Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari, Aleksandro de Quesada

Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari, Aleksandro de Quesada


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Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari, Aleksandro de Quesada

Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari, Aleksandro de Quesada

Jangchi 138

Qo'pol chavandozlar - bu vujudga kelishidan oldin ham mashhur bo'lgan birlikning kamdan -kam namunasidir. Teodor Ruzvelt allaqachon milliy arbob, Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari kotibining yordamchisi va Amerikaning 1898 yilgi Ispaniya-Amerika urushi boshlanganida Amerikaning Kubaga aralashuvining ashaddiy tarafdori edi. U hukumatdan iste'foga chiqdi va ixtiyoriy ravishda 1898 yil 6 -mayda AQShning 1 -ko'ngilli otliq polkida podpolkovnik unvonini oldi. U bo'linma qo'mondoni bo'lmasa ham, tez orada "Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari" laqabini oldi.

Ruzveltning shuhrati bo'linmaga ko'plab ko'ngillilarni jalb qildi. Garchi u janubi-g'arbda rasman ko'tarilgan bo'lsa-da, oxir-oqibat 1898 yildagi AQShning 45 shtati, to'rtta hudud va o'n oltita mamlakatdan kelgan erkaklar bor edi. U, shuningdek, Ruzvelt eslatgan Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws va Creeks bilan oltmish tubjoy amerikalikni o'z ichiga olgan.

Qo'pol chavandozlarning qisqa, ammo muvaffaqiyatli harbiy martabasi bor edi, uning asosiy qismi 24 -iyun kuni Las -Guasimas jangidan 1 -iyuldagi San -Xuan tepaliklaridagi janggacha davom etdi, u erda bo'linma tepalikka umidsiz hujum bilan shon -sharafini ta'minladi. Ispan xandaqlari. 17 iyulda tinchlik o'rnatilgunga qadar unchalik kuchli bo'lmagan janglar davom etdi.

Garchi de Quesada urush va "Rough Rider" ning qisqacha jangovar karerasi haqidagi bo'limlarni o'z ichiga olsa -da, bu kitobda bo'linmani yollash, o'qitish, uskunalar va motivatsiyaga bag'ishlangan. Bundan tashqari, Rough Rider yodgorliklarini yig'ish bo'yicha foydali bo'lim mavjud bo'lib, unda kollektor uchun foydali ogohlantirish so'zlari mavjud.

Matn Rough Riders va Teddy Ruzveltlarning yaxshi suratlari bilan qo'llab -quvvatlanadi (Robin Uilyamsga o'xshashligi g'ayrioddiy bo'lgan rasmni ham o'z ichiga oladi (26 -bet) va ehtimol bu rolda uning oxirgi kastingini tushuntirishga yordam beradi). Jihozning mashhur xotiraga ta'siri keyingi filmlar va qayta tiklangan fotosuratlar bilan yaxshi tasvirlangan

De Quesada omadliki, Rough Riderlarning ko'pchiligi o'z xotiralarini yozgan (Ruzveltning o'zi) va u o'z matniga juda ko'p to'g'ridan -to'g'ri tirnoqlarni kiritish xavfidan qochib, o'z matni va tirnoqlari o'rtasida yaxshi muvozanatni saqlagan.

Bo'limlar
Kirish
Xronologiya
Ishga qabul qilish va ro'yxatga olish
Trening
Tashqi ko'rinishi
Qurol va uskunalar
Xizmat ko'rsatish shartlari
E'tiqod va mansublik
Kampaniyada hayot
Jang tajribasi
Natijada
To'plamlar, muzeylar va tirik tarix
Bibliografiya

Muallif: Alexandro de Quesada
Nashr: qog'ozli qog'oz
Sahifalar: 64
Nashriyotchi: Osprey
Yil: 2009



Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari

Osprey AQShning birinchi ko'ngilli otliqlarining qisqa, ammo rang -barang tarixini o'rganib chiqdi, unda o'z saflarida jang qilgan erkaklarning boy tajribalarini batafsil bayon etdi. 1898 yil may oyida tashkil etilgan bo'linmaning Ispaniya-Amerika urushi paytida (1898) Kubadagi harakatlari harbiy va milliy afsonaga aylandi. Kuchga ko'ngilli bo'lgan erkaklar Amerika jamiyatining keng doirasidan, shu jumladan tajribali ranch qo'llar va kovboylar, kollej sportchilari va politsiyachilardan kelgan. Birlik 1898 yil iyun oyida Kubaga yuborilgan, u erda AQShning birinchi ko'ngilli otliqlari Las -Guasimas, Kettle Hill va San -Xuan tepaliklari janglarida qatnashgan. Bu vaqtda uning qo'mondoni, polkovnik Leonard Vud, AQShning 2 -chi otliq brigadasini boshqarib, Teodor Ruzveltni AQShning 1 -ko'ngilli otliq qo'mondonligiga topshirdi. Buffalo Billning "Dunyoning qo'pol chavandozlari" nomli mashhur kovboy shousidan so'ng, birlik keyinchalik "Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari" nomi bilan tanildi. Kampaniya davomida ko'plab ko'ngillilar kasallik va kasallikdan azob chekishdi va bo'linma oxir -oqibat olib tashlandi va AQShda qahramonlarni kutib olish uchun qaytdi. Birlikning oxirgi faxriysi 1975 yilda vafot etgan, ammo boy material manbalari saqlanib qolgan va buning ko'p qismi bu ajoyib asarda yoritilgan.

Alejandro de Quesada-Florida shtatida joylashgan harbiy tarix yozuvchisi, tajribali tadqiqotchi va militariya, fotosuratlar va hujjatlarni yig'uvchi va arxivni ikkinchi darajali biznes sifatida boshqaradi, kuchli ispan-amerikalik tarkibga ega. U 12 kitob va 50 dan ortiq maqolalar yozgan, shu jumladan Osprey Elite 137 1910-20 Meksika inqilobi uchun. U ispan-amerikalik mavzular bo'yicha etakchi hokimiyatdir.


Tarkibi

Formatsiyani tahrirlash

Ko'ngillilar to'rtta hududda to'planishdi: Arizona, Nyu -Meksiko, Oklaxoma va Texas. Ular asosan janubi -g'arbiy tomondan to'plangan, chunki erkaklar ishlatgan issiq iqlimi ular jang qilmoqchi bo'lgan Kubaga o'xshardi. "Tashkilotdagi qiyinchilik tanlashda emas, balki erkaklarni rad etishda edi." [4]: 5 Ko'ngilli otliq askarlar uchun ruxsat etilgan chegara tezda bajarildi. Yangiliklar Ispaniya agressiyasi va USSning cho'kishi haqida Meyn, erkaklar vatanparvarliklarini ko'rsatish uchun viloyatlarning har bir burchagidan to'planishdi. Ular kovboylar, oltin yoki ma'dan qidiruvchilar, ovchilar, qimorbozlar, tubjoy amerikaliklar va kollej o'g'illaridan tashkil topgan har xil odamlarni to'pladilar, ularning hammasi qodir, otda va otishda. Qurilmaning yarmi Nyu -Meksikodan keladi, Ruzvelt. [5] [6] Bu erkaklar orasida politsiya xodimlari va harbiy faxriylar ham bor edi, ular harakatni yana ko'rishni xohlashdi, ularning aksariyati nafaqaga chiqqan edi. O'ttiz yil har qanday qurolli to'qnashuvdan olib tashlanganida, tubjoy amerikaliklarga qarshi yurish paytida yoki fuqarolar urushi paytida oddiy armiyada xizmat qilgan erkaklar yuqori martabali ofitserlar bo'lishga intilishgan [4]: ​​10, chunki ular bu borada bilim va tajribaga ega edilar. erkaklarni boshqaring va o'rgating. Shunday qilib, birlik tajribasiz bo'lmaydi. Harbiy prezident va urush kotibi uchun tibbiy maslahatchi bo'lgan Leonard Vud, qo'pol chavandozlar polkovnigi, Ruzvelt esa podpolkovnik lavozimida ishlagan. [7] Ko'ngillilar yig'ilgan mashhur joylardan biri San -Antonioda (Texas) Menger Hotel Bar edi. Bar hali ham ochiq va "Teatr Ruzvelt" formalari va xotiralarini o'z ichiga olgan "Rough Riders" ga hurmat sifatida xizmat qiladi. [8]

Uskunani tahrirlash

O'quv mashg'ulotlari boshlanishidan oldin podpolkovnik Ruzvelt o'zining siyosiy ta'siridan foydalanib, dengiz floti kotibi yordamchisi sifatida o'z ixtiyoriy polkini har qanday oddiy qo'shin bo'linmasi sifatida xizmat qilish uchun jihozlangan bo'lishini ta'minladi. Qo'pol chavandozlar .30 AQSh (ya'ni .30-40 Krag) kalibrli 1896-yilgi Model Karbinlari bilan qurollangan edi. "Ular patronlarini," Colt Single Action Armiya "revolverlarini, kiyim-kechak, boshpana chodirlari va ot asboblarini olishdi va polkni oddiy otliqlar ishlatadigan Springfild Krag karbini bilan qurollantirishdi. [4]: 5 Rough Riders ham Bowie pichoqlaridan foydalangan. Boy donorning so'nggi daqiqadagi sovg'asi-7 mm Mauser kalibrli, gaz bilan ishlaydigan M1895 Colt-Browning rusumli zamonaviy shtativlar.

