tomondan emas, balki ichki qismida ishlatilgan degan taxminlarni o'z ichiga olgan. Tashqi rampalar qurilishning dastlabki bosqichlarida ishlatilgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin keyin ular ichkariga ko'chirilgan. Toshli toshlar piramida ichiga kirish yo'li bilan ko'chirilgan va rampalarni yuqoriga ko'tarilgan. Bu tushuntirish piramidaning ichidan topilgan o'qlarni hisobga oladi. Biroq, bu nazariya tosh bloklarning og'irligi yoki rampada band bo'lgan ishchilarning bloklari piramida ichkarisidagi burchaklarni qanday ko'tarishi mumkinligiga ta'sir qilolmaydi.

Boshqa nazariya shuni ko'rsatadiki, qadimgi misrliklar gidravlik suv quvvatidan foydalanishgan. Muhandislar Giza platosining suv sathlari nisbatan baland ekanligini va Buyuk Piramidaning qurilish bosqichida undan ham yuqori ekanligini aniqladilar. Gidravlik suv bosimi tosh bloklarni rampaga ko'tarish va joyiga ko'tarish uchun nasos tizimi yordamida ishlatilishi mumkin edi. Misrshunoslar haligacha Buyuk Piramida ichidagi ichki vallar haqidagi tezislarni qizg'in muhokama qilmoqdalar.

Ba'zilar marhum podshohning ruhini osmonga ko'tarilishiga ko'maklashish ma'naviy maqsadini, boshqalari ularni oddiy qurilish qoldiqlari deb bilishadi. Afsuski, u yoki bu funktsiyani ko'rsatadigan aniq arxeologik dalillar yoki matnlar yo'q.

Gidravlik nasoslar ilgari qurilish loyihalarida ishlatilgan va qadimgi misrliklar nasosning asosiy printsipini yaxshi bilishgan. O'rta podshohlik fir'avni qiroli Senusret (miloddan avvalgi 1971-1926 yillar) o'z hukmronligi davrida Fayyum tumanidagi ko'lni nasoslar va kanallar yordamida quritgan.

Kema dizayni

The Nile River was a natural transportation artery. Trade featured prominently in ancient cultures and Egypt was an active exporter and importer of goods. Having access to seagoing ships as well as ships capable of navigating the Nile was critical for Egypt’s cultural and economic health.

The ancient Egyptians applied their knowledge of elementary aerodynamics to design ships that could catch the wind and push their vessels efficiently through the water. They were the first in incorporate stem-mounted rudders on their ships during their construction process. They also developed a method of employing rope trusses to strengthen the integrity of the beams of their ship and used several forms of sails that could be adjusted to sail their ships against the wind by taking advantage of side winds.

Initially, the ancient Egyptians built small boats using bundles of papyrus reeds lashed together, but later successfully constructed larger vessels capable of journeying into the Mediterranean Sea from cedar wood.

Glass Blowing

Artifacts discovered in tombs and during archaeological excavations point to ancient Egyptians having advanced glass-working expertise. They were crafting brightly coloured glass beads as early as 1500 BC during the New Kingdom. Highly prized as trade goods, Egyptian glass gave their traders an advantage in their trading voyages.

Reflecting On The Past

The ancient Egyptians created or adapted a wide range of technologies, ranging from ink and papyrus to ramps used to build the pyramids at Giza. In almost every facet of society, their community was enriched by the use of some form of technology many applied on an almost industrial scale.

Header image courtesy: The original uploader was Twthmoses at English Wikipedia. [CC BY 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons


Astronomical Instruments

The astrolabe was the astronomical instrument par excellence of the Middle Ages from its Hellenistic origins it was brought to perfection by Muslim scientists and craftsmen. A number of astronomical problems, which otherwise have to be solved by tedious computation, can be solved very quickly by using the astrolabe. It has been established that the first European treatises on the astrolabe were of Arabic inspiration and were written in Latin at the beginning of the eleventh century in the abbey of Ripoll in Catalonia. From this centre the knowledge of the instrument was diffused to the rest of Europe.
Other computing instruments were devised in the Muslim world in the later Middle Ages, perhaps the most important of these being equatoria, which were invented in Muslim Spain early in the eleventh century. The objective of the equatorium was the determination of the longitude of any one of the planets at a given time. As with the astrolabe, knowledge of equatoria was diffused into Europe from the Muslim world.