Bundan farqli o'laroq, polk formalari bo'linmani ajratish uchun mo'ljallangan edi: "Qo'pol chavandoz formasi egilgan shlyapa, ko'k flanelli ko'ylak, jigarrang shim, leggings va etik edi. kovboy otliqlarining jasadi ko'rinishi kerak. " [4]: 22 Bu "qo'pol va chalkash" ko'rinish ularga "qo'pol chavandozlar" unvonini olishga yordam berdi.

Treningni tahrirlash

Hatto otliq bo'linma uchun ham mashg'ulotlar juda standart edi. Ular asosiy harbiy mashqlar, protokol va xulq -atvor, itoatkorlik va odob -axloqqa oid odatlar ustida ishladilar. Erkaklar zarur bo'lgan narsani o'rganishga ishtiyoqlarini namoyon etishdi va mashg'ulotlar muammosiz o'tdi. Erkaklarga otliq askarlari odatdagidek sabr ishlatishga o'rgatilmasligi to'g'risida qaror qabul qilindi, chunki ular bu borada tajribaga ega emas edilar. Buning o'rniga ular o'zlarining karbinlari va revolverlarini asosiy va ikkilamchi qurol sifatida ishlatishgan. Erkaklar, asosan, tajribali otliqlar bo'lishsa -da, ofitserlar minish, otdan o'q otish, qo'shin va janglarda mashq qilish usullarini takomillashtirdilar. Bu amaliyotlar bilan bir qatorda, yuqori martabali erkaklar boshqalarga etakchilik qilish uchun taktika va mashqlar bilan to'ldirilgan kitoblarni qattiq o'rganishdi. Poezd, kema bortida yoki bo'sh joy etarli bo'lmagan paytlarda, jismoniy mashqlarni bajarish imkonsiz bo'lgan paytlarda, urushga tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun vaqtni behuda sarflamaslik uchun o'qiladigan kitoblar bor edi. Ko'ngilli erkaklar olgan malakali tayyorgarlik ularni o'z vazifalariga imkon qadar yaxshiroq tayyorladi. [4]: 1–22 O'qitish usullari standart bo'lsa -da, turli mintaqalardan qo'shinlarni ommaviy safarbar qilish kasallik, ayniqsa tif isitmasi tufayli o'limning juda yuqori darajasiga olib keldi. Ispaniya -Amerika urushi paytida kasallik va "boshqa sabablar" tufayli vafot etganlarning umumiy soni 5,083 edi. Bu o'limlarning katta qismi aslida AQShning janubi -sharqidagi mashg'ulot maydonlarida sodir bo'lgan.

AQShdan ketish tahrir

1898 yil 29 -mayda 1060 qo'pol chavandoz va 1258 ot va xachirlari Tinch okeanining janubidagi temir yo'lga, Floridaning Tampa shahriga yo'l olishdi va u erda Kubaga yo'l olishdi. Partiya general -mayor Uilyam Rufus Shafterni tark etish to'g'risida buyruq kutdi. Vashington shtatining shoshilinch chaqirig'iga binoan, general Shafter qo'shinlarni etarli sayohat omborlari mavjud bo'lishidan oldin yuborish to'g'risida buyruq berdi. Bu muammo tufayli, The Rough Riders kompaniyasining 12 ta kompaniyasidan faqat sakkiztasiga Tampadan urushga ketishga ruxsat berildi va ko'plab otlar va xachirlar ortda qolib ketishdi. Podpolkovnik Ruzveltning qoldirgan odamlarning chuqur qayg'usi haqida birinchi marta eslatishidan tashqari, bu holat erkaklarning erta zaiflashishiga olib keldi. Ta'lim olganlarning taxminan to'rtdan biri yo'qolgan edi, ularning aksariyati bezgak va sariq isitmadan vafot etdi. Bu qolgan qo'shinlarni Kubaga erkaklar va ma'naviy jihatdan katta yo'qotish bilan yubordi. [9]

1898 yil 23 -iyunda Kuba qirg'oqlariga etib kelishganida, erkaklar zudlik bilan yuklarini va o'zlari bilan olib yurgan asbob -uskunalarini tushirishdi. Yaqin atrofda lager qurildi va erkaklar oldinga o'tishga buyruq berilmaguncha o'sha erda bo'lishlari kerak edi. Ertasi kuni kemalardan qo'shimcha yuklar tushirildi, shu jumladan sayohatga ruxsat berilgan juda kam otlar. "Kampaniya davomida eng katta kamchilik-bu transportning to'liq etarli emasligi. Agar ularga bizning qatir poyezdimizga o'tirishga ruxsat berilsa edi, ular butun otliq diviziyasini ta'minlab berishlari mumkin edi", deb yozadi keyinchalik Ruzvelt. [4]: 45 Har bir erkak faqat bir necha kunlik oziq -ovqatni olib yurishi mumkin edi, uni uzoqroq saqlashi va tanasini jiddiy vazifalar uchun yondirishi kerak edi. Otliq askarlarning atigi 75 foizi Kubaga kirishga ruxsat berilgandan keyin ham, ular o'qitilgan va ishlatishga odatlangan otlarning ko'pchiligida qolmagan. Ular piyoda askar sifatida o'qitilmagan va og'ir yurish, ayniqsa uzoq, issiq, nam va zich o'rmon sharoitida yurish sharti bo'lmagan. Bu oxir -oqibat jangni hali ko'rmagan erkaklar uchun jiddiy kamchilik bo'lib xizmat qildi. [4]: 45

Las -Guasimalar jangi tahriri

Lager tashkil etilganidan bir kun o'tgach, odamlarni razvedka maqsadida o'rmonga jo'natishdi va ko'p o'tmay ular ispan forposti Las -Guasimas haqidagi xabar bilan qaytishdi. Kunning ikkinchi yarmida "Rough Riders" ga Las -Guasimas tomon yurishni boshlash, qarama -qarshilikni yo'q qilish va keyingi harbiy yurish yo'lida turgan hududni himoya qilish buyrug'i berildi. Qarindoshlari boradigan joyga etib kelishganida, erkaklar ertalab erta tongda hujum qiladigan Ispaniya posti yaqinidagi qo'pol lagerda tunab qolishdi. [10] Amerika tomoni Leonard Vud boshchiligidagi AQSh ixtiyoriy 1-chi otliq qo'shinlarini, AQShning 1-chi oddiy otliq qo'shinlarini va 10-chi AQShning oddiy otliqlarini o'z ichiga oldi (bu afro-amerikalik askarlardan iborat edi, ular keyinchalik Buffalo askarlari deb atalgan). Artilleriya tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanadigan Amerika kuchlari 964 kishidan iborat edi, [11]: 9, Kastilodan 800 kishi tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlandi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Ispaniyaliklar jang maydonidagi murakkab yo'llardan o'tib, amerikaliklardan ustun edi. Ular amerikaliklar piyoda qayerda sayohat qilishlarini va aynan qaysi pozitsiyalarni o'qqa tutishlarini bashorat qilishgan. Ular, shuningdek, erni o'zlashtira olishlari qiyin bo'lgan tarzda foydalanishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Shu bilan birga, ularning qurollari tutunsiz kukunni ishlatgan, bu esa boshqa o'q otish qurollari kabi o'q otish paytida o'z pozitsiyasini bermagan. Bu AQSh askarlariga muxolifat topish qiyinligini oshirdi. Ba'zi joylarda o'rmon juda qalin bo'lib, uzoqni ko'ra olmasdi. [10] Yo'lning chap va o'ng tomonidagi qo'pol chavandozlar oldinga siljishdi va oxir -oqibat ispanlarni ikkinchi xandaqqa qaytishga majbur qilishdi. Oldinga davom etishda, qo'pol chavandozlar oxir -oqibat ispanlarni yakuniy pozitsiyalaridan butunlay voz kechishga majbur qilishdi. O'ng o'ngdagi qo'shin qo'pol chavandozlari o'z hamkasblari bilan bog'lanishdi va ularga to'g'ri yo'lning o'ng tomonidagi uzun barmoqqa o'xshash tepalikdagi ispan pozitsiyalarini egallashda yordam berishdi. tepalik. Bu vaqtda soat taxminan 9:30 edi, oddiy 9 -chi otliq qo'shinlari jangdan 30 minut o'tgach etib kelishdi. [12]

Oddiy askarlar va otliqlar qo'mondoni bo'lgan general Yang hujumni erta tongda boshladi. Uzoq masofali, katta kalibrli Hotchkiss avtomatlaridan foydalanib, xandaklar, yo'llar, ko'priklar va o'rmon qoplamalari bo'ylab yashiringan muxolifatga qarata o'q uzdi. Polkovnik Vudning odamlari, podpolkovnik Ruzvelt hamrohligida, jang boshida boshqa erkaklarnikiga yaqin bo'lmagan. Ularga jang boshlangan vaqtda sayohat qilish qiyinroq edi va dastlab ular juda baland tepalikka chiqishlari kerak edi. "Ko'plab erkaklar, oldingi kun yurishidan charchab, tog'ning tepasida juda tez yurishdi yoki yuklarini tashlab qo'yishdi yoki chiziqdan chiqib ketishdi, natijada biz besh yuzdan kamroq harakat qildik. erkaklar ". [4]: 50 podpolkovnik Ruzvelt, o'rmon ko'pincha ko'zga ko'rinmas joylarda juda qalin bo'lgani uchun, har qanday odamning tuzilishdan chiqib ketishi va ogohlantirmasdan jangdan ketishi uchun son-sanoqsiz imkoniyatlar borligini bildi. Bu yana bir voqea edi, ular guruhni boshidan kamroq erkaklar bilan tark etishdi.

Qanday bo'lmasin, qo'pol chavandozlar odatdagilar bilan birga forpost tomon oldinga intilishdi. Ehtiyotkorlik bilan kuzatib, ofitserlar qarama -qarshilik cho'tka va qalblarda yashiringan joyni aniqlay olishdi va ular o'z odamlarini to'g'ri nishonga olib, ularni engishdi. Jang tugashiga yaqin, gazeta yozuvchisi Edvard Marshall atrofdagi odamlardan ilhomlanib, jang paytida miltiq olib, ular bilan jang qilishni boshladi. U ispanlardan birining umurtqa pog'onasidan o'q jarohati olganida, boshqa bir askar uni uzoqdan polkovnik Vud deb adashtirib qo'ydi va o'limini xabar berish uchun front chizig'idan orqaga yugurdi. Bu noto'g'ri tushuncha tufayli Ruzvelt vaqtincha polkovnik unvonini oldi va qo'shinlarni o'zining etakchi xarizmasi bilan birga yig'di. Jang boshidan oxirigacha bir yarim soat davom etdi, The Rough Riders sakkiz kishining o'limiga va 31 jarohatlanishiga duch keldi, shu jumladan kapitan Allin K. Capron Jr. Ruzvelt jang tugagandan so'ng polkovnik Vudga sog' -salomat keldi va o'z pozitsiyasidan pastga tushdi. podpolkovnik. [4]: 49-60

Qo'shma Shtatlar jang tugaguncha Santyagoga boradigan yo'lda joylashgan Ispaniya postini to'liq nazorat qilar edi. General Shafter bu odamlarni olti kun ushlab turdi, qo'shimcha materiallar esa qirg'oqqa olib chiqildi. Bu vaqt mobaynida "Qo'pol chavandozlar" ovqat eydi, uxladi, yaradorlarga g'amxo'rlik qildi va o'liklarni ikki tomondan ko'mdi. Olti kunlik lagerda ba'zi erkaklar isitmadan vafot etishdi. Kasallikka chalinganlar orasida general Jozef Uiler ham bor edi. Brigada generali Samuel Sumner otliqlar qo'mondonligini o'z zimmasiga oldi, Vud esa ikkinchi brigadani brigadir general qilib oldi. Bu Ruzveltni qo'pol chavandozlar polkovnigi qilib qo'ydi. [9]

San -Xuan tepaligi jangi tahrir

Erkaklarga Santyagoga boradigan yo'l bo'ylab sakkiz mil (13 km) yurish kerak edi. Dastlab, polkovnik Ruzveltning o'zi va odamlari uchun aniq buyruqlari bo'lmagan. Ular 1000 dan ortiq ispan askarlari tomonidan himoyalangan San -Xuan tepaliklari bazasiga borishlari va dushmanni bosib olishlari kerak edi. Shunday qilib, amerikalik artilleriya tomonidan bombardimon qilinayotganda, ispanlar o'z joylarini ushlab turishga majbur bo'lardilar. Asosiy hujumni brigada generali Genri Lyuton bo'linmasi bir necha chaqirim naridagi Ispaniyaning mustahkam qal'asi El Kaniga qarshi uyushtiradi. Qo'pol chavandozlar jangning o'rtalarida ular bilan uchrashishlari kerak edi. [4]: 69-70

San -Xuan tepaligi va boshqa tepalikni kichik vodiy va ko'l ajratib qo'ydi, ikkalasining etagiga yaqin daryo bor edi. Bu geografiya birgalikda San -Xuan tepaliklarini tashkil qildi. San -Xuan tepaliklaridagi jang Ispaniya pozitsiyasiga artilleriya hujumi bilan boshlandi. Ispaniyaliklar o'qqa tutishganida, qo'pol chavandozlar snaryadlardan qochish uchun zudlik bilan harakat qilishlari kerak edi, chunki ular do'stona artilleriya bilan bir xil maydonni egallashgan. Polkovnik Ruzvelt va uning odamlari Kettle Hill tepaligida, qadimgi shakarni tozalash qozonlari uchun yo'l oldi. [9] U erda ular snayper va artilleriya o'qlaridan qochish uchun daryo bo'yini va baland o'tlarni panalab olishdi, lekin ular himoyasiz qolib, mixlab qo'yishdi. Ispan miltiqlari AQSh miltiqlarini qayta yuklashi kerak bo'lgan 20 soniya ichida sakkiz marta o'q otishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Yaxshiyamki, ular o'qlari 7 mmli Mauser o'qlari bo'lib, ular yuqori tezlikda harakatlanib, mayda, toza jarohatlar keltirgan. Erkaklarning ba'zilari urilgan bo'lsa -da, kamdan -kam odamlar yaralangan yoki o'lgan. [4]: 70-80

General Shafterning razvedka etishmasligidan va aniq buyruqlar berilmasligidan qattiq norozi bo'lgan Teodor Ruzvelt, o'z odamlarini olov qatorida qoldirish fikridan bezovta bo'ldi. U generallardan birini qidirish uchun xabarchilar yubordi va ulardan lavozimidan ko'tarilishlarini buyurdi. Nihoyat, qo'pol chavandozlar tepalikning old tomoniga muntazam hujumchilarga yordam berishni buyurdilar. Ruzvelt ot minib, odamlarini oyoqqa turg'izib, tepalikka ko'tarila boshladi. Keyinchalik u Las -Guasimada bo'lgani kabi piyoda ham jang qilishni xohlaganini da'vo qildi, lekin bu o'z odamlarini samarali nazorat qilish uchun tepalik va tepalikka ko'tarilishni qiyinlashtirardi. U, shuningdek, odamlarini baland otdan ko'ra yaxshiroq ko'rishini va ular ham uni yaxshiroq ko'rishlarini tan oldi. [4]: 75 Ruzvelt o'z odamlarini tepalik tepasida uni yolg'iz qoldirmaslikka chaqirdi va yon qo'lini tortib, o'z bo'linmalaridan ajratilgan yaqin atrofdagi qora tanli askarlarga, agar ular orqaga o'girilsa, ularga o'q uzishini va'da qildi. va'dalarini bajardi. Uning qo'pol chavandozlari: "Oh, u doim shunday qiladi, u doim shunday qiladi!" Askarlar kulib, ko'ngillilar bilan hujumga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi. [4]: 49

Har xil bo'linmalarning qo'shinlari tepalikka asta -sekin sudrala boshlaganlarida, miltiq ko'tarilayotganda miltiqlariga qarata o'q uza boshlaganlarida, Ruzvelt orqadagi vzvodlar kapitanining oldiga bordi va u bilan gaplashdi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, ular olovni samarali qaytarish qobiliyati etarli emasligi sababli tepalikka chiqa olmaganlar va uning yechimi uni to'liq zaryad qilish edi. Kapitan o'z polkovnikining lavozimni egallash haqidagi buyrug'ini takrorladi. Ruzvelt, boshqa polkovnik yo'qligini tan olib, o'zini yuqori martabali ofitser deb e'lon qildi va Kettle Hill tepasida ayblov qo'yishni buyurdi. Kapitan ikkilanib turdi va polkovnik Ruzvelt Texasdagi otiga minib, o'z odamlarini tepaga olib borib, shlyapasini havoda silkitib, quvnoq kayfiyatda yurdi. Qo'rqinchli chavandozlar hech ikkilanmasdan, g'ayrat va itoatkorlik bilan unga ergashdilar. O'sha paytda, tepalikdagi boshqa bo'linmalarning boshqa odamlari bu voqeadan hayajonlanib, o'z vatandoshlari bilan birga tepalikni ko'tarishni boshladilar. "Zaryad" aslida oddiy guruhlar va qo'pol chavandozlarning aralash guruhlari tomonidan qilingan qisqa shoshilishlar edi. 20 daqiqa ichida Kettle Hill qo'lga olindi, garchi qurbonlar og'ir edi. San -Xuan tepaliklarining qolgan qismi bir soat ichida olingan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Kettle tepaligidagi qo'pol chavandozlarning zaryadini leytenant Jon X. Parker qo'mondonlik qilgan uchta Gatling Guns otib tashlagan yuqori kalibrli do'l osonlashtirdi. Polkovnik Ruzveltning ta'kidlashicha, Gatling qurollarining bolg'acha ovozi odamlarining kayfiyatini ko'targan.