[1] This Part II is taken from a revised version of the article published in Cultural Contacta in Building a Universal Civilization: Islamic Contributions, E. Ihsanoglu (editor), IRCICA< Istanbul, 2005, pp 183-223.

[2] Thomas F. Glick, Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970), 169-170, 186, 214, 230, 264-265.

[3] N.A.F. Smith, A History of Dams (London: Peter Davies, 1971), 91.

[4] Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. Lewis Thorpe, (Hammondsworth, 1979), 50-51. See also D. Hill, Studies in Medieval Islamic Technology (Ashgate: Variorum, 1998), art. V, 179.

[5] Derek de Solla Price, in his paper on the “Antikythera Mechanism”, Scientific American, June 1959, 60-67.

[6] Some ingenious devices of the Banu Musa type could be seen until now in the Near East. They are exhibited by street magicians in Egypt, Palestine and Syria. The writer remembers that he witnessed several of these street magicians’shows in Palestine.

[7] F. L. Lewis, Applied Optimal Control and Estimation (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1992). Re-printed at the web site.


The overlooked history of African technology

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In the border region where Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa meet, indigenous hunters have for centuries made and used an impressive array of tools. There is the bow, made from giant raisin trees and called the “vurha” or “uta” in the languages of two ethnic groups in the area, the chiShona and the xiTshangana. Local craftsmen make arrows (“matlhari” or “miseve”), knives (“mukwanga” or “banga”), and axes (“xihloka” or “demo”). Until the advent of colonial rule, villagers also dug pits lined with poison-tipped stakes (“goji” or “hunza”), where animals as big as elephants were captured.

“The hunt was a transient or mobile workspace where work was done on the move,” says Clapperton Chakanetsa Mavhunga, an associate professor in MIT’s Program in Science, Technology, and Society. “Boys were schooled in the arts of tracking, shooting, trapping, making weaponry, and using trees as assets for making poisons, medicines, food, and other purposes. The hunt was a professoriate of indigenous knowledge.”

These hunts were also incorporated within a highly spiritualized understanding of forests, animal life, and human behavior, Mavhunga emphasizes. For instance, hunters would never orphan an antelope fawn, and strict local taboos limited elephant hunting to basic needs for meat, skin, and ivory. Chiefs and spirit mediums enforced these rules.

Indeed, the maTshangana calendar is based, in part, on the life cycles of animals: “Mpala,” or November, is when antelopes give birth “Nkokoni,” or December, is when wildebeest are born and elephants mate. No hunting was allowed during these months.

“Centuries of acquired and received knowledge were available on the annual rates of increase, out of which sustainable yields were calculated,” Mavhunga writes in a new book about technology, society, and nature in southern Africa.

In exploring the hunt as a mobile space for work and education, Mavhunga’s book — “Transient Workspaces: Technologies of Everyday Innovation in Zimbabwe,” just published by MIT Press — is a call for a historical rethinking about the meaning, prevalence, and application of technological innovation in Africa.

“What I am challenging is the idea that technology can only come from outside Africa, from the laboratories and factories,” Mavhunga says. “This general narrative of technology transfer — from the haves to the have-nots — is one I find troubling.”

That isn’t the only thing Mavhunga describes as troubling in his book. The colonial-era portioning of land into game reserves, as he makes clear, has forced indigenous people out of their native lands and criminalized traditional hunting — as “poaching” — while providing local residents no clear economic alternative. That policy has continued in the postcolonial era, to the continued detriment of locals, as Mavhunga emphasizes.