"To'satdan qulog'imizga o'ziga xos baraban ovozi eshitildi. Odamlardan bir -ikkisi:" Ispan pulemyotlari! " Lekin, bir zum quloq solib, o'rnimdan sakrab turdim: "Bu Gatlinglar, erkaklar! Bizning Gatlinglar!" Darhol askarlar shahvat bilan xursand qila boshladilar, chunki ovoz eng ilhomlantiruvchi edi. " [13] [14]

Polkovnik Teodor Ruzvelt va Kettle tepaligida qo'pol chavandozlarga hamroh bo'lgan 1 -ko'ngilli piyoda askari Jessi D. Langdon xabar berdi:

"Biz Ispaniya oloviga duch keldik, lekin juda oz narsa bor edi, chunki biz boshlashdan oldin Gatling qurollari tepalik tagida ochildi va hamma:" Gatlinglar! Gatlings! " Gatlinglar bu xandaqlarning tepasini o'rab olishdi, agar Parkerning Gatling qurollari bo'lmaganida, biz hech qachon Kettle Hillni ololmasdik. [15]

Yaqinda San -Xuan tepaligida joylashgan leytenant Parkerning Gatling qurollaridan biri, 250 metrga yaqin masofani yopmasdan oldin 40 hujumchining barchasini o'ldirdi. ) Kettle Hilldagi amerikaliklar. [16] Polkovnik Ruzvelt leytenant Parker va uning odamlarining harakatlaridan shunchalik hayratda ediki, u o'z polkining ikkita 7 mmli Kolt -Brauning pulemyotlarini va ularni boshqargan ko'ngillilarni Parkerning ostiga qo'ydi. 7 mm Mauser o'q -dorilari - Amerika chizig'idagi taktik o'q otish joylarida. [17]

Polkovnik Ruzvelt leytenant Parkerga va uning Gatling qurol -yarog'iga muvaffaqiyatli ayblov uchun katta ulush berdi:

"O'ylaymanki, Parker butun kampaniyada boshqa odamlarga qaraganda ko'proq hurmatga sazovor edi. U kamdan-kam aqlli va pulemyotlarning imkoniyatlarini oldindan ko'ra bilgan edi. Keyin u o'z harakatlari bilan oldinga chiqdi. va u jang maydonida, himoyada bo'lgani kabi, bebaho ish qila olishini isbotladi ». [18]

Keyinchalik Amerikaning Ispaniya bilan bo'lgan mojarosi "ajoyib kichik urush" deb ta'riflandi va Teodor Ruzvelt uchun bu aniq bo'ldi. Uning jangovar tajribasi bir haftalik kampaniyadan iborat bo'lib, bir kunlik qattiq jang bilan o'tdi. "Zaryadning o'zi juda kulgili edi", dedi u va "Oh, lekin biz qo'pol jang qildik". Uning jang paytida qilgan harakatlari Kongressning "Shon -sharaf medali" uchun tavsiyanomaga ega bo'ldi, ammo siyosat aralashdi va talab rad etildi. Rad etish Ruzveltni yiqitdi, lekin San -Xuan Xill tepasidagi ayblov uni 1899 yilda Nyu -York gubernatorligiga taklif qilishda muhim rol o'ynadi. Ertasi yili Ruzvelt prezident MakKinlining ikkinchi muddatga muvaffaqiyatli qatnashishida vitse -prezidentlik o'rnini egalladi. 1901 yil sentyabr oyida MakKinli o'ldirilishi bilan Ruzvelt prezident bo'ldi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Tampadan jo'nab ketish chalkashliklarida, qo'pol chavandozlarning yarmi ko'pchilik otlar bilan birga ortda qolib ketishdi. Ko'ngillilar San -Xuan tepaligiga piyoda pul to'lashdi. Ularga hujumga 10 -chi (negr) otliq qo'shildi. Garchi 10 -chi qo'pol chavandozlar ayblov uchun hech qachon shon -sharafga sazovor bo'lmagan bo'lsa -da, ularning qo'mondonlaridan biri - kapitan "Qora jek" Pershing (keyinchalik Birinchi jahon urushida amerikalik qo'shinlarga qo'mondonlik qilgan) kumush yulduz bilan taqdirlangan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Santyagoni qamal qilish

Qo'rqinchli chavandozlar Ispaniya -Amerika urushining yakunlanishida hal qiluvchi rolni o'ynab, amerikalik kuchlarga Santyago -de -Kuba shahri atrofida tor doirali halqa tuzishda yordam berishdi. San -Xuan tepaliklarini (Kettle Hill va San -Xuan tepaligi deb ham ataladi) egallashda amerikaliklarning asosiy maqsadi - pastdan pastga siljish va Santyagoga hujum qilish uchun strategik mavqega ega bo'lish, bu Ispaniya armiyasi uchun kuchli nuqtadir. Ispanlarning portida kreyserlar floti bor edi. Qo'shma Shtatlar Santyago atrofidagi joylarni egallab, keyinchalik shaharga turli yo'nalishlardan kirib, ispan kreyserlarini portidan haydab chiqardi. San -Xuan tepaliklaridagi jangdan ikki kun o'tib, AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari Ispaniyaning Santyago ko'rfazidagi Karib dengizidagi kreyserlar parkini yo'q qildi. Bu keng tarqalgan imperiya va dengiz kuchlariga juda ishonganligi sababli Ispaniya harbiylariga katta zarar etkazdi. [19]

Amerika Beshinchi Armiya Korpusining Kubaga bostirib kirishining asosiy maqsadi Santyago -de -Kuba shahrini egallash edi. AQSh qo'shinlari Las -Guasimas jangida ispanlarning birinchi himoya chizig'ini orqaga qaytarishdi, shundan so'ng general Arsenio Linares o'z qo'shinlarini San -Xuan tepaliklari bo'ylab Santyagoga qarshi asosiy mudofaa chizig'iga tortdi. San -Xuan -Hill jangida AQSh kuchlari Ispaniya pozitsiyasini egalladi. O'sha kuni El -Caney jangida AQSh qo'shinlari Ispaniyaning mustahkam pozitsiyasini egallab olishdi va keyin AQShning San -Xuan tepaligidagi qanotlarini uzaytirishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Santyago -de -Kuba jangida ispan flotining vayron qilinishi AQSh kuchlariga shaharni xavfsiz qurshovga olish imkonini berdi.

Biroq, ispan kreyserlarining cho'kishi urush tugaganini anglatmaydi. Janglar Santyago va uning atrofida davom etdi. 16 iyulda, ikkala hukumat ham taslim bo'lish shartlariga rozi bo'lgandan keyin ("taslim bo'lish" dan qochildi), Toral o'z garnizonini va Santyago diviziyasidagi barcha qo'shinlarini taslim qildi, qo'shimcha 9000 askar. [ iqtibos kerak ] Ispaniyaliklar Guantanamo va San -Luisni ham berishdi. Ispaniya qo'shinlari 17 iyulda Santyagodan chiqib ketishdi. [ iqtibos kerak ] 1898 yil 17 -iyulga kelib Santyagodagi ispan kuchlari general Shafter va AQSh harbiylariga taslim bo'lishdi. Mintaqadagi turli janglar davom etdi va Qo'shma Shtatlar doimo g'alaba qozondi. 1898 yil 12 -avgustda Ispaniya hukumati Qo'shma Shtatlarga taslim bo'ldi va Kubadagi nazoratidan voz kechgan sulhga rozi bo'ldi. Sulh bitimi AQShga Puerto -Riko, Guam va Filippin hududlarini ham qo'lga kiritdi. Bu katta er sotib olish AQShni imperatorlik darajasiga ko'tardi. Ispaniya -Amerika urushi, shuningdek, AQShning tashqi siyosatga aralashuvi tendentsiyasini boshladi, bu hozirgi kungacha davom etmoqda. [19]

Uyga qaytish Tahrirlash

14 -avgustda "Rough Riders" Nyu -Yorkning Long -Aylenddagi Montauk -Pointga qo'ndi. U erda ular Tampada qoldirilgan qolgan to'rtta kompaniya bilan uchrashishdi. Polkovnik Ruzvelt, qolganlarning ko'plari Kubada boshqalar bilan xizmat qilmaganliklari uchun o'zlarini aybdor his qilishganini qayd etdi. Shu bilan birga, u "qolganlar ham o'z vazifalarini xuddi borganlar kabi bajargan, chunki buyruq buyrug'ini sodiqlik bilan bajarish bilan solishtirganda, shon -sharaf masalasi ko'rib chiqilmasligini" aytdi. [4]: 130 Erkaklar Montaukda qolgan oyning birinchi qismida ularga kasalxonada yordam ko'rsatildi. Ko'p erkaklar bezgak isitmasidan aziyat chekishgan (o'sha paytda "kubalik isitma" deb ta'riflangan) va Kubada vafot etishgan, ba'zilari esa AQShga karantinda kema bortida qaytarilgan. "Bezgakning qo'shinlarni vayron qilayotgan bir azobli xususiyati shundaki, u tez -tez takrorlanib turardi. Erkaklarning ba'zilari uyga etib kelganidan keyin vafot etishdi, ko'plari esa juda kasal edi." [4]: 129 Bezgakdan tashqari, sariq isitma, dizenteriya va boshqa xastaliklar bo'lgan. Erkaklarning ko'pchiligi umumiy charchoqdan aziyat chekishgan va uyga qaytganlarida ahvoli yomon bo'lgan, taxminan 20 kilogramm yengilroq. Hamma yangi ovqat oldi va ko'pchiligi normal sog'lig'iga qaytdi. [4]: 129

Qolgan oy Nyu -Yorkning Montauk shahrida qo'shinlar orasidagi g'alabani nishonlash uchun o'tkazildi. Polkga qo'pol chavandozlarni ifodalovchi uch xil talisman taqdim etildi: Jozefina ismli tog sheri, Arizona shtatidan qo'shinlar tomonidan Tampaga olib kelingan, polkovnik Ruzvelt sharafiga nomlangan urush burguti, Nyu -Meksikaning ba'zi qo'shinlari tomonidan olib kelingan. Nihoyat, chet elga sayohatga olib kelingan Kuba ismli kichkina it. Taqdim etilgan talismanlarga Kubaga jo'nab ketishidan oldin kemada qolib ketgan yosh bola hamrohlik qildi. U miltiq va o'q -dorilar qutilari bilan topilgan va, albatta, AQShdan ketishidan oldin qirg'oqqa yuborilgan. Uni ortda qolgan polk qabul qilib oldi, unga kichik Rough Riders formasini berdi va faxriy a'zoni qildi. Erkaklar, shuningdek, polkovnikning buyuk rahbarligi va xizmatlari evaziga hurmat ko'rsatishga majbur bo'lishdi. Ular unga kichkina bronzadan yasalgan Remingtonning "Bronko Buster" haykalini sovg'a qilishdi, unda kovboy zo'ravonlik bilan otga minib yurgan. "Bunday polkdan boshqa munosib sovg'a bo'lishi mumkin emas edi. Ularning ko'pchiligi bronzaga professionallarning tanqidiy ko'zlari bilan qaradi. Menimcha, dunyoda shunday katta miqdordagi erkaklar qatnasha oladigan polk bormi? eng yovvoyi va eng xavfli otlar ". [4]: 133 Sovg'a topshirilgandan so'ng, polkning har bir a'zosi yonidan o'tib, polkovnik Ruzveltning qo'lini siqib, xayrlashdi. [4]: 133

Tarqatish tahriri

1898 yil 15 sentyabrda ertalab barcha jihozlar, o'qotar qurollar va otlarni o'z ichiga olgan polk mulki AQSh hukumatiga qaytarildi. Askarlar bir-birlari bilan vidolashdilar va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining birinchi ko'ngilli otliqlari-Ruzveltning qo'pol chavandozlari tarqatib yuborildi. Butun mamlakat bo'ylab uylariga qaytishidan oldin, polkovnik Ruzvelt ularga o'zlarining sa'y -harakatlarini maqtagan qisqa nutq so'zlab, o'zining g'ururini ifoda etdi va qahramonlar bo'lsa ham, ular oddiy jamiyatga qo'shilib, hamma kabi qattiq ishlashlari kerakligini eslatdi. Erkaklarning ko'pchiligi urushga ketishdan oldin egallagan ishlarini tiklay olmagan. Ba'zilar kasallik yoki shikastlanish tufayli ishlashga qodir emas edilar. Ko'plab badavlat tarafdorlari muhtoj faxriylarga yordam berish uchun pul berishdi, garchi ko'pchilik buni qabul qilishdan g'ururlansa ham. [4]: 134-138

"Rough Riders" ning birinchi uchrashuvi 1899 yilda Nyu -Meksiko shtatining Las -Vegas shahridagi Plaza mehmonxonasida bo'lib o'tdi. [20] Bu tadbirga o'sha paytda Nyu -York gubernatori Ruzvelt tashrif buyurgan. [21] Yangi Meksikaliklar va janubi -g'arbiy aholining qo'pol chavandozlarga qo'shgan hissasi haqida Ruzvelt aytdi.

Sizlarning ko'pchiligingiz qo'pol chavandozlar janubi -g'arbdan kelgansiz. Siz San -Xuan tepaligida siz ko'rsatgan jasoratni eslayman. Men sizdan erkaklar qarzdorman. . . . Agar Nyu -Meksiko shtat bo'lishni xohlasa, men Vashingtonga borib, uning nomidan gaplashaman va qo'limdan kelganini qilaman. [5]

Ruzvelt Oklaxoma, Nyu -Meksiko va Arizona shtatining Oval idorada ishlagan davrida, hatto 1900 yilgi respublikachilar partiyasi platformasining taxtasiga aylangan. [22]

1948 yilda, Rough Riders tarqatilgandan 50 yil o'tgach, AQSh pochtasi ularning sharafiga va xotirasiga esdalik markasini chiqardi. The stamp depicts Captain William Owen "Bucky" O'Neill, who was killed in action while leading troop A at the Battle of San Juan Hill, July 1, 1898. [23] The Rough Riders continued to have annual reunions in Las Vegas until 1967, when the sole veteran to attend was Jesse Langdon. He died in 1975. [21]

Shifts in foreign policy Edit

After the assassination of President William McKinley in March 1901, that September, Roosevelt took office and remains the youngest person to ever become President of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt and his band of Rough Riders successfully demolished and out-maneuvered the Spanish fleet in less than four months, boosting American exceptionalism. This added boost led to further intervention in foreign affairs. Although McKinley and Roosevelt in hindsight would refer to the Spanish–American War as a "splendid little war", it was much more complex than that. As the Rough Riders made quick work of the Spanish fleet, this war would now be defined forever as the formation of American imperialism. For the first time, U.S troops intervened in a foreign conflict outside of their sovereignty. In schools nationwide his legacy is kept alive as the president, hunter, soldier, family man, conservationist, and naval strategist. Even so, however, his male-dominated rhetoric and perversion of politics "struck a nerve" with middle class workers, who didn’t want to be accused of "shrinking from strife, moral or physical, within or without the nation". [ iqtibos kerak ]

As wagon loads of sensationalist journalism documented the situation in Cuba and the Philippines, men finally felt they had an opportunity to prove their manhood on the front lines. Roosevelt took the executive office and trajectory of U.S foreign policy toward what became known as a "bully pulpit" to enact American interests abroad, and social interests domestically. Because the American psyche had consequently shifted from within to abroad, U.S leadership now suddenly heard the calls of every oppressed nation yearning for democracy and independence. Long served interests in the building the Panama Canal later on served as an example to this shift, the expanding Navy and parading of the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project United States naval power around the globe. [ iqtibos kerak ]

The last three surviving veterans of the regiment were Frank C. Brito, Jesse Langdon, and Ralph Waldo Taylor.