Ordinary people

Mavhunga grew up in rural Zimbabwe his book involves archival and linguistic research, political analysis, and what he describes as “a wealth of childhood and adult experience” that included making some of the technologies he details.

The work also comes from the scholarly recognition that relatively few studies of African technology have been written from an African point of view. A more common perspective focuses on the Western technologies, such as guns and quinine, which helped enable colonial incursions on the continent.

“Western scholars talk about technology in the Roman Empire,” Mavhunga says. “What if we were to do this for Africa? If we say that technology is something that comes prior to the colonial period, what does it do to the way we think about history?”

He adds: “What then happens to the idea and practice of technology when its itineraries are so thoroughly dominated by spirituality? What does it say about the meanings of technology within African societies, if one takes vaShona and maTshangana as an example?”

The deep experiential knowledge of the forests that Mavhunga explores in the book also applies to the tsetse fly, known for transmitting the African “sleeping sickness,” or trypanosomiasis. The tsetse fly inhabits low-lying areas, so vaShona and maTshangana tended to develop agriculture in higher-altitude areas.

When the British forcibly occupied Zimbabwe starting in 1890, they had no technology to deal with the tsetse fly, and so deferred to local technological practices instead, such as concentrated human settlements and control of traffic to reduce the spread of trypanosomiasis forest-clearance efforts that created buffer zones between infected and uninfected areas and the elimination of wild animals in such areas.

To accomplish this last step, the British employed vaShona and msTshangana hunters, as Mavhunga’s book explains. In so doing, Europe’s colonizers were relying on the more effective technologies of the Africans, in contrast to the more widespread narrative of Western technological superiority.

“I’ve always been somebody who believes ordinary people have something up their sleeves,” Mavhunga says. “They know things that we think they don’t know.”

Two critical debates

“Transient Workspaces” has been well-received by other scholars Jane Carruthers, a professor emeritus of history at the University of South Africa, calls it a “refreshing history of Zimbabwe [that] offers an original interpretation of African technology.” Bruce E. Seely, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Michigan Technological University, says Mavhunga’s book “upends traditional understandings of everything from African independence movements to poaching to what we think we know about technological innovation.”

Ultimately, Mavhunga hopes to spur debate on both the trajectory of African technology and the basic policy questions surrounding game reserves. Postcolonial African governments, he believes, “need to initiate a serious discussion” about the realities of the game reserves and their consequences.

“A lot of people who fought for independence had been promised that they would reclaim these ancestral lands that were taken away from them by force of arms and arson,” Mavhunga says. The essential issue, he adds, is “how to serve the people and save the animals” in these areas understanding the traditional practices that let both thrive in the past is a necessary first step, in his view.

“Under colonialism, when the hunt was criminalized, all that knowledge was also criminalized,” Mavhunga says. “And when you criminalize that practice, you destabilize the place where the knowledge existed.”


Have Humans devolved through history?

Amazon Services MChJ Associates dasturining ishtirokchisi sifatida bu sayt malakali xaridlardan daromad olishi mumkin. Boshqa chakana veb -saytlardan xaridlar uchun ham komissiya olishimiz mumkin.

Have you ever considered the possibility that humans as a civilization have actually de-evolved through time? According to numerous findings across the globe, humans existed on Earth much longer than we have been told by science and religion. The Human species existed on the planet when science said that it was impossible, but as with everything, views can change.

What if human beings existed on planet Earth millions of years ago? And what if those ancient humans were much more advanced than we are today?

Is it possible that we have de-evolved as a species through time? Both physically and technologically? And if so… wouldn’t we find evidence of that?

What if humans were much more advanced as a species thousands or even millions of years ago?

According to many authors, there is evidence everywhere.

In 1991, during a geological research mission whose purpose was the extraction of gold in the Ural mountains in Russia near the banks of the Kozhim, Narada, and Balbanyu rivers, researchers discovered tiny structures which are now believed to be the product of an ancient civilization which was capable of developing nanotechnology 300,000 years ago.

The pieces discovered are coils, spirals, and shafts among the list of unidentified components that were unearthed during the geological missions in the area.