Brito was from Las Cruces, New Mexico. His father was a Yaqui Indian stagecoach operator. Brito was 21 when he enlisted with his brother in May 1898. He never made it to Cuba, having been a member of H Troop, one of the four left behind in Tampa. He later became a mining engineer and lawman. He died on 22 April 1973, at the age of 96. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Langdon, born in 1881 in what is now North Dakota, "hoboed" his way to Washington, D.C., and called on Roosevelt at the Navy Department, reminding him that his father, a veterinarian, had treated Roosevelt's cattle at his Dakota ranch during his ranching days. Roosevelt arranged a railroad ticket for him to San Antonio, where Langdon enlisted in the Rough Riders at age 16. He was the penultimate surviving member of the regiment and the only one to attend the final two reunions, in 1967 and 1968. He died on 29 June 1975, at the age of 94, 26 months after Brito. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Taylor was just 16 years old in 1898 when he lied about his age to enlist in the New York National Guard, serving in Company K of the 71st Infantry Regiment. He died on 15 May 1987, at the age of 105. [24]

Just after the United States entered the war against the Central Powers, the U.S. Congress gave Roosevelt the authority to raise up to four divisions similar to the Rough Riders. In his book Foes of Our Own Household (1917), Theodore Roosevelt explains that he had authorization from Congress to raise four divisions to fight in France, similar to his earlier Rough Riders, the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment and to the British Army 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. He had selected 18 officers (including Seth Bullock, Frederick Russell Burnham, James Rudolph Garfield, John M. Parker, and Henry L. Stimson) and directed them to actively recruit volunteer troops shortly after the United States entered the war. With the help of John Hays Hammond, the New York-based Rocky Mountain Club enlisted Major Burnham to raise the troops in the Western states and to coordinate recruitment efforts.[1] Wilson ultimately rejected Roosevelt's plan, refused to make use of the volunteers, and Roosevelt disbanded the unit.

Outside the volunteer division, one of Roosevelt's most trusted officers from the Rough Riders, Brigadier General John Campbell Greenway, served in the 101st Infantry Regiment. Greenway, a colonel at the time, was especially praised for his heroic conduct in battle and was cited for bravery at Cambrai. France awarded him the Croix de Guerre, the Legion of Honor, and the Ordre de l'Étoile Noire for commanding the 101st Infantry Regiment during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. [25] He also received a Distinguished Service Cross.


Dawn Of Empire, 1898: The US Invades Cuba

Unlike their Spanish enemies, who were clothed in light leather shoes and cotton, American soldiers had come to the tropics in blue flannel shirts, heavy leather shoes, and brown woollen trousers.

Now Lt Col Roosevelt, Col Wood, and their First Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the “Rough Riders”, were stalking through thick jungle in search of battle.

They needed to find the Spanish and beat them, quickly.

(For part one of this story, click left on 'Press Ganging Up On Spain: Newspapers, Politicians, And The Spanish-American War').

It was late June, and the summer would soon bring an assortment of tropical diseases, the most common of which, described by Evan Thomas in The War Lovers, was yellow fever, or “the black vomit”:

“The mosquito-borne infection essentially melted soft tissues so that sufferers bled from the nose and gums, rectums and genitals, and vomited up something that looked roughly like coffee grounds but was actually stomach lining and intestine. Howling and ranting as they bled from every orifice, patients had to be tied down in bed so they would not splatter the infection around the wards”.

What wasn’t understood at the time was that it was the improper storage of rations that contributed to the 14 deaths from disease for every one from combat.

Hardtack, an unsalted baked flour biscuit, was dry and safe but boring and insufficient nutritionally.

It was supplemented with sugar, potatoes, salt and pepper, coffee, yeast, dried beans, and beef. The meat, of course, was the likely Achilles heel.

For their part, officers got better sanitation, at least on the boat ride over, and were thus theoretically less susceptible to disease.

Though, at 39, with middle age setting in, Roosevelt still had more chance of dying of yellow fever than he did of becoming a war hero, but that hadn’t stopped him coming.

Pugnacious and energetic, he personified better than anybody much of America at the time – it was restless, idealistic, and in search of a war. And having done as much as he could to bring one about, Roosevelt had since left the government to participate in it.

A commission in the Rough Riders, meant to be a regiment of cowboys, had suited his independent, wild card personality – though, as it had turned out, Rough ‘Riders’ was a misnomer.

Limited transport ship space caused many of the men, and all of the horses (save the officers’) to be left behind.

Still, this “splendid set of men” had adjusted to life as infantry. Roosevelt described the south-westerners as:

“…tall and sinewy, with resolute, weather-beaten faces, and eyes that looked a man straight in the face without flinching. They included in their ranks men of every occupation but the three (most numerous) types were those of the cow-boy, the hunter, and the mining prospector… They were hardened to life in the open… Some of them came from the small frontier towns, but most were from the wilderness, having left their lonely hunters’ cabins and shifting cow-camps to seek new and more stirring adventures beyond the sea.”

In time, Roosevelt’s literary, political, and military adventures would make a legend of the Rough Riders, and turn him into a sort of American Winston Churchill.

As it happened, Churchill himself was in Cuba in 1895 as a military observer with the Spanish.

It’s where he is said to have developed his taste for Cuban cigars.

He left in 1896, though not before having been sniped at by Cuban guerrillas.

Now it was the Spanish who would do the sniping, while hiding in the depths of the jungle like the guerrillas they’d fought - the strategy was to delay as much as possible, so that disease could finish their numerically superior but less acclimatised opponents.

In actual fact, they probably over-estimated the Americans’ ability to fight large-scale battles.

A lot had changed since the Civil War, and isolated postings at scattered outposts had become the norm – Rough Riders weren’t the only ones shaped by the frontier.

Although it looked intimidating, below the surface, the gears of the American military machine were creaking at the seams with having to supply and field an army that had rapidly swelled in the wake of war fever and the onrush of volunteers.

Still, Spain’s problems were far worse, and they’d be the ones to truly struggle with fighting en mass again.

Soldiers in Cuba had been playing the anti-guerrilla game for so long, dispersing in small groups to root out freedom fighters, that regiments by this point existed as largely administrative bodies only.

A large social gulf between the over-supply of upper-crust junior officers and their ‘peasant’ men didn’t help matters.

But at the outset, the numbers did at least look good for Spain on paper.

Governor Blanco had 160,000 troops in Cuba, while America would use the 20,000 men in its V Corps to do the main fighting there.

But the US had many other soldiers to hand, and although a lot would end up fighting in other Spanish colonies, Blanco didn’t know exactly how many American troops he’d face in Cuba, nor where they’d strike.

His men were thus spread out, and his force weakened.

He hadn’t been wrong to hedge his bets. Havana, where the USS Maine had blown up – the literal flashpoint for relations with Spain, and America’s ostensible rationale for going to war – was the most obvious target.

But, when the US found out the core of the antiquated, dilapidated Spanish navy was at port in Santiago, they struck there. Seizure of Cuba’s second-largest city would be almost as fatal a blow as taking Havana, and the prospect of also sweeping up much of the enemy’s fleet in the dragnet was a temptation too good to resist.

So the Americans had landed, unexpected and unopposed, 14 miles from Santiago at Daiquiri.

Amphibious operations are innately difficult, and some men did drown coming ashore, but the mere start of the war was in itself a moment of triumph for one of the men who’d accompanied them.

The newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst had championed the Cuban struggle for independence in his New York Journal, and had two of his men embedded with Roosevelt’s Rough Riders.

For one of them, Edward Marshall, it was no easy assignment.

“The oppressiveness of the heat,” Marshall recalled later, “made us gasp and sweat.”

As he slogged through the humidity, he heard a cuckoo.

Hadn’t there been reports that the Spanish used the birds as a warning signal?

His mind must have raced, while the soldiers around him talked about how much they wanted a cold beer, and their officers told them to keep quiet.

Then it started – rifles cracked in the distance, and in an instant, bullets were zipping through the leaves.

Two men dropped Roosevelt flapped, stumbling forwards awkwardly with his sword caught between his legs.

Col Wood, “Old Icebox”, was true to his name, calm and collected, though privately he wished he’d taken out that $100,000 life insurance policy for his family.

“Roosevelt was peering around a palm tree when a bullet thudded into the trunk, sending a cloud of dust and splinters into his ear and eye. In the span of three minutes nine of his men were hit.”

Probably not friendly fire then - but where were the damned shooters?

Just then, another reporter, who was right next to Roosevelt and would do much to elevate his reputation in the press, spotted the enemy.

He may have had sciatica so badly he could barely walk, but the square-jawed Richard Harding Davis had soldiered on enough to keep up, and would prove himself useful.

“There they are, Colonel, look over there I can see their hats near that glade,” he said to Roosevelt, pointing to a valley on the right.

Instantly, the Rough Riders showered the area with bullets, and the Spanish broke cover and ran over a nearby hill.

General Joe Wheeler, the commander of the cavalry and a veteran of the Confederacy was momentarily transported back to the Civil War.

“We’ve got the damn Yankees on the run!” he yelled.

As the larger Spanish force and the Americans bumped into each other, the Battle of Las Guasimas erupted, Rough Riders and ‘Buffalo’ soldiers in the 10 Regular Cavalry piling in.

It was over quickly enough. The Spanish had soon been overwhelmed by superior numbers and fell back to the hills.

The difficulty was finding them.

The Spaniards were armed with a highly reliable 7mm five-shot bolt-action rifle, the 1893 Spanish Mauser, which used smokeless powder.

Ideally, the Americans were also equipped with the state-of-the art .3 inch (7.62mm) five-shot Krag-Jorgensen bolt-actions, or carbine variants for the cavalry.

These also used smokeless powder, but were less reliable than the Spanish side-arm - and in any case, shortages meant that many of the newer troops were given the obsolete Trapdoor Springfield Model 1873s.

Without smokeless powder, these advertised the firer’s position with a black cloud, though, thanks to Col Wood’s connections, he’d managed to avoid equipping his Rough Riders with these ‘contraptions’.

But the Americans did have the social cohesion the Spanish lacked.

Although racist by today’s standards, Roosevelt and many with him were proud of the multi-cultural/international flare of their regiment, which included at least one Englishman and Australian, and even native Americans.

One Pawnee named Pollock is said to have joked about his own lineage before battle, turning to the regimental barber and asking: “Do you cut hair?”

The man answered: “Yes” and Pollock continued, “Then you’d better cut mine…Don’t want to wear my hair long like a wild Indian when I’m in civilized warfare”.

Black troops’ conspicuous gallantry also inspired respect, despite the war providing a fight against a common enemy through which northern and southern troops, ranged against each other during the Civil War, could come back together.

The ‘Buffalo Soldiers’ caused at least some of their white comrades to question the Jim Crow segregation in the south and the ‘separate but equal’ principle (which was, in practice, anything but) handed down by the Supreme Court’s Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1898.

Likewise, respect for Hispanic soldiers, both those they fought with and those they fought against, also increased in the coming months.

But racism still reared its ugly head.

The motley, irregular, and badly armed Cuban freedom fighters, for whom the war was ostensibly being fought, were thought of scornfully.

A Francis M McArty of the Rough Riders’ A Troop, said of them:

“Would I enlist again in case of further trouble in Cuba? No, I don’t think I would to fight the Spanish, but if I got a chance to go back to whip those dirty, thieving Cubans, who will neither fight nor work, I think that I would embrace the opportunity”.

Although they were on a high after the jungle skirmish, the Americans needn’t have been so confident.

The Spanish, not sure if this might be a diversion to draw them away from Santiago, had deliberately fought a running battle as they alternated engaging the enemy with falling back.

Trenches, barbed wire, and fortified buildings awaited the Americans in the hills outside the city, to which the Spaniards had now fled.

They certainly weren’t complacent – a mere 10,000 men were spread out between the city and the surrounding heights.

Their food supply was dwindling and the aqueduct (and thus water supply) threatened. They’d fight tooth and claw for every hill.

The first was El Caney, a village in the heights turned into a fortress, from which a hail of Mauser bullets rained down on the Americans as they approached. One American participant described the battle thus:

“We can’t see them, and they are shooting us to pieces”.

One of those ‘shot to pieces’, and seriously wounded, was James Creelman, another of Hearst’s reporters:

“Opening my eyes, I saw Mr Hearst… a straw hat with a bright red ribbon on his head, a revolver at his belt, and a pencil and notebook in his hand.

"The man who had provoked the war had come to see the result with his own eyes and, finding one of his correspondents prostrate, was doing the work himself”.

According to Thomas, Hearst was “radiant with enthusiasm” as he interviewed Creelman about the “splendid fight” before rushing off to get the story to print.

Incredulous, Creelman later wrote in protest to his boss:

“After being abandoned without shelter or medicine and practically without food for nearly two days—most of the time under constant fire—you can judge my condition… That I am here and alive is due simply to my own efforts. I had to rise from my litter and stagger seven miles through the hills and mud without an attendant… I must get to the United States in order to get well. I expect no gratitude but I do expect a chance for my life”.

The Spanish suffered more – upon entering the fort at the centre of the village, after overwhelming and shooting down defenders at close range, the Americans found a horde of dead and wounded and floors wet with blood.

With Cuban guerrillas cutting them off, only 80 of the 520 soldiers defending the village made it back to Santiago when they were ordered to retreat.

But this was not down to any particular skill on the part of the attackers.

One British observer who witnessed the final attack on the village asked an American counterpart: “Is it customary with you to assault blockhouses and rifle pits before they have been searched (shelled) by artillery?”

The truth is, the Americans were out of practice.

The determined Spanish defenders had not been beaten most efficiently, but rather by mass numbers.

Lack of experience, planning, reconnaissance, and poor logistical preparation meant that artillery was not maximally effective, and that when the obsolete black-powder emitting field guns did fire, they only had a limited ammunition supply with which to do so.

On a roll, the Americans plunged down narrow jungle trails towards the ultimate prize: San Juan Hill, the site of Spain’s main defence outside the city.

Yet here too, Spanish fire was intelligently employed on bottlenecks where the trails crossed streams.

In 'San Juan Hill, 1898', Angus Konstam says that more than 400 men ended up as casualties as they were funnelled through one of these death zones - 'Bloody Ford' (the other was dubbed 'Hell's Pocket'). In his memoir 'The Little War of Private Post', Charles Johnson Post is even more explicit, giving a total of 709 casualties sustained whilst crossing through both these points, 85 of whom were killed.

As Konstam informs us, confusion and poor planning on the American side dogged this stage of the assault:

“The signal Corps had inflated an observation balloon, and, tethered to a wagon, it accompanied the troops as they marched down the trail. It also served as a perfect range marker for the Spanish. ‘Huge, fat, yellow, quivering’, it drew heavy fire, and Maj Maxwell commanding the balloon detachment quickly became the most unpopular man in the army”.

It was eventually shot down, collapsing into a river near Lt John ‘Black Jack’ Pershing, an officer of the Buffalo Soldiers in the 10 Cavalry.

He’d go on to command the American Expeditionary Force when the Zimmerman Telegram debacle brought the US into World War One.

Also there, by this point, was Roosevelt. Col Wood had been moved up to brigade command to replace a general who’d come down ill, and now Roosevelt was the sole commander of the Rough Riders.

His 'crowded hour' would begin as a charge straight up Kettle Hill, a rise adjacent to San Juan that needed to be taken first.

With his men behind, and Buffalo soldiers on his flanks, Roosevelt rode his mount ahead of his men until it was wounded, at which point he continued the charge on foot.

It was a rout. The small number of defenders ran straight for San Juan, leaving the Rough Riders and supporting troops crowding the top of the hill, where fire could be poured on San Juan just beyond.

Combined with Gattling-gun fire that raked the positions at the top for a full eight minutes, infantry were able to dash up the next slope.

When they reached the top, they discovered, to their pleasant surprise, that the Puerto Rican troops at the top had dug their trenches at the topographical, or absolute, top of the hill, meaning they’d created dead ground through which attacks could pass unmolested.

Digging trenches instead at the ‘military top’ a little further down, would have given them a clear view and field of fire over the entire hill.

The Puerto Ricans were soon overwhelmed.

To their left, Roosevelt had gained permission from superior officers to lead a second charge, and he cobbled together an assortment of cavalrymen from Kettle Hill that he then led up San Juan, on the right of the infantry.

Spanish soldiers next to the Puerto Ricans, only 200 of them in all, were soon facing, and overwhelmed by, 2,000 American cavalrymen (fighting on foot).

Again, because of poorly dug and angled trenches, the Spanish defenders were unable to fire on the Americans for much of their advance up the slope, and a hurried exchange of fire took place at close range when the Americans got to the top.

Roosevelt fired back after being shot at by two Spaniards:

“I closed in and fired twice, missing the first and killing the second (with my revolver)… Most of the fallen had little holes in their heads from which their brains were oozing.”

Trench fighting is what led the Spanish to suffer so many head wounds.

According to Alejandro de Quesada’s ‘Roosevelt’s Rough Riders’, the revolver was a special double-action Colt 1895.

His brother-in-law retrieved it for him from the Maine wreckage, and it was later engraved with “From the sunken battleship Maine” on one side, and “July 1st 1898, San Juan, carried and used by Col. Theodore Roosevelt” on the other.

In all, the Americans suffered 200 men killed and 1,100 wounded in the assaults on El Caney and San Juan, to the Spanish 215 killed and 375 wounded.

But as the Spanish had far fewer soldiers, 520 odd each at El Caney and San Juan - they’d lost more than half their force.

The Americans, despite their mistakes, had lost only a comparatively light 10 percent to death or wounds.

From there, Santiago itself was taken in the next two weeks. Admiral Cervera, encumbered as he was with bad ships, tried to make an heroic run out of the bay, but his tiny fleet was quickly surrounded, pummelled, and forced to surrender.

The Americans cheered him and his men for the bravery they displayed when they finally caught up with and took them prisoner.

Victory had come quickly, but the Americans had still not missed the disease window.