The Russian Academy of sciences performed several tests on these mysterious objects and the results were quite interesting. Researchers found out that the largest pieces that were unearthed were made almost entirely out of copper and the smaller ones from tungsten and molybdenum.

The Russian Academy of Science has a structure of 11 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial divisions also referred to as branches, and it consists of 14 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils, committees and commissions, organized for different purposes and studies.

Is it possible that the human species suffers from Amnesia? Another piece that has caused confusion among people is what appears to be a screw embedded into a piece of rock. The artifact was discovered outside of Moscow in 1998 when Russian researchers were investigating the remains of a meteorite. According to Geologists, the estimated age of the rock is 300-320 million years, older than the dinosaurs and older than everything we know about our species and the planet.

Many scientists have tried explaining the origin and details of the “screw”, some have proposed that it could be the remains of a Crinoids (Marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms).

There are numerous archaeological discoveries that science cannot understand, we have come across countless findings that have ended up as being just that, findings that have caught the attention of researchers, but have yet to be accurately explained.

In Labinsk, Russia, researchers discovered what appears to be some sort of microchip embedded into stone. According to scholars, this discovery marks the beginning of a completely new history, one that many ancient alien theorists have been talking about for years.

The object that researchers have found is believed to be some sort of ancient microchip and according to researchers, this ancient microchips dates back millions of years. After countless tests, researchers have come to the conclusion that this antique piece was used as some sort of microchip in ancient times. Many people have even noticed a mysterious “marking” on the microchip: K2000. The million dollar question is, who and what used a microchip that dates back 250 million years?

The Great Sphinx is at least 800,000 years old

Another thing that is just as incredible is the fact that Ukranian geologists have studied the Sphinx and concluded that this monument is really old. In fact, according to them, the Sphinx is at least 800,000 years.

A Revolutionary theory that is backed up by science.

The study was presented at the International Conference of Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy held in Sofia titled: GEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM OF DATING THE GREAT EGYPTIAN SPHINX CONSTRUCTION.

The authors of this paper are scientists Manichev Vjacheslav I. (Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and Alexander G. Parkhomenko (Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).

The starting point of these two experts is the paradigm shift initiated by West and Schoch, a ‘debate’ intended to overcome the orthodox view of Egyptology referring to the possible remote origins of the Egyptian civilization and, on the other, physical evidence of water erosion present at the monuments of the Giza Plateau.


Xitoy

Civilization flourished continuously in China from about 2000 bce , when the first of the historical dynasties emerged. From the beginning it was a civilization that valued technological skill in the form of hydraulic engineering, for its survival depended on controlling the enriching but destructive floods of the Huang He (Yellow River). Other technologies appeared at a remarkably early date, including the casting of iron, the production of porcelain, and the manufacture of brass and paper. As one dynasty followed another, Chinese civilization came under the domination of a bureaucratic elite, the mandarins, who gave continuity and stability to Chinese life but who also became a conservative influence on innovation, resisting the introduction of new techniques unless they provided a clear benefit to the bureaucracy. Such an innovation was the development of the water-powered mechanical clock, which achieved an ingenious and elaborate form in the machine built under the supervision of Su Song in 1088. This was driven by a waterwheel that moved regularly, making one part-revolution as each bucket on its rim was filled in turn.

The links between China and the West remained tenuous until modern times, but the occasional encounter such as that resulting from the journey of Marco Polo in 1271–95 alerted the West to the superiority of Chinese technology and stimulated a vigorous westward transfer of techniques. Western knowledge of silk working, the magnetic compass, papermaking, and porcelain were all derived from China. In the latter case, Europeans admired the fine porcelain imported from China for several centuries before they were able to produce anything of a similar quality. Having achieved a condition of comparative social stability, however, the Chinese mandarinate did little to encourage innovation or trading contacts with the outside world. Under their influence, no social group emerged in China equivalent to the mercantile class that flourished in the West and did much to promote trade and industry. The result was that China dropped behind the West in technological skills until the political revolutions and social upheavals of the 20th century awakened the Chinese to the importance of these skills to economic prosperity and inspired a determination to acquire them.