4,000 men were hospitalised and Roosevelt used political pressure to have the army brought home.

Black and National Guard troops from the Deep South, thought to be less susceptible to tropical diseases, garrisoned the captured island in their stead while surrender terms could be worked out.

Terms were finally agreed to in December, 1898. According to Angus Konstam:

“(It was) an unmitigated disaster (for Spain). Apart from the loss of prestige, territory and lives, the war had another long-term impact. The army felt let down by the people and politicians… This, combined with industrial growth and political instability, helped sow the seeds for the Spanish Civil War (and fascism)”.

Conversely, while the US honoured Cuban independence, it was emboldened by victory, and added Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Saipan, and Guam to its territory.

“The Americans basked in their new position as a world power, and Hawaii and Panama were soon added to the list of overseas territories. The Spanish American War set a precedent for involvement in the Caribbean and the Pacific and set the American battle lines for war in the Pacific between 1941-5. American involvement in the Caribbean still continues today”.

Upon getting home, Roosevelt became Governor of New York, and soon found himself on McKinley’s re-election ticket as his vice-presidential running mate in the 1900 campaign.

The war in Cuba was featured prominently on the campaign poster, with Cuba shown ‘liberated’ from oppressive Spanish rule, a partial counter to the Anti-Imperialist League’s arguments against America’s new overseas possessions.

In time though, their arguments would prove more relevant: dead American soldiers in the Philippines had genitals cut off and stuffed in their mouths, while live Filipinos were water-boarded.

The brutality empire brought with it engendered national soul searching.

Technically, of course, Cuba wasn’t really an imperial possession, but there too American corporate involvement would be a legacy of the 1898 war, and one that would contribute to instability, then revolution and communism.

But that was in the future. Roosevelt had still managed to get his own ‘good war’ and it made a legend of him.

Not bad for a man who, as Naval Secretary, was in a better position than anybody else in the country to suspect that the USS Maine explosion was, in fact, the result of a coal fire igniting the magazine, and not a Spanish mine.

But this uncomfortable truth would have dampened the appetite for more warships and crippled naval expansion and empire.

And in any case, the committee investigating the blast hadn’t needed too much help to ignore Professor Alger, who Roosevelt had accused of ‘taking the Spanish side’ by suggesting a design flaw was actually to blame for the explosion.

The war would happen because Roosevelt, and enough other influential people, wanted it to.

When McKinley was assassinated by anarchist Leon Czolgosz in 1901, Roosevelt became president and would remain so until 1909.

Hearst, who’d offered his yacht to the Navy and attempted to enlist, had been told to get a commission and missed his chance to fight.

As a mere ‘war correspondent’ his story wasn’t nearly as impressive as his rival Roosevelt’s, and when he also entered politics, he didn’t do nearly as well.

Remaining outspoken throughout his life, he criticised American involvement in World War One, and, as a right-winger, Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal.

But in later life, while near death in 1950, he worried that his papers were getting obsessed with communism. He cabled his editors:

“THE CHIEF INSTRUCTS NOT, REPEAT NOT, TO PRESS THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST COMMUNISM ANY FURTHER. HE WISHES THE CAMPAIGN HELD BACK FOR A WHILE, PARTICULARLY THE EDITORIALS. HE FEELS WE HAVE BEEN PRESSING THE FIGHT TOO HARD FOR TOO LONG AND MIGHT BE AROUSING WAR HYSTERIA”.

He died in 1951, unable to hold back the tide of McCarthyism.

As president, Roosevelt turned out to be decidedly less bellicose than expected, instead ‘talking softly and carrying a big stick’.

But out of office, and with the advent of war in Europe, he slammed President Wilson for not getting involved, and then, when America did enter the war in 1917, he asked for a division to command.

When one wasn’t forthcoming, he told Wilson’s advisor Colonel House: “I’m only asking to die”.

House, who was by this point sick to death of Roosevelt’s meddling, retorted: “Oh? Did you make that point quite clear to the President?”

Instead, his sons would see combat in World War One far more intense than anything he’d experienced in Cuba.

This was much to Roosevelt’s liking. He’d said he would rather see his own children die than grow up to be weaklings.

In 1918, his youngest, Quentin, did just that, getting shot out of the sky while manoeuvring his plane, the axel of which was returned to the Roosevelts as a grim memento. It hung in the family home.

But it didn’t fulfil its purpose as proud monument, and, as he spent hours in the room trying to read, Roosevelt was consumed instead by sorrow, finally writing to his daughter-in-law that: “It is no use pretending that Quentin’s death is not terrible”.

A few months after the armistice, he suffered a blood clot in the night and died. One of his surviving sons wrote to another:

Click here for Part 1 of this story.

For more on the war in Cuba, read San Juan Hill 1898 by Angus Konstam. For information on the Rough Riders, read Roosevelt’s Rough Riders by Alejandro de Quesada. And for more military history, go to Osprey Publishing.

To get information on the politics surrounding the Spanish-American War, read The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898 by Evan Thomas.


Roosevelt's Rough Riders by Alejandro De Quesada (Paperback, 2009)

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Roosevelt's Rough Riders

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Spartacus Review

This book examines the brief but colorful history of the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry, and details the rich experiences of the men who fought in its ranks. Founded in May 1898 after the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, the unit was composed of volunteers from all walks of American life. Posted to Cuba, it fought in the battles of Las Guasimas, Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill. At this time, Theodore Roosevelt assumed command, and the unit became known as 'Roosevelt's Rough Riders'. Eventually withdrawn, the men returned to a hero's welcome in the US. The last veteran of the unit died in 1975, but a rich body of source material has survived, and much of this is covered in this fascinating work.

In 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant decided to strangle the life out of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia by surrounding the city of Petersburg and cutting off General Robert E. Lee's supply lines. The ensuing siege would carry on for nearly ten months, involve 160,000 soldiers, and see a number of pitched battles including the Battle of the Crater, Reams Station, Hatcher's Run, and White Oak Road. After nearly ten months, Grant launched an attack that sent the Confederate army scrambling back to Appomattox Court House where it would soon surrender. Written by an expert on the American Civil War, this book examines the last clash between the armies of U.S. Grant and Robert E. Lee.

Spartacus Website: Islomning yuksalishi

Few centuries in world history have had such a profound and long-lasting impact as the first hundred years of Islamic history. In this book, David Nicolle examines the extensive Islamic conquests between AD 632 and 750. These years saw the religion and culture of Islam erupt from the Arabian Peninsula and spread across an area far larger than that of the Roman Empire. The effects of this rapid expansion were to shape European affairs for centuries to come. This book examines the social and military history of the period, describing how and why the Islamic expansion was so successful.


Teddy Roosevelt best known for being the 26th president of the United States as well as being the founder of the group the Rough Riders. The Rough Riders are known for their courages march up the San Juan Hill under Teddy Roosevelt 's command. The Rough Riders were all volunteers that wanted to be a part of Teddy Roosevelt 's army. At San Juan Hill Teddy Roosevelt is most well known for his decision to charge up the hill and going against the captain 's orders. Teddys decision paid off and him and&hellip

Roosevelt, properly explains his, and the rough riders sense of joy from adventure, and the adrenaline from battle. Before Theodore Roosevelt became president, he led a group of men into battle in the Spanish American War. This battle is the reason he became so popular with the American public. Roosevelt and his rough riders saved the day at San Juan Hill, returning to america as heros. The rough riders were an important instrumental factor to shaping american history. Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt&hellip


Muallif: Tom Hall
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 242
Chiqarish: 1899
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: PRNC:32101015067539
Til: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

"It is not the intention of the author to write a panegyric upon the brief but brilliant career of the 1st United States Cavalry, better known as the Rough Riders . the reader need not fear an infliction of military hysteria. Some of the pathetic incidents in the regiment's history will be noted, but it will be the brighter side of the shield that the author will endeavour to present to his readers"--Preface.


Sculpting History

For San Antonio residents, Teddy Roosevelt will forever be linked with the Menger Hotel. That association grew even stronger this May with the installation of a bronze statue of the former president near the hotel’s Menger Bar.

The 12-foot bronze depicting Roosevelt on horseback in Rough Rider regalia is one of 14 statues planned for the “Alamo Sculpture Trail” between the Alamo grounds and the Briscoe Western Art Museum.

The trail, scheduled for completion in about five years, features sculptures of Alamo heroes like Jim Bowie and David Crockett, and important Texas historical figures including José Antonio Navarro, Susanna Dickinson, Quanah Parker, and Charles Goodnight.

Michael Duchemin, president of the Briscoe Museum, says that while Roosevelt was born in New York, the sculpture still fits. “It highlights Roosevelt’s connections to the Menger, and the importance of San Antonio in his personal story, his path to becoming president, and our nation’s history,” Duchemin says.


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