Despite the acquisition of many techniques from the East, the Western world of 500–1500 was forced to solve most of its problems on its own initiative. In doing so it transformed an agrarian society based upon a subsistence economy into a dynamic society with increased productivity sustaining trade, industry, and town life on a steadily growing scale. This was primarily a technological achievement, and one of considerable magnitude.


Ancient Technology

The winter solstice has a special effect at Ireland’s most famous megalith.

The discovery of an ancient man entombed in the Alps’ ice was one of the greatest finds of the last century.

Most people have heard of Stonehenge and Cheops, but archaeologists have discovered monuments built many years earlier.

Approximately between 1860 and 1930, in some cases even later, there was a discussion about flint findings from Paleocene to Pliocene strata which were similar to tools.

Over my many years of traveling and speaking, I’ve realized that even many Christians (mostly unwittingly) have adopted an evolutionary view of man’s intelligence and achievements over the millennia.

Common ancestor of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens said to have made spears.

The Genius of Ancient Man is the most complete, biblically based, and beautifully designed work ever assembled on the intelligence of ancient man.

Read excerpts from the book The Genius of Ancient Man by Don Landis

Fairly sophisticated optical technology was being used soon after the Flood ended.

Fifty years ago, the then Director of the Baghdad Museum, Wilhelm Konig, reported the discovery of an electric battery 2,000 years old.

An item of possible minor interest appeared in Vaqt magazine, Sept 25th, 1978 p.72. It reports the findings of anthropologist Peter Schmidt who studied the Haya people of Tanzania.


Texnologiya uzoq tarixga ega va hayratlanarli darajada murakkab

  1. Er osti dunyosi, Grexem Xankok.
  2. Antikiter mexanizmining oxirgi modeli 2006 yil noyabr oyida Nature nashrida chop etilgan
  3. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1362059/posts
  4. http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_6_1.htm
  5. http://www.sdsmt.edu/wwwsarc/collectn/stone/clovis.html
  6. http://www.sacredsites.com/americas/peru/machu_picchu.html
  7. http://paranormal.about.com/od/ancientanomalies/ig/Most-Puzzling-Ancient-Artifact/
  8. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/topo/globega2.html
  9. Arxeologik hisobot, ingliz merosining birinchi bosqichi (miloddan avvalgi 2950-2900)
  10. Stonehenj dekodlangan, Jerald Xokkins
  11. http://paranormal.about.com/od/ancientanomalies/ig/Most-Puzzling-Ancient-Artifact/Out-of-Place-Metal-Objects.htm
  12. http://paranormal.about.com/od/ancientanomalies/ig/Most-Puzzling-Ancient-Artifact/Ancient-Model-Aircraft.htm

Videoni tomosha qiling: Древние Технологии, Которые Настолько Продвинутые, Что Не Должны Существовать


Izohlar:

  1. Skete

    Siz to'g'ri emassiz. Men o'z pozitsiyamni himoya qila olaman. Meni kechqurun elektron pochta orqali yuboring, biz gaplashamiz.

  2. Derrance

    Bu bunga loyiq emas.

  3. Ceawlin

    Bizning saytimizda siz o'zingizning shaxsiy munajjimlar bashoratingizni ma'lum bir kun yoki bir oy oldin yaratishingiz mumkin. Biz aniq aytishimiz mumkinki, qaysi kasblar sizga mos keladi, siz nimada muvaffaqiyatga erishasiz va martaba o'sasiz.

  4. Bily

    Rozi, bu juda yaxshi fikr shunchaki yo'l bilan kerak

  5. Shamus

    you are not similar to the expert :)

  6. Kizahn

    Sizning eslatmalaringiz menga katta taassurot qoldirdi, meni boshqacha o'ylashdi. Ijodiy qidiruvingizni davom ettiring va men sizga ergashaman!



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